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Full text of "The patriotism of Illinois. A record of the civil and military history of the state in the war for the Union, with a history of the campaigns in which Illinois soldiers have been conspicuous, sketches of distinguished officers, the roll of the illustrious dead, movements of the sanitary and Christian commissions"

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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



3 3433 07952657 4 



I 



THE 



PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 



A KECOBD OF THE 



CIYIL AND MILITARY HISTORY 



OF THE STATE IN THE 



WAR FOR THE "UNION, 

WITH A 

HISTORY OF THE CAMPAIGNS IN WHICH ILLINOIS SOLDIERS 
HAVE BEEN CONSPICUOUS, 

SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED OFFICERS, THE ROLL OF THE 
ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD, MOVEMENTS OF THE SANITARX 
AND CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONS. 



BY T. M. EDDY, D. D., 

Editor N. W. Christian Advocate. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH STEEL ENGRAVINGS OF EMINENT MEN. 



IN TWO VOLS-VOL. II. 



CHICAGO: 
CLARKE & CO., PUBLISHERS. 



1866. 

flecked 
k ay 1913 



***** o j , , w 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, 

Br CLARKE & CO., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the UnUed States for the 
Northern District of Illinois. 



TO ILLINOIS SOLDIERS, 
FROM THE LIEUTENANT GENERAL 

TO THE 

SMALLEST DRUMMER-BOY: 
TO THE 

GALLANT LIVING AND HEROIC DEAD 

WHO HAVE MADE THE STATE ILLUSTRIOUS 

ON EVERY BATTLE-FIELD, 

THESE VOLUMES 
ARE GRATEFULLY INSCRIBED. 



AUTHOR'S NOTE. 



THE second volume is before the reader. If it has seemed tardy 
in coming, the delay has been that it might be made as complete 
as possible, and the author feels that it is published only too soon. 

Every effort has been made to secure a condensed statement of 
each regiment and battery; advertisements, correspondence with 
officers and State officials, and personal solicitations have been 
employed, and yet a few remain unsketched. It will be a pleasure 
to add their record in the next, or in subsequent editions. The 
author respectfully asks that such material be sent to his address in 
this city, as soon as possible. 

It was the desire of the Publishers and the wish of the author to 
give a list of the killed and wounded, complete, with regiment, bat- 
tery and company. It was found impossible to secure such a list. 
The Adjutant- General of the State pronounced it impossible. It will 
be long ere such a record can be made, and when made will require 
several volumes. The dead, alone, would require an addition of 
more than 200 pages to this volume. It is with regret that it has 
been abandoned, at least for the present. 

The author gratefully acknowledges the courtesy of Governor 
Oglesby, and Adjutant-General Haynie. The archives at Spring- 
field were generously opened. 

He also expresses his appreciation of the services of Henry R. Boss, 
Esq., who has acted as private Secretary and assistant in correspon- 
dence, and in gathering and arranging materials for regimental 
sketches. In most instances these are based upon notes from the 
officers. 

The author returns general acknowledgment to the many whose 
courtesy he has received, and sends out the second volume, hoping 
that it may be long — very long — ere war shall come again. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Governor RICHARD J. OGLESBY. 
Hon. ALLEN C. FULLER. 
Major-General JOHN M. PALMER. 
Adjutant-General I. N. HAYNIE. 
Major-General S. A. PIURLBUT. 
Lieutenant- General W. T. SHERMAN. 
Brevet Major-General A. L. CHETLAIN. 
Major-General B. H. GRIERSON. 
Brevet Major-General M. BRAYMAN. 

Surgeon GEORGE COATSWORTH. 



CONTEXTS OF VOLUME II. 



CHAPTER I. 



DEATH AND BURIAL OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

PAQB. 

The Occurrence — Previous Warnings — The 14th of April — Conversations — Inter- 
view with Colfax — Cabinet Meeting — Ford's Theater — The Box — Boothe — 
Preparations — The Shot — Assassin's Escape — The Theater — The Dying Presi- 
dent — Record of Dissolution — Prayer — Payne and Seward — Secretary Stan- 
ton's Orders — Grief of the Country — Congressional Committee — Funeral Ser- 
vices in Washington — Remains Borne to the Capitol — To the Funeral Car — 
Funeral Cortege — Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia — Back to Illinois — 
Reaches Chicago — The City in Sable — The Last Stage — Springfield — Em- 
blems of Mourning — Lincoln's Residence — Oak Hill — The Services — Bishop 
Simpson's Oration — Dr. Gurley's Ode — Lincoln's Character — The Congres- 
sional Memorial Service — Bancroft's Oration — Doom of the Assassin — Trial 
of Conspirators — Execution — Curtain Falls 19 



CHAPTER II. 

BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 

Action of Washington Authorities — Rosecrans' Advance — Bragg Occupies Chat- 
tanooga — Stanley's Advance — Successes — Plan of Federal Campaign — Burn- 
side's Column Reaches Knoxville — Orders — Rosecrans Reaches Chattanooga — 
Bragg Evacuates the City — Pursuit — Orders to Hurlbut, Grant, Sherman, 
Pope and Schofieldfor Reinforcements — Bragg at Lafayette — Cavalry Raids — 
Added Rebel Forces — Rosecrans Mistaken — His Line — Chickamauga Creek — 
Negley — Position — Bragg Waits — The 17th — Change of Federal Lines — 
18th, Order of Battle — Saturday the 19th— Minty ahd Wilder — Our Line — 
Battle Opens — No Decisive Results — Night — Changed Order — Rebel Order — 
Sabbath the 20th — Battle Opens — The Fourteenth Army Corps — Desperate 
Fighting — Order to Wood — Our Army Broken in Two — Is the Day Lost? — 
"Rock of Chickamauga" — Thomas' New Position — Carnival of Death — Posi- 
tion Held — A Gap Discovered — Granger in Time — Halleck's Report — Day 
Saved ! — Losses — Effect on the Two Commanders — Burnside — Knoxville — 
Siege Raised — Illinois Soldiers 48 



O CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

REGIMENTAL 8 K 1 : T C H E S . 

PIOI. 

The Twenty-seventh— General N. B. Buford— Tlic Thirty-eighth— The Forty- 
Becond — Heavy Loss at Chiekamauga — The Sixty-sixth — Bilge's Sharpshoot- 
ers — The Seventy eighth — At Chiekamauga — The Eighty-eighth — Colonel 
Francis T. Sherman — The Ninety-sixth — Brevet Brigadier-General Thomas 
E. Champion — Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac L. Clark- — Major John C. Smith — The 
One Hundred and Fourth — The One Hundred and Twenty-fifth — Death of 
Chaplain Sanders — Colonel 0. F. Harmon 53 

CHAPTER IV. 

REGIMENTAL AND PERSONAL. 

The Seventh Infantry — Muster Roll of the First Company Enlisted in the State 
— General John Cook — The Eighth — Colonel Lloyd Wheaton — The Ninth — 
Its Campaigns — The Tenth — The March to Knoxville — The Eleventh — Its 
Original and Final Rosters — Colonel Garrett Ncvins — The Twelfth — What it 
Did — Chicago Board of Trade Battery — Heroism and Devotion of the Men — 
Brydge's Battery 83 

CHAPTER V. 

CHATTANOOGA — LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN — MISSION RIDGE — KXOXVILLE. 

Disasters Retrieved — Situation of the Armies — Rosecrans Reinforced by Hooker 
— Grant in Command — Thomas Supersedes Rosecrans — Burnsidc Takes Knox- 
ville — Is Besieged by Longstreet — Union Peril — Sherman Sends Osterhans — 
Ordered to Take His Whole Army — Its March — Sherman Placed in Command 
of the Department of the Tennessee — McPherson and Hurlbut — Sherman 
Ordered On — Goes — Hooker's Assault on Lookout — Capture — Knoxville — 
Plan for Battle — Pontoons — Our Army — Orchard Knob — Sherman's Position 
— Corse Opens the Battle — Loomis — Sherman's Forces Hard Pressed — Gran- 
ger's Advance — Grant and Thomas — Up the Ridge — Victory — The Dead — 
Wounded — Lincoln's Letter — Illinois Men — Grant's Order of Congratulation 
— Pursuit — Ringgold — Burnside Relieved — Campaign Ended 103 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE RED RIVER EXPEDITIO N — M I S S O U R I . 

Great Expectations — Sabine Pass — Loss — McPherson's District — The Invinci- 
ble Armada — DeRussey — Grand Advance — Ransom's Advice — Disastrous 
Engagement near Mansfield — Heavy Sacrifice — Pleasant Hill — Smith's Charge 
— Rebels give Back — Summing Up — Retreat — Grand Ecore — Through the 
Dam — Steele's Army — Retreats on Little Rock — Sabine Crossings — Rosecrans 
in Missouri — Hundred Day Regiments — Pleasanton's Command — Price Escapes 
Union City — Colonel Hicks at Paducah — Fort Pillow — North Carolina 118 



CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

PAGE. 

Change of Plan, Not of Base — Governor Oglesby — Memoir — Extracts from In- 
augural — Adjutant-General Haynie — Personal Sketch 122 

CHAPTER VIII. 

REGIMENTS AND BATTERIES. 

The Fifteenth — First Enlisted for Three Years — Its Part at Shiloh — Brevet 
Brigadier-General George C. Rogers — The Seventeenth — Its Campaigns — The 
Eighteenth — Brevet Brigadier-General Jules C. Webber — The Twentieth — 
Life in Prisons — The Twenty-second — The Twenty-third — List of Battles in 
which It was engaged — The Twenty-ninth — Re-enlistment in the Veteran Ser- 
vice—The Thirtieth — A Veteran Regiment — The Thirty-first— The Charge at 
Fort Hill — The Thirty-second — Eleven Thousand Miles of March — Busteeds' 
Battery — Old Batteries A and B, First Artillery — An Honorable Record. . . . 132 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE MERIDIAN RAID. 

Sherman's Department — Grant's Order — Sherman's Plan — General W. S. Smith's 
Movements — Sherman — McPherson — Hurlbut — Champion's Hill — Jackson, 
Mississippi — Burnt Bridge — Rebels Evacuate — Where is Smith ? — Destruction 
— Kinglake — Prophetic Significance — Backward March — Results — Schofield. 160 

CHAPTER X. 
Sherman's grand march. 

Sherman's Statement of the Plan — Inspects his Department — Supplies — Letter 
to Grant — March — Rocky Face Ridge — Buzzard's Roost Gap — Flanking — 
Snake Creek Gap — Thomas' Feint — McPherson's Movement — Camp Creek — 
Position of Troops — Hooker in Action — Johnston Retreats — Resaca Ours — 
Pursuit — Cost — Logan and Palmer — Ninth Squad — One Hundred and Twenty- 
Seventh Color-Bearer — Rome — Adairsville — Lay's Ferry — Sweeney — Sixty- 
Sixth Illinois — Allatoona Pass — Headed for Dallas — Rebel Courier — Fighting 
at New Hope Church — At Dallas — Rebel Bravery — Assault on Bull-Dog 
Sweeney — The Pass Secured — Etowa Bridge — Blair with Reinforcements. ... 166 

CHAPTER XI. 

KENESAW AND PEACH TREE CREEK. 

Prospect — Big Shanty — Sherman's Description of Scenery — His Forces — Opera- 
tions to Break Lines — Death of Polk — Railway Reconnoissance — Lost Moun- 
tain Occupied — Kulp House — Assault of Kenesaw — Sherman's Statement — 



10 CONTENTS. 

Illinois — Newspaper Paragraphs — Logan's Corps -Palmer — Twenty-fifth and 
Twenty-seventh — Eighty-ninth — Logan - Fifty ninth and Beventy-fourth — 
Bherman's Report — Peach Tree Creek— Cincinnati Commercial's Aocount — 
Situation — IlcPherson'a Advance —Eighty-fifth Illinois— Logan's * '< ups — Pal- 
mer's Corps— Forty-fourth— Booker in Position and Fighting— Geary— Ward 

— Face to Face — Williams — Bradley — Forty-sec 1 — Twenty seventh — 

Thomas Commanding an Eclectic Detachment— One Hundredth — Eighty- 
eighth — Seventy-fourth — Coburn — One Hundred and Twenty ninth and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Flynn — McCook— One Hundred and Fourth in Peri] — Defeat 
of Palmer — One Hundred and Fifth — One Hundred and Twenty-ninth — Impor- 
tance of this Battle — Kcncsaw Redeemed — Hood in Command — His Prestige 
Gone 173 

CHAPTER XII. 

INTO ATLANTA. 

Atlanta — Its importance — Heart of Confederacy — Must Be Taken — Hood in 
Command — Sherman's Report — The Chattahoochee — Battle of July 22d — 
IfcPherson Killed — Logan in Command — Blair Assailed by Hardee — Sweeney 
— Dodge — Twelfth Illinois — Sixteenth Corps — Long's Corps — Smith's Divi- 
sion — Loss of Guns — The Crisis — Sherman — Order to Logan — Charge — Wood 
— Victory — Guns Retaken — What Sherman Says — The Stoncnian Raid — 
Changes in Command — Hooker — Palmer — Howard — Slocum — Davis — Wil- 
liams — Battle of Joucsboro — Victory Decisive — Rebel Retreat — Pursuit — 
" Atlanta Ours and Fairly Won " — Sherman's Promotion — Re-union and 
Freedom 193 

CHAPTER XIII. 

HOOD TUKNS NORTH. 

The Situation — What will Hood Do? — What ne might have Done — nis Chosen 
Policy — Athens Surrenders — Rosseau — Forrest in the Toils — Marietta — Smyr- 
na — Allatoona — Illinois Ninety-third — Lieutenant-Colonel Tourtellotte — 
Corse Comes — " Effusion of Blood " — Desperate Defence — Seventh Illinois — 
Colonel Rowell — Corse's Report — Sherman's Signals — Twelfth and Fiftieth 
Illinois — Victory — Our Losses — Raum at Resaca — Various Movements — 
Troops sent Thomas — Thomas' Army — Ransom Dies — Armies Separated — 
Hood Crosses the River — Battle of Franklin — Back to Nashville — Hood's 
Positicn — Federal Troops — Delay — Preparations — Moment — Order of Battle 
— Battle of Nashville — Smith and Schofield — Night — Second Day — Wood's 
Corps — Stecdman — Assault — Victory — Rebel Retreat — The Eighty-eight — 
The Seventy-second — Brydge's Battery — The Seventy-fourth 203 

CHAPTER XIV. 

EEGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Thirteenth Veterans— Consolidated with the Fifty-sixth— The Thirty-third 



CONTENTS. 11 

PAGE. 

—The Students and Teachers as Soldiers— The Thirty- fourth— The Thirty- 
ninth ( Yates Phalanx ) — The Charge on Fort Gregg — The Forty-first — Its 
Marches and Battles — The Forty-fourth — Re-enlistment When the Ink Froze 
Upon the Muster Rolls — The Forty-fifth ( Lead Mine Regiment) — The Forty- 
sixth — The Battle of the Hatchie — The Forty-seventh — The Battle of Iuka — 
The Forty-eighth — Conclusion of Its Record — The Forty-ninth — Re-enlistment 
as Veterans— The Fiftieth— The Fifty-first 213 

CHAPTER XV. 

REGIMENTAL AND PERSONAL. 

The Thirty-seventh — Its Missouri Campaign — The Fifty-second — Its Various 
Commanders — General Sweeney — The Fifty-third — " Cushm&n's Brigade " — ■ 
The Fifty-fourth — Re-enlistment as Veterans — The Fifty-seventh — At Shiloh 
and Corinth — The Fifty-eighth — Capture at Shiloh — General W. F. Lynch — 
The Fifty-ninth — A Missouri Regiment — Change of Designation — The Sixtieth 
— Conclusion of Its Record — The Sixty-third — A Veteran Regiment — The 
Sixty-fourth — "Yates Sharpshooters" — The Sixty-fifth — The "Scotch Regi- 
ment"— The Three Months' Regiments of 1862— The Sixty-seventh — The 
Sixty-eighth — The Sixty-ninth — The Seventieth— The Seventy-first 238 

CHAPTER XVI. 

FROM ATLANTA TO MILLEN. 

Toward the Sea — Communications Cut — Impedimenta Removed — The Eagle's 
Wings — Composition — General Orders for the Campaign — Soldierly and States- 
manlike — Supplies — Sherman and the Atlanta Authorities — Atlanta Burnt — 
" On to the Sea " — Astonishment at Sherman's Plan — Rebel Reading — English 
Views — Northern Opinions — His Faith in Thomas — Four Columns — Advances 
— Skirmishes — Macon — Wolcott Wounded — Irwinton — Into Milledgeville — 
New Legislature — Thanksgiving — Rebel Pronunciamentoes — The Four Rivers 
— Griswoldsville — Sandersville — Kilpatrick's March on Millen — Fulls Back — 
Is Assaulted — Defence — Louisville — Ready to go South 266 

CHAPTER XVII. 

TO SAVANNAH. 

The Right Wing— Two Columns — No. 9 — Millen— The Prison Pen — " Working 
the Road" — Captured Mail — Corduroy — Eden — Jenk's Bridge — Twelve Mile 
Post — King's Bridge — Enemy's Rifle Pits — Blair — In Sight of Savannah — 
The Left Wing — Its March — Montieth Swamp — " Water Witch " — Jackson- 
boro — Pontoons — Kilpatrick and Wheeler — Atkins — Waynesboro — The Nine- 
ty-second Illinois — Before Savannah — Charleston Severed — Savannah Invest- 
ed — Rebel Defences — Fort McAllister — Hazen's Assault — Sherman on a Rice 
House — Illinois Regiments Engaged — Meets the Navy — Dahlgrea and Foster 



1 2 CONTENTS. 

paob. 
— Guns from Fort Royal — Assault ordered — Hardee leaves Savannah— Geary 
goes in — Sherman to Lincoln — To the Bea -Bowman's Besome — Lincoln te 
Sherman — Chattanooga to Savannah — The End not Vet 275 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE CLOSE OF 18G4 — THE OPENING OF 1865. 

Mr. Stanton's Summary of 1861 — Resume — Banks — Sherman — Stanton and 
Thomas — Hood's Array Destroyed — lolm Morgan — Other Operations — In the 
East— The Valley of the Shenandoah— Sheridan— The Los1 Battle Saved — 
Opening Year — Grant Reports the Situation — Stanton's Enumeration — Reduc- 
tion of Fort Fisher — Sehofield's Corps — Battle at Kingston — Canby's Depart- 
ment — Mobile — Defences — The Forts — Farragut — The Plan — Lashed Vessels 
— Pass the Forts — Gunboats — Ram Tennessee — Terrific Fight — Triumph — 
Mobile Bay Ours — Forts Surrender — The City Invested — Carr's Brigades 
Assault and Carry the Spanish Fort— Fort Blakeley Taken — Our Losses — 
Mobile Ours — Losses — Captures — Wilson's Gigantic Alabama Raid — Ander- 
8onville — Record of its Honored Dead 286 

CHAPTER XIX. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Seventy-second — Battles of Franklin and Nashville — General Joseph Stock- 
ton—The Seventy-fourth— What Hood Got— The Seventy-fifth— Its Battles— 
The Seventy-sixth — Its Roster and History — The Seventy-ninth — The 
Eightieth — Its Battles and Marches — The Eighty-first — Pursuit of Price — 
The Eighty-second — Gettysburg — Colonel Frederic Hecker — General E. S. 
Salomon— The Eighty-third — Defence of Fort Donelson — The Eighty-fourth — 
The Eighty-sixth — The Atlanta Campaign — The Eighty-ninth — A Brilliant 
Record — The Ninetieth — "The Irish Legion" — The Ninety-first — Service in 
Texas 316 

CHAPTER XX. 

INCIDENTS AND SKETCHES. 

Scarcity of Material — Seventy-fourth and Eighty-eighth at Franklin — Charge — 
Stampede — Colonel Smith — Captain Barnard — Corporal Newman — Captures 
— Thanks of General Wood — General Thomas — Casualties— The Seventy- 
second — Charged by Rebels — Driven — Retake Their Line — Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Stockton — Major James— Loss — The Seventy-fifth — Charge Through an 
Open Field— Its Captures— The Eighty-eighth at Stone River— On Front Line 
— "Fire and Fire Low" — At Mission Ridge — Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler — 
Colonel John W. Shaffer 345 



CONTENTS. 13 

CHAPTER XXI. 

ONWARD FROM SAVANNAH. 

PAGE. 

January, 1865 — Columns in Motion — Grant and Sherman — Logan — Right Wing 
— A Skirmish — Chaplain's Letter — Logan's Corps — Kilpatrick — Williams — 
Extracts From Sherman's Report — Swollen Waters — Sherman's Report — 
Edisto Bridges — The Divided Rebel Force — Kilpatrick — Atkins — Sherman 
and the Right Wing — Orangeburg — Hardee — Crossing of Congaree — Colum- 
bia — Sherman's Report — The Conflagration — Who was to Blame ? — Sherman 
on Wade Hampton — Soldiers' Love for South Carolina — Left Wing — Marches 
for Winnsboro — Right joins It — Barnwell — Ninety-second Illinois — Black- 
ville — Aikin — Atkins' Brigade — Kilpatrick's Movements — Exciting Situation 
— Joe Johnston in the Field — Rocky Mount — Sherman's Report — Cheraw — 
Kilpatrick narrowly Escapes Capture — Schofield and Terry — Fort Fisher — 
Wilmington — Our Men in Wilmington Prison — What a Correspondent Saw — 
Forward — Cavalry Skirmish — Hardee tries to "hold" Sherman — Don't Suc- 
ceed — Hard Fighting — Hardee Abandons His Works — Retreats to Averysboro 357 

CHAPTER XXII. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 
The Ninety-second — Rebel Treatment of Prisoners — Brevet Major-General Smith 
D. Atkins — Color Bearer " Gedee " Scott — " For God's sake Save the Flag" 
— The Ninety-third — From Atlanta to Savannah — The Ninety-fifth — Regi 
mental Statistics — Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey — The Ninety-eighth — A 
Fatal Accident — The Ninety-ninth — The Assault upon Vicksburg — The One 
Hundred and First — Running the Blockade — The One Hundred and Second — 
Capture of a Bank — The One Hundred and Third — Death of Colonel Dicker- 
man — The One Hundred and Fifth — The One Hundred and Eighth — Port 
Gibson and Champion's Hill — The One Hundred and Ninth — A Brief but Dis- 
graceful Record — The One Hundred and Tenth — Heavy Losses — The One 
Hundred and Eleventh — Gallant Charge at Resaca — The One Hundred and 
Twelfth— Sanders' Raid — The One Hundred and Thirteenth — The Rankin 
Family 369 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

OUR TROOPERS. 

The Third Cavalry — Pursuit of Price's Army — Pea Ridge — Gallantry at Fair- 
view — Vicksburg and Arkansas Post — The Fifth Cavalry — Battle of Cache 
River — Privation and Suffering — Expeditions to Granada and Jackson — 
Muster-out Roster — The Twelfth Cavalry — A Magnificent Saber Fight — Escape 
from Harper's Ferry — The McClellan Dragoons — The Fight at Dumfries — 
Stoneman's Raid — Approach to Richmond — Tunstall Station — Gettysburg — 
Efficient Service of the Twelfth — Re-organization as Veterans — Reception in 
Chicago — Snow Storm — The Red River Campaign — Service in Texas — Mus- 
ter-out Roster — General Hasbrouck Davis 404 



14 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

grant's a k m Y — VICTOKV. 

PAGE. 

Grant's Army — Siege of rctersburg — Futile Efforts — Opening of Spring — Losses 
— Grant's Strategy — Rebel Iron-clad Dasli — Extension of Union Left — Sheri- 
dan's Command — His great Raid — Reaches White House — Lee's Dash on Fort 
Steedman — Recaptured — Rebel Prisoners — Important Position Gained — Ad- 
vance on the Union Left — Fifth and Second Corps — Pace Northward — White 
Oak Road — Five Forks Reached and Abandoned — Sheridan Reinforced — Long- 
street Comes to Help Lee's Right — Ayer's Division Broken — Griffin and Hum- 
phreys — The Rebel Lion at Bay — Sheridan Again at Five Forks — Devins and 
Davies — Enemy Concentrate on Sheridan — Nightfall — Ayer's Division — Sher- 
idan's Advance — Five Forks Again — Orders to Warren — His Removal — Union 
Assault — Victory — Petersburg — Park's Assault — Wright — Humphreys — Gib- 
bons takes Gregg and Alexander — Miles goes to Sheridan — Enemy Driven — 
Sutherland's Depot — Hill Killed— Lee's Right Wing Gone — Ten Thousand 
Lost — Desperation — Lee's Telegram to Davis — Excitement in Richmond — 
Weitzell — Entrance into Richmond — "Richmond Ours!" — Excited African — 
The Country — Grant's Policy — Lee Attempts Retreat — Chesterfield — Amelia 
Court House — Sheridan Reaches Jetersville — Cuts Danville Railway — Deer 
Creek — Paine's Cross Roads — Deatonville — Crooks — Ewell's Corps Captured 
— Ord — General Theodore Reed — Lee over the River — Hunger is King — Lee's 
Officers say Surrender — Bloody Fighting — Grant Demands the Surrender of 
Lee's Army — Lee's Answer — Grant's Terms — Sheridan Mistaken — Lee Heads 
toward Lynchburg — Changes and comes between Lee and Supplies — Appomat- 
tox Station — Lee Proposes Diplomacy — Attempts to Cut through Sheridan's 
Cavalry — " What, Infantry !" — White Flag — Grant's Answer — Lee Proposes 
Surrender — Correspondence — The Army of" Northern Virginia" — Grant goes 
to Washington — His Report — His Plans Successful 424 

CHAPTER XXV. 

THE ONE HUNDRED DAY TROOPS. 

The Call— The Response — The One Hundred and Thirty-second— The One Hundred 
and Thirty-third — The One Hundred and Thirty-fourth — The One Hundred 
and Thirty-fifth— The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth— The One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh — The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth — The One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth — The One Hundred and Fortieth — The One Hundred and Forty- 
first — The One Hundred and Forty-second — The One Hundred and Forty-third 
—The One Hundred and Forty-fifth 441 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

INTO GOLDSBORO. 

From Savannah— Schofield and Terry — To Fayetteville — Carlin — Slocum's Left 
— Bentonville — The Fighting — Carlin's Brigades — Hazen comes Up — Move- 
ments — Mower's Division— Losses — Coxe's Brigade — Into Goldsboro — The Col- 



CONTENTS. 15 

PAQB. 

umns Converge — Major Nichol's Statement — Colonel Bowman's — Sherman's 
Plans -Meets Mr. Lincoln — His General Orders — Army of Georgia — Blunder 
— Orders — Stoneman and Wilson 451 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

END OF THE WAR. 

Out of Goldsboro — Smithfield — News of Lee's Surrender — Johnston's Position — 
The Strategic Points — Sherman Sums Up — Correspondence — Sherman's State- 
ment — Interview — Agreement — Disapproved — Grant — Visits Sherman — 
Truce Suspended — Fighting Order — Proposition to Surrender — Accepted — 
March for Richmond — Washington — Grand Review — Stanton and Sherman — 
Four Needed Men — Surrender of Taylor and Kirby Smith — The End — Sher- 
man's Farewell — Troops Homeward — April to September — Doxology of Peace 459 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Eighty-fifth — Perryville, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Atlanta, Rome, Kene- 
saw, Peach Tree Creek, Savannah — Brevet Brigadier-General C. J. Dilworth 
— The One Hundred and Seventeenth — Regimental Statistics — The One Hun- 
dred and Nineteenth — Its Various Campaigns — The One Hundred and Twen- 
ty-second — Pursuit of Price — The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth — The 
"Bully One Hundred and Two Dozen" — The One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
— Vicksburg and the Atlanta Campaign — The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth 
Guarding Railroads — The One Hundred and Forty-seventh — Closing of Hos- 
tilities in Georgia — The One Hundred and Forty-ninth — On Garrison Duty — 
The One Hundred and Fiftieth — Religious Revivals — The One Hundred and 
Fifty-first — Woffbrd's Surrender — The One Hundred and Fifty-third — Colonel 
Stephen Bronson — The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth 475 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

INCIDENT PERSONAL. 

Operations on the Gulf — Hurlbut — Brayman — Grierson — Osband — Chetlain — 
Colonel Bowers 496 

CHAPTER XXX. 

THE CHICAGO CONSPIRACY. 

Exciting Rumors — First Objective — Diabolical Scheme — Colonel Sweet — The 
Situation — Suspicion — Impression — Government Detective — Revelations — 
Measures — Official Report — Chicago Armed — Trials — Sentences — Pardons — 
Brand of Infamy 513 



16 CONTEXTS. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

GENERAL GRANT. 

PAGE. 

Former Estimate — His Western Career — Army <>f Potomac — Its Leaders — Mc- 
Clcllan — Pope — Burnside — Hooker — Meade — Grant's Plans — Lee's Prestige — 
Wilderness — Petersburg — Results — Criticism — People's Answer — Grant in 
Chicago — Reception in Bryan Hall — Hooker's Speech — Grant's — Yates' — Sher- 
man and Grant as Orators — Reception by Hoard of Trade — Fairehild and Wash- 
burn — Second Visit — Ovation in Canada and Michigan — En-route for Galena — 
Marshal Jones — The Train — On the Way — The General at Home — Welcome 
by Hon. E. B. Washburne — Grant — Vincent — Grade of General 620 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE WOMEN OF ILLINOIS. 

Influence on Public Opinion — Social Life — Institutions — Religious View — Relief 
Associations — The Great Fairs — Last Chicago Fair — Greetings of Soldiers. . 538 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The Second Cavalry — Re-enlistment — Death of Colonel Mudd — Service in Tex- 
as — The Eighth Cavalry — Hunting Booth — Muster-out Roster — Damage to 
the Enemy — Major James D. Ludlam — The Ninth Cavalry — Veteranizing — 
Battles of Franklin and Nashville — The Sixteenth Cavalry — Thielman's Bat- 
talion — A Regiment Raised — The Fight in Powell's Valley — Heavy Loss — 
Final Roster — Captain Hiram S. Hanchett — The Seventeenth Cavalry — Cam- 
paigning in Missouri — Pursuit of Price — Fight at Booneville — Battle of Mine 
Creek — A Saber Charge — In a Tight Place — The Enemy Retire — Surrender 
of Jeff. Thompson — General H. Be veridge 546 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

SKETCH AND INCIDENT. 

The Eighty-sixth in South Carolina — At Bentonville — The Sixty-fourth — With 
Mower — The Fifty-second at Corinth — Colonel Buckner's Prayer-'-The Harts- 
ville Surrender — Colonel Moore's Official Report — Our Surgeons — Surgeon 
Coatsworth — His Services — His Death — Colonel J. A. Davis — The Non-com- 
missioned and Privates — Young Elliott at Shiloh — The Dead Letter — Sergeant 
Reynolds — Sergeant Jones 568 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

THE UNION LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

The Origin of Union Leagues — The Loyal Men of Tennessee — The Traitors in 
Illinois — First Council of the Union League of America— The Oath — Organi- 
zation of the State Council — Spread of the Order — National Council — The 
Obligation — Importance of the Work — Sanitary Contributions — Joseph Me- 
dill, Esq. — Colonel Geo. H. Harlow — Incidents 585 



CONTENTS. 17 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

PAGE. 

The Sixteenth Infantry — Attack on Edgefield— The Nineteenth— The " Big 
Muddy Campaign " — Organization — Railroad Accident — Alabama Campaign — 
Stone River — Muster-out Roster — Lieutenant-Colonel Alex. W. Ratten — The 
Twenty-sixth — Kencsaw Mountain — " Gopher Holes " — Colonel Robert A. 
Gillmore — The Twenty-eighth — Fight at Little Bethel — Service in Texas — 
The Sixty-second — Holly Springs— Re-enlistment — The Seventy-third — The 
"Preachers' Regiment" — The One Hundredth — Stoae River and Chickamau- 
ga — The Atlanta Campaign — Muster-out Roster — Statistics — The One Hun- 
dred and Fifteenth — From Covington to Chickamauga — From Atlanta to the 
Sea — General Kimball's Farewell Order — Brigadier-General Jesse Haile Moore 
— The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth — Its Record — The One Hundred and 
Thirtieth — Port Gibson — Vicksburg — Service in Texas — Battle of Mansfield 
— Consolidation — Colonel Nathaniel Niles — Lieutenant-Colonel James H. 
Matheny — Major John B. Reid — Adjutant John B. Hay 593 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

CAVALRY REGIMENTS. 

The Fourth Cavalry — Fort Henry — Donelson and Shiloh — Death of Lieutenant- 
Colonel William McCullough— Colonel T. Lyle Dickey— General M. R. M. 
Wallace — The Seventh Cavalry — Campaign in Missouri — Farmington — Pur- 
suit of Prica — Grierson's Raid — Re-enlistment — Forrest's Attack upon Mem- 
phis — Recruiting — Muster-out — Major Zenas Aplington — The Thirteenth Cav- 
alry — Campaign in Missouri and Arkansas — Consolidation — New Companies — 
Battle Roll — Final Roster — Brevet Brigadier-General Albert Erskine — Major 
Lothar Lippert 618 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

MAJOR-GENERAL PALMER. 

Early Life — Political Career — Colonel — Brigadier — In Kentucky — His Adminis- 
tration — Sustained by the President 634 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

REGIMENTAL AND PERSONAL. 

The Fourteenth Infantry — Its Campaigns and Marches — The Fortieth — The Fifty- 
fifth — Frozen In — Shiloh — Final Roster — Colonel Oscar Malmborg — The Sixty- 
first — Colonel Daniel Grasa — The Seventy-seventh — Yicksburg and Arkansas 
Post — The Eighty-seventh — Service as Mounted Infantry — Banks' Red River 
Expedition — Colonel John M. Crebs — The One Hundred and Eighteenth — Suf- 
ferings and Privations — Attack upon Vicksburg — Service in Louisiana — Final 
Roster — The Fourteenth Cavalry — Difficulties in Raising the Regiment — Pur- 
suit and Capture of John Morgan — Campaigning in Tennessee — The Fight at 
2 



18 OONTKNTS. 

Hn 
Bean Station — "Rout of Thomas' Legion" — Btonemen's Raid upon Macon — 
A Terrific Eight and a Sad Disaster — Personal BketeheB — Major Win. McOul- 

lough — Colonel John M. Snyder 639 

CHAPTER XL. 

ARTILLERY COMPANIES. 

Chicago Mercantile Battery — Artillery Duel at Champion's Hill — Battle of Sabine 
Cross Roads — Elgin Battery — Vaughn's Battery — Its Marches and Campaigns 
— First Artillery — Battery D — Captain E. n. Cooper — Battery I — Veteraniz- 
ing — Battery K — Burnsidc's Tennessee Expedition — Battery M — The Atlanta 
Campaign — Second Artillery — Battery F — Shiloh — Battery II — Veterans — 
Battery K — Its Services — Battery L — Battle of the Hatchie — Battery M — 
Harper's Ferry — Service in Tennessee 670 

CHAPTER XLI. 

LOSSES OF ILLINOIS TROOPS. 

Complete Numerical List of Casualties by Regiments in Artillery, Cavalry and 
Infantry — Total Number of Deaths Twenty -eight Thousand Eight Hundred and 
Forty-two 684 



PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER I. 

DEATH AND BURIAL OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

The Occurrence — Previous Warnings — The 14th of April — Conversations — 
Interview with Colfax — Cabinet Meeting — Ford's Theater — The Box — Boothe 
— Preparations — The Shot — Assassin's Escape — The Theater — The Dying 
President — Record of Dissolution — Prayer — Payne and Seward — Secretary 
Stanton's Orders — Grief of the Country — Congressional Committee — Funeral 
Services in Washington — Remains Borne to the Capitol — To the Funeral Car 
— Funeral Cortege — Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia — Back to Illinois — 
Reaches Chicago — The City in Sable — The Last Stage — Springfield — Emblems 
of Mourning — Lincoln's Residence — Oak Hill — The Services — Bishop Simpson's 
Oration — Dr. Gurley's Ode — Lincoln's Character — The Congressional Memo- 
rial Service — Bancroft's Oration — Doom of the Assassin — Trial of Conspira- 
tors — Execution — Curtain Falls. 

IN advance of its chronological place, the second volume must 
open with the record of the nation's great grief, and the bereav- 
ment of Illinois in the death of her noblest son. 

On the morning of April 15, 1865, in the midst of rejoicings for 
the capture of Richmond, and the surrender of Lee, the telegraph 
flashed the announcement of the President's assassination. Never 
did a foul murder so shock the nation, or so astound the world. 

On the evening of the 14th in company with Mrs. Lincoln and 
60me friends he visited Ford's Theater, where he had been announced 
to be present with General Grant. 

As the play was progressing an assassin entered the State-box, and 
from a Derringer pistol sent a ball through the President's brain, and 
turning, despite the efforts of Major Rathborne to detain him, sprang 
from the box upon the stage, brandishing a dagger and shouting " Sic 



20 I'Vi i: I' - 1 IBU OF in i . 

semper tyranniaf the South is avenged!" darted through a pri- 
vate passage into the alley, where a horse was in readiness, and 
• d. 4s he orossed the stage he was recognized as .1. Wilkes 
Bo the. 

The Presidenl was unconscious from the momenl the pistol was 
fired. II<" was c mveyedto a house in the vicinity where lie lay for 
several hours. About his bedside were the membi rs of his Cabinet, 
with the exception of the Secretary of State, several senators, the 
Speaker of the Souse of Representatives and other intimate friends. 
The examination of the Surgeon General showed the wound to be 
fatal, and all that could be done was to wait in sadness the moment 
when one of the noblest of men should be no 1 >nger of earth. 

The President had been warned thai assassination was premedi- 
tated, and at last both himself ami Secretary Seward were com- 
pelled to believe the evidence, yet he none the less freely exposed 
himself. He felt that if men were resolved upon it, the deed could 
scarcely be prevented. 

The morning <>f the 14th, he talked with his wife of the four 
stormy years he had passed, and of the dawn of peaceful times, 
the coming of hitter days. He was free from forebodings; "with 
malice toward none'' he could not credit the malignity which 
would resort to assassination, solely for revenge. 

He conversed with his son, Captain Robert Lincoln, who was on 
General Grant's staff, as to the details of Lee's surrender. After 
breakfast he received^ various gentlemen, and among them Senator 
Hale and Speaker Colfax. The latter was preparing for an overland 
trip to the Pacific and to him the President said : 

"Mr. Colfax, I want you to take a message from me to tbe miners whom you visit ; 
I have very large ideas of the mineral wealth of our nation. I believe it to be 
practically inexhaustible. It abounds all over the Western country, from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, and its development has scarcelj commenced. 
During the war, when we were adding a couple of millions of dollars every day to 
our national debt, I did not care about encouraging the volume of our precious 
metals. We had the country to save first. But now that the rebellion is over- 
thrown, and we know pretty nearly the amount of our national debt, the more gold 
and silver we mine, we make the payment of that debt so much the easier. .Vow,' 
said he, speaking with more emphasis, " I am going to encourage that in ever 
sible way. We' shall have hundreds of thousands of disbanded soldiers, and many 
have feared that their return home in such great numbers might paralyze industry 



HIS LAST DAT. 21 

by furnishing, suddenly, a greater supply of labor than there will be demand for. 
I am going to try to attract them to the hidden wealth of our mountain ranges, 
where there is room enough for all. Immigration, which even the war has not 
stopped, will land upon our shores hundreds of thousands more from over-crowded 
Europe. I intend to point them to the gold and silver that wait for them in the 
West. Tell the miners for me that I shall promote their interests to the best of 
my ability, because their prosperity is the prosperity of the nation, and we shall 
prove in a very few years, that we are indeed the treasury of the world." 

As he uttered the last sentence his eyes kindled with enthusiasm. 
At eleven o'clock he met his cabinet. General Grant was present, 
having come direct from the field. The questions arising out of 
victory were fully discussed, and the leading propositions of the 
President received the hearty approval of the Secretaries and the 
victorious Chieftain, so that the Secretary of War declared the 
Government stronger than at any time since the beginning of the 
rebellion. 

In the afternoon Mr. Lincoln saw a number of gentlemen from 
Illinois, and in the early evening conversed at some length ivith 
Messrs. Colfax and Ashmun. Before separation he wrote the fol 
lowing in pencil, his last note : 

" Allow Mr. Ashmun and friend to come in at nine o'clock to-morrow. 

" A. Lincoln." 

The President and General Grant had been invited to attend 
Ford's Theater that night, and the public prints had announced that 
they would do so, and occupy the State-box. The General left the 
City. Mr. Lincoln was disinclined to go, but fearing a popular dis- 
appointment if neither himself nor the General was present, decided 
to attend and invited Colfax and Ashmun to accompany him, who 
declined. The President and Mrs. Lincoln entered their carriage, 
drove to the house of Senator Harris where they were joined by 
Miss Harris and Major Rathborne, the Senator's step-son. They 
reached the theater at forty minutes past eight. They entered the 
reserved box and were greeted with prolonged and hearty applause 
in which was mingled love for the man, admiration for the Presi- 
dent, gladness for the victory of the nation. The President bowed 
and was seated. 

The box was a double one, on the second floor, above the stage. 
From the front, a narrow passage to the rear of the dress-circle 



22 P \ n:i"i [811 OF ILLINOIS. 

reached the box, requiring three doors. The President oocupied :i 
high-baoked rocking-chair, and the play wenl on. 

Turn to another person. In the morning of thai sad Good 
Friday, John Wilkes Boothe, a disloyal actor, a man whose sym- 
pathy was all with rebellion, learned <>(" tin- arrangement for the 
theater. !!'• engaged a rapid and well trained mare for a saddle- 
ride in the afternoon Visiting Eftrkwood'e Hotel he senl a card to 

Vice President JohnSOD <>n which was written "I <l<>n'l wish to dis- 
turb you ; are yon at home ?" Et was signed with his name. He was 

answered that the Vice-President was busy. At four he called at 
the stable and rode off on the mare, which he placed where it was 
to serve his purpose. 

In the evening he proceeded to the theater, passed through the 
narrow hall, and showing a card to the President's messenger, 
entered the vestibule of" the fated box. He secured himself against 
entrance from without by bracing the door with a piece of plank. 
All his arrangements were made with diabolical coolness. He took 
a careful survey of the interior of the box and saw that all was 
ready; his victim was seated as it was meant he should be and there 
was a way of escape across the stage. The. President was leaning 
forward, holding the curtain of the box. The assassin cocked a 
small silver-mounted Derringer pistol, and taking in his left hand a 
keen, double-edged dagger, he stepped to the inner door. The 
back and side of the President's head \vrv<~ fully exposed. Boothe 
instantly fired, and the ball crashed through Mr. Lincoln's brain; his 
head dropped forward very slightly, and he was quiet. The report 
of the pistol was supposed by the audience to be a part of the pro- 
gramme. Major Rathborne sprang to his feet and seized the assas- 
sin, who dropped his pistol and struck the officer with his dagger, 
wounding him in the left arm near the shoulder. He sprang to the 
front of the box, drew aside the folds of the Hag with which it was 
festooned, and leaped to the stage. As he did so, his spur caught 
the folds of the flag and he partly fell. Recovering his balance, he 
waved his dagger and repeated the motto of Virginia, " Sic semper 
Tyrannis!" and added " the South is avenged !" He started for 
the passage leading to the stage-door in the rear of the theater. 
He had calculated upon the audacity of the act as its security, and 



DYING. 23 

so it proved. The audience did not yet comprehend the terrible 
fact. The murderer dashed aside all in his way, rushed through 
the door opened in readiness for him, sprang into the saddle, and 
rode rapidly over the Anacosta bridge, and for the time being was 
safe. The shot, the scene upon the stage, the escape were the work 
of a moment. 

Mrs. Lincoln screamed. Rathborne started for assistance to find 
the outer door barred, and the terrible fact of assassination burst 
upon the audience ! Women shrieked and fainted. Men shouted 
impotently for vengeance and rushed to pursue the flying murderer. 
The uproar was terrific. The lights were turned off, and the, grief- 
stricken multitude dispersed. Several surgeons came forward and 
examined the wound. The President was conveyed to the house of 
Mr. Peterson on Tenth street, where he was placed on a bed in a 
small room. Surgeon General Barnes examined the wound and in 
a sad undertone said "Mortal.' 1 Secretary Stanton burst into tears 
and sobbed out, " Oh no ! General, no, no ! Secretaries Welles and 
McCulloch, Postmaster-General Dennison, Attorney-General 
Speed, General Meigs, Senator Sumner and other distinguished 
gentlemen were soon in attendance and remained until all was over. 
Charles Sumner held one of the hands of the dying man and wept 
as a child. The wife, to be widowed in a few hours, sat with her 
son and Mrs. Senator Dixon in an adjoining room. 

The following minutes kept by Dr. Abbott show the progress of 
dissolution through that terrible night : 

11 o'clock, pulse 44. 

11.05 " " 45, and growing weaker. 

11.10 " " 45. 

11.15 " " 42. 

11.20 " " 45, respiration 27 to 29. 

11.25 " " 42. 

11.32 " " 48, and full. 

11.40 " " 45. 

11.45 " " 45, respiration 22. 

12 " " 48, " 22. 
12.15 " " 48, respiration 21. 

ecchymosis both eyes. 
12.30 o'clock, pulse 45. 
12.32 " " 60. 
12.35 " " 66. 



'2\ PATRIOTISM OF n.UNnis. 

12 10 o'clock, pulse 89, riLrht •• \ <• mucb swollenand eccbymo 

12.45 " " 70. 

12.66 " " BO, struggling motion of arms. 

1 " " 86, respiratioD 80. 

1.80 " " 96, appearing easier. 

1.46 " " 86, vrr\ quiet, respiration irregular, lira. Lincoln present 

2.10 " Mrs. Lincoln retired with Robert t" an adjoining room. 

2.30 " President very quiet, pulse 64, respiration 28. 

2.62 " pulse -18, respiration 80. 

8 " visited again bj Mrs. Lincoln. 

8.26 " respiration -'. and regular. 

3.35 " prayer b] Rev. Dr. Gurley. 

4 " respiration 26 and regular. 

4.15 " pulse 60, respiration 26. 

6.50 " respiration 28 regular. 

6 " pulse failing, respiration 28. 

6.30 " still failing and labored breathing. 

7 " symptoms of immediate dissolution. 

7.22 " DEATH. 

At the last moment there were in attendance the Vice-President, 
Secretaries Stanton, Wells, McCulloch, Usher; Attorney- 
General Speed, Postmaster- General Dennison, Generals Halleck, 
Meigs, Farnsworth, Augur and Todd; Senator Sumner, Rev. Dr. 
( iui ley, Speaker Colfax, Ex-Governor Farwell, Judge Carter, Judge 
Otto, Surgeon-General Barnes; Doctors Crane, Stone, Abbott, and 
Hall; M. B. Field and R. F. Andrews. 

At the moment death was announced Dr. Gurley kneeled and 
offered prayer, and then proceeding to the adjoining apartment 
prayed with those whose mourning was saddest as their grief was 
deepest. 

In another quarter of the city the tragedy of assassination was 
going forward, but not to completion. At ten o'clock, within a 
few minutes of the time of the President's murder, a man, subse- 
quently proven to be Lewis Payne Powell, one of the conspirators, 
ordinarily known as Payne, called at the residence of Secretary Sew- 
ard, who was disabled from a recent accident, and s:iid to the color- 
ed lad at the door that he came with medicines for Mr. Seward. 
He was refused admission but forcibly made his way to the third 
floor and was about entering Mr. Seward's room when Mr. Frederick 
Seward stopped him. The villain drew a pistol and snapped 
it, and then struck Frederick with it so violently as to fracture the 



ASSAULT ON SECRETARY SEWARD. 2o 

skull and knock him to the floor, made his way to the Secretary's 
bedside, and stabbed at his throat, wounding him severely. A sol- 
dier named Robinson, Mr. Seward's nurse, himself an invalid, threw 
his arms around Payne and struggled with him until severely 
stabbed. During this struggle, Mr. Seward rolled himself from his 
bed. The villain alarmed by cries of murder sprang for the do< >r, 
meeting Major Augustus Seward he struck him with his knife, and 
on the stairs stabbed Mr. Hansell, one of Mr. Seward's attendants, 
in the back. Thus he severely wounded five persons and made his 
escape ! 

The intelligence of this double blow at the organic life of the 
state produced a fearful excitement. Many clamored for vengeance. 
There was a general inquiry, How far does the conspiracy extend ? 
7f we have entered upon an era of assassination how many are 
written in its doom-book ? In Washington the commotion was 
terrible. Mr. Stanton hearing of the assault at once upon his supe- 
rior, and his colleague, saw that a formidable conspiracy was striking 
desperately, and promptly issued orders closing all drinking shops 
and places of public gatherings in the city, stationing guards at all 
avenues of assault or escape, for protecting the person of the Vice- 
President and government officials and for securing the public 
buildings. 

Throughout the country strong men staggered under the intelli- 
gence. Bells tolled in every steeple, and mourning badges were on 
every house. In Illinois that grief was the deeper because Illinois 
best knew and loved the slain chieftain. He had grown with her 
growth, he was identified with her history, he had fought the battle 
of freedom on her prairies, she had given him to the nation, and had 
sent him with loving benedictions and earnest prayei*s to the post of 
responsibility, peril, death ! 

At Springfield and Chicago, the grief and indignation were most 
intense. Yet at its hight, men and women as by instinct made their 
way to the principal churches, crowding them to the utmost, and 
calling for Christian pastors to lead them in prayer and steady them 
with exhortation. 

So wore away that day. The next was the Sabbath, and almost 
every pulpit made fitting allusion to the sad blow which had fallen 



20 PATKInl ISM OF ILLINOIS. 

upon the country and drew such lessons as suggested faith in God, 
"the King of nations," "the Father in heaven." 

Immediately after the decease, t lie body was removed to the 
Executive Mansion and placed in the Green Room. Near the cen- 
ter of the apartment was a grand catafalque on which rested tint 
mahogany coffin covered with flowers. On Monday, the seven- 
teenth, a meeting of Congressmen and other Leading gentlemen was 
held at the Capitol, over which presided lion. Senator Lafayette S. 
Foster. A committee of arrangements was appointed fur the fune- 
ral, of which Hon. Charles Sumner was chairman. This committee 
selected as pall-bearers Senators Foster, pro tern. President of the 
Senate, Morgan, Johnson, Yates, Wade and Conness, and from the 
House of Representatives, Mr. Speaker Colfax, Dawes, Cofiroth, 
Smith, Worthington and Washburne. A committee of one from 
each loyal State and Territory was chosen to accompany the body 
to its last earthly receptacle. 

On Tuesday, the Executive Mansion was opened and the body, 
which had been embalmed, was permitted to be seen by the people. 
' It is estimated that twenty -five thousand passed by the catafalque. 
Dr. Holland says, "Hundreds of those who pressed around the 
sacred dust uttered some affectionate word, or phrase, or sentence. 
The rich and the poor, the white and the black, mingled their tokens 
of affectionate regard and dropped, side by side, their tears upon the 
coffin. It was humanity weeping over the dust of its benefactor." 

Wednesday, the 19th, was such a day as the nation had never 
seen. Throughout all the land was mourning and lamentation. 
The funeral °ervices were announced to commence in Washington 
at 12 M. and at that hour almost every Church, from Ocean to 
Ocean, was crowded with tearful worshipers, was draped in mourn- 
ing, and resounded with sad dirge and doleful requiem. In many 
of the principal towns in Canada the observance was as general 
and impressive as in the States. All business was suspended. The 
Nation was a mourner. 

In Washington the Departments were closed, flags were at half- 
mast and all the public buildings were draped in black. The re- 
mains were in the East Room. The guard of honor retained its 
place, and at the head of the coffin was the brave Major-General 



SERVICE AT THE WHITE HOUSE. 27 

Hunter the friend of the slain President. Nearest the coffin sat 
the family — except the widow who was too ill to leave her room. 
There were illustrious men from many parts of the world, members 
of Congress, Governors Andrew of Massachusetts, battle-scarred 
Oglesby of Illinois, brave " John Brough" of Ohio, soon himself to 
go to the grave, the Judges of the Supreme Court, representatives 
from the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, clergymen, and 
others. At 12 o'clock Andrew Johxsox, now President of the 
United States, came forward, attended by his Cabinet with the 
exception of Secretary Seward. Rev. Dr. Hale, of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, read the service for the dead ; Rev. Matthew 
Simpson, D. D., one of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, offered prayer ; Rev. Dr. Gurley, of the Presbyterian 
Church, pastor of the Church attended by the President and his 
family, pronounced a brief but fitting address. He pertinently said 
of Mr. Lincoln: " fie rose to the dignity and momentousness of the 
occasion ; saw his duty as a chief-magistrate to a great and imper- 
iled people ; and he determined to do his duty and his whole duty, 
seeking the guidance and leaning upon the arm of Him of whom it 
is written — ' He giveth power to the faint, and to them that have no 
might he increaseth strength.' Yes, he leaned upon His arm. He 
recognized and received the truth that the kingdom is the Lord's." 
Prayer was again offered by Rev. Dr. Gray of the Baptist Church, 
Chaplain of the Senate. 

Then in sad procession was made the march to the Capitol. 
Pennsylvania Avenue was cleared from the White House to the 
Capitol Hill. Every house was in mourning — windows, piazzas, 
roofs, the spacious side-walks were crowded, awaiting the funeral 
car. Says Mr. Raymond: 

" Filling Pennsylvania Avenue, through its whole extent, this 
great procession — marshaled with military precision, and marching 
to the cadence of slow music from many bands — escorted with be- 
coming pomp, the remains of the martyred President to the Nation- 
al Capitol, which rose in white grandeur, clad from basement to the 
summit of its lordly dome, with garments of woe, to receive the 
precious gift. The whole vast building was draped in black. All 
the pillars were entwined with crane — from all the windows hung 
emblems of mourning, and a black canopy surmounted the East- 



28 p \ cbiottsm of Illinois. 

tern dour, by which die great concourse was to enter. Minute guns 
from .ill the forts around the city, thundered forth their sad salu- 
tations— the bells from every tower and Bpire rang out, in muffled 
tones, their chronicle of the stately march. At a little after 8 P. M. 
the military cortege which led Hie procession, entered the open Bpace 
in front of the Eastern entrance. Piling past in proper order, the 
infantry, wheeling, faced the Capitol, — the artillery took position on 
the hill, opposite the entrance, — the cavalry remained in the street, 
and a great throng of spectators gazed in silence on the grand dis- 
play. As the funeral car approached, all the military bands hurst 
forth into a solemn requiem — the artillery thundered out their sol- 
emn greeting — the vast crowd, as by a common impulse uncovered 
— and as Rev. Dr. Grurley, in deep and impressive tones recited the 
grand sentences in which the Church signalizes the departure of her 
dead, the body of President Lincoln was borne into the rotunda 
and placed upon the lofty catafalque. As the recitation closed 
President Johnson entered the hall followed by several senators. 
Captain Robert Lincoln and the family relatives came forward. 
The body-guard formed in double- column near the body. Dr. Gur- 
ley made a closing prayer and pronounced the benediction. All 
then left the rotunda, Guards were stationed at all the doors. Gen- 
eral Augur and his staff" took charge of the remains, and with drawn 
swords the officers detailed for the service mounted guard over 
them. As night came on, the jets of gas concealed in the bight of 
the dome were lighted up and cast their softened glare upon the 
vigil that was kept below.'' 

In the rotunda the body remained through that night and the 
next day until 9 P. M. Thousands came to see the face of the 
dead, among them many of the wounded and invalid soldiers of the 
Union. On the morning of the 21st the members of the Cabinet, 
distinguished officers of the army, and many members of Congress 
made their final visit. 

Illinois demanded that he whom she sent forth with her benediction 
and invocation to be the nation's leader, should be brought home to 
sleep in her own bosom, far from the scenes of the war which gave 
him so much anguish. It was meet that his last resting-place should 
be on the broad prairies where he made his home — and that, not at 



FUNEKAL TKAIN KOUTE. 29 

Washington, neither in Chicago, where sleeps the dust of Douglas, 
his great rival, and at the last his trusted friend, but at Springfield, 
his former home, from which he spoke his good-by to Illinois, and 
asked the prayers of fellow- citizens should his grave be made. 

It was decided to make the journey with the remains as rapid as 
possible, but the demand of the country compelled a modification — 
the people demanded the privilege of looking upon the face of their 
honored, martyred President. It was not for ostentation, but 
because the love of the people would not be denied, that the 
funeral journey along a line of fifteen hundred miles was such as the 
world never saw before. 

A car was provided, fitted with elegant simplicity, hung in heavy 
black, festooned about the windows in double rows. With appro- 
priate religious service, the remains were removed from the rotunda 
and under escort of the Twelfth Veteran Reserve Corps, attended 
by the Lieutenant-General and many members of Congress, were 
conveyed to the Baltimore and Ohio Depot, where they were received 
by President Johnson and others, and placed in the car. Prayer 
was offered, and then the train of seven cars — all, with the locomo- 
tive, hung in deep mourning — left the depot. The War Department 
had prescribed the whole route, with a schedule* of arrivals and 
departures at all principal points, and a pilot engine was invariably 
to precede the train. As the train moved away, all stood with 
uncovered heads, and that hour more than any previous, did Wash- 
ington feel its loss. 

*" The programme for the transportation of President Lincoln's remains from 
Washington has been issued. The railroads over which the remains will pass are 
declared military roads, subject to the order of the War Department, and the rail- 
roads, locomotives, cars and engines engaged on said transportation will be subject 
to military control of Brigadier-General McCallum. No person will be allowed to 
be transported on the cars constituting the funeral train, save those who are speci- 
ally authorized by the orders of the War Department. The funeral train will not 
exceed nine cars, including baggage and hearse car, which will proceed over the 
whole route from Washington to Springfield. 

"The remains left Washington at 8 this (Friday) morning, and arrived at Balti- 
more at 10. 

" Leave Baltimore at 3, afternoon, and arrive at Harrisburgh at 8:20, evening. 

"Leave Harrisburgh at 12, midnight, 22d, and arrive at Philadelphia at 6:30 
evening. 

" Leave Philadelphia at 4, morning of Monday, 24th, and arrive at New York at 10. 



30 PATRIOTISM OF Illinois. 

At Baltimore, where little more than four years before the an 
brutal mob clamored for the blood of Abraham Lincoln, now :> vast 
mass of sorrowful people stood in tempestuous weather, and with 
uncovered beads did reverence to the remains of the ( Ireal Emancipa- 
tor! At Elarrisburgh the body lay in state in the Capitol of Penn- 
sylvania. At Philadelphia the out-pouring of popular love and grief 
was overwhelming. In a new hearse, built for the occasion, the 
body of the President, followed by a procession of eleven divisions, 
was conveyed to old Independence Hall! Worthy was he to be 
brought where the founders of the Republic had declared the inalien- 
able right of all MEN to life and liberty! For so holding and so 
teaching was he slain! The hall was dressed with exquisite flowers 
and draped in mourning. Until midnight the people were admitted, 
and then the Hall was closed; yet many remained about it through 
the eight that they might be firsl in the morning. Before day-light 
lines had been formed reaching from the Delaware to the Schuylkill. 

The reception and funeral cortege in New York can not be des- 
cribed. The veteran General Dix was in command and the escort 
was the " New York Seventh." The body was conveyed with im- 

"Leave New York at 4, afternoon of the 15th, and arrive at Albany at 11, evening. 

"Leave Albany at 4, afternoon of Wednesday, the 26th, and arrive at Buffalo at 
1, morning of Thursday, the 27th. 

"Leave Buffalo at 10:10 the same day, and arrive at Cleveland at 7, morning of 
Friday, the 28th. 

"Leave Cleveland at midnight same day, and arrive at Columbus at 7:30 in the 
morning of Saturday, 29th. 

"Leave Columbus at 8 in the evening, same day, and arrive at Indianapolis at 7 
in the morning of Sunday, the 30th. 

"Leave Indianapolis midnight of same day, and arrive at Chicago at 11 in the 
morning of May 1st. 

" Leave Chicago at 9:30 in the evening of May 2, and arrive at Springfield at 8 
in the morning of Wednesday, May 3d. 

" At the various points on the route the remains are to be taken from the hearse- 
car by state or municipal authorities to receive public honors according to the afore- 
said programme. The authorities will make such arrangements as may be fitting 
and appropriate to the occasion, under the direction of the military commander of 
the division, department or district; but the remains will continue always under the 
special charge of the officers and escort assigned by the War Department. 

" The route from Columbus to Indianapolis is via Columbus and Indianapolis Cen- 
tral Railway, and from Indianapolis to Chicago via Lafayette and Michigan City. 
In order to guard against accidents, trains will not run faster than twenty miles per 
hour." — [Secretary Stanton's Order. 



TO CHICAGO. 31 

posing circumstance and pomp to the City Hall and placed beneath 
the dome. It is estimated that not less than one hundred and fifty 
thousand persons looked into the dead man's face, while twice that 
number sought in vain to do so ! At Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland, 
Columbus and Indianapolis the body lay in state, amid similar dem- 
onstrations of regard. 

Illinois was waiting. He should first be brought to Chicago, and 
the people poured in by thousands from the country, crowding hotels 
and boarding-houses for days in advance. " He comes back to us" 
said one of our daily papers, " his work finished, the republic vindi- 
cated, its enemies overthrown and suing for peace. * * * * 
He left us, asking that the prayers of the people might be offered to 
Almighty God for wisdom and help to see the right path and pur- 
sue it. Those prayers were answered. He accomplished the work, 
and now the prayers of the people ascend for help to bear the great 
affliction which has fallen upon them. Slain as no other man has 
been slain — cut down while interposing his great charity and mercy 
between the wrath of the people and guilty traitors. The people of 
Chicago receive the sacred ashes with bowed heads and streaming 
eyes." 

On the morning of May 1st, the funeral-train brought all that was 
mortal of Abraham Lincoln back to Illinois ! As it came into the 
approaches of Chicago, it passed very near and in full sight of the 
grave of Douglas ! On the lake-shore, on Michigan avenue and in 
the cross-streets was such a mass of people as never were crowded 
before on the shore of Lake Michigan. 

The train was halted at Park Place and the coffin removed, and 
the remains borne to the hearse beneath a most beautiful, emblem- 
atic, gothic arch. Then moved one of the most imposing processions 
ever seen upon the continent, military and civic, all trades and pro- 
fessions ; the streets were hung with mourning; from roof, window, 
lintel, trembled the touching emblems of bereavement; flags at half- 
mast were edged with crape, and heavy with the sign of sorrow. 
In door-ways, in Avindows, on roofs, on temporary staging provided 
for the occasion, and along the side-walks of the streets assigned 
to the procession were thousands of people who came to look upon 
the coffin, if they might see no more. At length, amid the firing of 
minute guns and the sad tolling of bells the coffin was borne into 



32 PATEIOTIBM OF M.I.IN 

the Court-House and placed upon a massive dais. In the evening 
it was opened and all through the afternoon, night, and the next 
day passed the line of citizens Looking with sadness indescribable 
upon the dead mail's face. 

At 9.80 on the nighl ofMaj 2d, the funeral train Lefl the depot of 
the Chicago, Aliun and St. Louis railway, <>n its lasl stage. It was 
to bearthe pure chieftain through the prairies he had bo much Loved 
to his final resting-place. He wasgoing back f<> his old borne and 
his oldfriends. It was th • beginning <>i' the end. Said a Chi 
paper : 

" From the Capitol of the nation where he had so ably and faith- 
fully guided the republic in its trial hours, through the great East- 
em cities, their thronging thousands bowed down in anguish, \ 
ward through the capitals ofthe great Btates of the Ohio valley, the 
mourning increasing in intensity and depth of feeling, at lasl to 
Chicago, the city that he loved and thai loved him so well, received 
with a solemn magnificence of pageantry and funeral pomp unexcell- 
ed anywhere on the route. Arch and festoon, the black for sorrow 
and the white for hope, the old flag waving at half-mast that a week 
before was flying to the breeze in honor of victory ; tolling of bell 
and booming of minute gun; solemn dirges wailing upon the air, 
and thousands of silent men and women and children standing upon 
the walks with bared heads and reverential mien as the great dead 
passed by, receiving in their hearts the powerful impressions and in- 
fluences inspired by the presence of these sacred ashes." 

" At 9 o'clock on the morning of the 4th the train arrived. Two 
hours it had been preceded by a special train bearing a committee 
of one hundred citizens of Chicago. When that party reached 
Springfield it found already the depot and grounds adjacent 
crowded with sad, decorous people. The 14Gth Illinois Volunteers, 
under Col. Dean, was stationed in close order up Jefferson street 
and kept that broad avenue clear. 

"When the cortege arrived the procession was formed and moved 
to the State House, and after a preliminary survey by General 
Hooker, the coffin was removed to it. The general decorations of 
the Representatives' Hall and the description of the catafalque can- 
not be given . in detail. The latter was designed by Colonel 



AT SPRINGFIELD. 33 

A. Schwartz, late of General McClernand's staff, Mr. Wright, 
an artist of Springfield, and Dr. French of the same city. In its 
general tone, harmony, and relief of colors it was very artis- 
tic and admirable in conception, although the dingy contracted 
chamber in which it was placed detracted greatly from its . effect. 
The painful contrast of black and white was relieved both : in the 
inner surface of the canopy and the background against which it 
was thrown. The former was covered with white crape, over a 
ground of blue, and spangled with silver stars, giving it the general 
effect of the sky immediately after twilight; the background was in 
the light tints of red, white and blue, radiating as from a sun and 
representing the national colors, in harmony with the tones of the 
picture of Washington resting against it and brightening up the 
gloom of the chamber. The decorations of the catafalque canopy 
and dais were all in good taste and harmony with the mournful oc- 
casion. The portrait of Washington was a copy of the well-known 
Stuart, and, by an odd conceit of the artist, was gaily trimmed with 
green and white intending to portray the joy of the Father of his 
Country at meeting in the other world the Savior of the Republic. 
Whatever may be thought of the idea intended to be conveyed, the 
contrast with the general tone of the catafalque and surroundings 
was very violent, and was the only defect visible in the arrange- 
ments for the reception of the remains. The materials of which 
the catafalque was composed were all of the richest description. 
The decorations of the gallery were neat and appropriate, and the 
crossed sprays of laurel in the panels in excellent taste. The 
mournful prophetic extract from the late President's speech at Phil- 
adelphia, ' Rather than surrender these principles, I would prefer 
to be assassinated on the spot,' inscribed around the gallery, had a 
terrible significance in that sacred spot and in the presence of the 
great dead. Those principles were not surrendered. Acted upon 
up to the very syllable, not one scintilla of right yielded, firmly, 
prudently but inflexibly keeping the Ship of State straight on in the 
course of freedom and humanity, following only the lights of the 
Constitution and the law, he was struck down at the helm while the 
old ship was entering the calm harbor of peace. Conspirators had 
skulked into the hold. Slavery had watched its opportunity, and 
3 



34 PATBIOTISM Of [LLQfOIS. 

struck the foul blow thai to the latesl syllable of recorded time Bhall 
crown the assassin with Infamy. 

"The mourning decorations of the exterior of the State-House 
were marked by an excellent tasta The building itself most cer- 
tainly presents Little architectural beauty, and can Lay no more 
claims to Btateliness or elegance of finish than an ordinary ware- 
house ; but, draped in the symbols of mourning, it assumed an ap- 
pearance of solemnity, and, contrasted with the remainder of the 
city, had a somewhat imposing effect. The natural appearanoe of 
the grounds hightened this. Vegetation is much further advanced 
here than in Chicago, and the verdure in the grounds was beautiful. 
The trees were in full leaf, the flowers in blossom, and the plats of 
grass seemed beds of pure emerald. The hemisphere of the dome 
was covered with black and white streamers, looped at the center 
with rosettes. The main portion of the lower section was com- 
pletely encircled with black and white, and the outside pillars were 
connected with crossed bands. The main columns of the Capitol 
were completely swathed with evergreens, and at all the windows 
were heavy mourning curtains, looped at the sides with scalloped 
cornices, imparting to the building a very somber and funereal 
aspect." 

The city wore signs of mourning throughout. The Old Home 
of Mr. Lincoln called about it thousands of visitors. Says the cor- 
respondent of one of the daily papers : 

" With the appearance of the house which has now become historic, 
all are familiar. Plain, unpretending and substantial, it is the type 
of Mr. Lincoln's character. The shrubbery in front of the house, 
principally rosebushes, many of them planted by Mr. Lincoln's own 
hand, are in full leaf, and a beautiful rose-vine clambers up one of 
the door-posts and trails over the cornice. Lilies are sprinkled 
here and there, and closely shaven trim grass plats ran down to the 
neat picket fence surmounting the wall. The columns of the piazza 
at the rear of the bouse are also twined with vines and creepers, and 
the apple trees between the house and the barns showered the 
ground with the pink and white of the blossoms, and filled the air 
with fragrance. The house, which is now occupied by Lucien Til- 
ton, Esq., was very heavily draped in mourning. The windows 



AT SPRINGFIELD. 35 

were curtained with black and white, the corner posts wreathed with 
evergreens,the cornice hidden by festoons of black and white looped 
up at intervals, and the space between the cornice of the door and 
the central window filled with the American flag gracefully trimmed. 
There is little of the furniture in the house which belonged to Mr. 
Lincoln. In the front parlor is a what-not and a small marble-top- 
ped table on which was lying a beautiful cross of white camelias. 
In the back parlor, which he was accustomed to use as his study, 
is his book-case. This was his favorite room, and here he toiled and 
wrote, unconsciously preparing himself for the great mission he was 
to fulfill. Idle the pen ! closed the book ! departed the writer ! 
The mission is fulfilled. Dropped the curtain ! out the lights ! for 
the drama is over, but the great thoughts and the great deeds that 
pervaded it are immortal. A heavy oaken bedstead and a chamber- 
set conclude the relics." 

For twenty-four hours the people passed in a ceaseless line by 
the coffin, only pausing when the hour came to close the lid. The 
arrangements of the funeral were held in abeyance and somewhat 
disturbed by a difference of opinion as to the place of the tomb, final- 
ly adjusted in favor of Oak Ridge. It was on the 4th, the day was 
oppressively hot, and the walk one of wearisome length, yet an im- 
mense throng preceded, accompanied and followed the procession. 
The commanding officer was Major-General Joseph Hooker. 

The cemetery is naturally one of much beauty, though at that 
time comparatively unimproved. It is on two curving ridges, 
between which flows a winding brook. Entering, and passing about 
midway, was reached the vault, a simple lime-stone structure with 
Doric columns. The floor was covered with cedar boughs. In front 
were the escort and official delegations. Immediately before the 
entrance were General Hooker, General Townsend, Admiral Davis 
and other officers of note. The platform for the speakers was by 
some strange oversight left uncovered, exposed to the sun. Beside 
the coffin of the President was also that of " Willie." Among the 
mourners were his two surviving sons. After singing Rev. A. Hale 
offered prayer. The oration was delivered by Rev. Bishop Matthew 
Simpson, for whom, as a preacher, the deceased President had en- 
tertained the highest regard. It was delivered without manuscript 



36 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

or notes of any kind, and was a noble, impassioned tribute to the 
worth of the departed. He said : 

M How different the occasion which witnessed his departure from 
that which witnessed his return ! Doubtless you expected to take 
him by the hand, and to feel the warm grasp which you had felt in 
other days, and to see the tall form walking among yon which you 
had delighted to honor in years past. But he was never permitted 
to come until he came with lips mute and silent, the frame eneoffin- 
ed, and a weeping nation following as his mourners. Such a scene 
as his return to you was never witnessed. Among the events of 
history there have been great ju-ocessions of mourners. There was 
one for the patriarch Jacob, which went up from Egypt, and the 
Egyptians wondered at the evidences of reverence and filial affec- 
tion which came from the hearts of the Israelites. There was 
mourning when Moses fell upon the bights of Pisgah, and was hid 
from human view. There have been mournings in the kingdoms of 
the earth when kings and warriors have fallen. But never was there 
in the history of man such mourning as that which has accompanied 
this funeral procession, and has gathered around the mortal remains 
of him who was our loved one, and who now sleeps among us. If 
we glance at the procession which followed him, we see how 
the nation stood aghast. Tears filled the eyes of manly, sunburnt 
faces. Strongmen, as they clasped the hands of their friends, were 
not able in words to find vent for their grief. Women and little 
children caught up the tidings as they ran through the land, and 
were melted into tears. The nation stood still. Men left their 
plows in the fields and asked what the end should be. The hum of 
manufactories ceased, and the sound of the hammer was not heard. 
Busy merchants closed their doors, and in the exchange gold passed 
no more from hand to hand. Though three weeks have elapsed, the 
nation has scarcely breathed easily yet. A mournful silence is 
abroad upon the land ; nor is this mourning confined to any class or 
to any district of country. Men of all political parties, and of all 
religious creeds, have united in paying this mournful tribute. The 
Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church in New York and a Pro- 
testant minister walked side by side in the sad procession, and a 
Jewish Rabbi performed a part of the solemn services. 



bishop Simpson's okation. 37 

" Here are gathered around his tomb the representatives of the 
army and navy, senators, judges, governors and officers of all the 
branches of the government. Here, too, are members of civic pro- 
cessions, with men and women, from the humblest as well as the 
highest occupations. Here and there, too, are tears as sincere and 
warm as any that drop, which come from the eyes of those whose 
kindred and whose race have been freed from their chains by him 
whom they mourn as their deliverer. More persons have gazed on 
the face of the deceased than ever looked upon the face of any other 
departed man. More have looked on the procession for sixteen 
hundred miles, by night and by day, by sunlight, dawn, twilight 
and by torchlight, than ever before watched the progress of a pro- 
cession. 

****** * 

" But the great act of the mighty chieftain, on which his fame shall 
rest long after his frame shall moulder away, is that of giving free- 
dom to a race. We have all been taught to revere the sacred char- 
acters. Among them Moses stands pre-eminently high. He re- 
ceived the law from God, and his name is honored among the hosts 
of heaven. "Was not his greatest act the delivering of three millions 
of his kindred out of bondage ? Yet we may assert that Abraham 
Lincoln, by his proclamation, liberated more enslaved people than 
ever Moses set free, and those not of his kindred or his race. Such 
a power, or such an opportunity, God has seldom given to man. 
When other events shall have been forgotten ; when this world shall 
have become a network of republics ; when every throne shall be 
swept from the face of the earth ; when literature shall enlighten all 
minds ; when the claims of humanity shall be recognized every- 
where, this act shall still be conspicuous on the pages of history. 
We are thankful that God gave to Abraham Lincoln the decision 
and wisdom and grace to issue that proclamation, which stands high 

above all other papers which have been penned by uninspired men. 
******* 

" The time will come when, in the beautiful words of him whose 
lips are now forever sealed, ' The mystic cords of memory stretch- 
ing from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living heart 
and hearth- stone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus 



;;s 



ta n;i< > i is\r of ii.i.imus. 



of the Union, when again tonohed, as Bnrely they will be, by the 
better angels <>f our nature.' 

"Chieftain, farewell! The nation mourns thee. Mothers shall 
teach thy name t<> their lisping children. The youth of our Land 
shall emulate thy virtues. Statesmen shall study thy record and 
learn lessons of wisdom. .Mule though thy lips be, yet they still 
speak. Hushed is thy voice, but its echoes of liberty are ringing 
through the world, and the sons of bondage listen with joy. Pris- 
oned thou art in death, and yel thou art marching abroad, ami chains 
and manacles are bursting at thy touch. Thou didst fall not for 
thyself. The assassin had no hate for thee. Our hearts were aimed 
at, our national life was sought. We crown thee as our martyr, 
and humanity enthrones thee as her triumphant son. Hero, Martyr, 
Friend, Farewell !" 

Rev. Dr. Gurley read the following ode, and offered a short 
prayer, and committed " ashes to ashes, dust to dust," and the 
bodies of father and son were placed within the vault and the 
massive door closed ! 

" Rest, noble Martyr ! rest in peace : 

Rest with the true and brave, 
Who, like thee, fell in Freedom's cause, 

The nation's life to save. 

"Thy name shall live while time endures, 

And men shall say of thee, 
4 He saved his country from its foes, 

And bade the slave be free.' 

"These deeds shall be thy monument, 

Better than brass or stone ; 
They leave thy fame in glory's light, 

Unrivaled and alone. 

"This consecrated spot shall be 

To Freedom ever dear ; 
And Freedom's sons of every race 

Shall weep and worship here. 

"0 God ! before whom we, in tears, 

Our fallen Chief deplore, 
Grant that the cares for which he died 

Mav live forevermore." 



LINCOLN — HIS GEAVE ! 39 

There, in that quiet spot, in that beautiful cemetery, sleeps all that 
was mortal of the noblest man born to this country. The author 
will attempt no eulogy. Lincoln's monument is in the love of a 
saved nation, and it will lift its summit higher with each succeeding 
age. His work was finished. We may not comprehend the mys- 
tery which permitted his removal at such an hour and in such a 
way. God hideth himself wondrously, and sometimes seems to 
stand afar from his truth and his cause when most needed. 

He came to his high position Avith his great qualities half hidden 
beneath rustic manners, but as emergencies revealed the man he 
was found to have mental breadth and clearness, incorruptible in- 
tegrity, strength of will, tireless patience, humanity, preserved from 
weakness by conscientious reverence for law, ardent love of coun- 
try, confidence in the American people, and an all-regulating sense 
of responsibility to God, the King of nations. He possessed the 
power to comprehend a subject at once in the aggregate and in its 
details. His eye swept a wide horizon and descried clearly all 
within its circumference. He was a keen logician, whose apt man- 
ner of " putting things" made him more than a match for practiced 
diplomatists and wily marplots. There were men of might about 
his council-board, scholars and statesmen, but none arose to his alti- 
tude, much less was either his master. 

That very facetiousness sometimes criticised, kept him from be- 
coming morbid, and gave healthfulness to his opinions, free alike 
from fever and paralysis. That his was incorruptible integrity, no 
man dare question. He was not merely above reproach, but emi- 
nently above suspicion. Purity is receptive. " Blessed are the 
pure in heart, for they shall see God," is as profound in philosophy 
as comprehensive in theology. Purity in the realm of moral de- 
cision and motive, is a skylight to the soul, through which truth 
comes direct. Abraham Lincoln w T as so pure in motive and pur- 
pose, looked so intensely after the right that he might pursue it, that 
he saw clearly where many walked in mist. 

He made mistakes, for he was human. But it is evident he was 
the divinely chosen Moses of our deliverance, albeit he was to die 
at Pisgah and be " buried over against Bethpeor." 

In the dawning hour of peace, amid the exultations of the Union, 



40 PATRIOTISM Of ILLIHOIS. 

* 'u he slain ! As the ship which had been rocking in the waves 
and trembling before the storm was entering the harbor, a pirate 
who Bailed with the passengers, basely > 1 1 < > t tin- j.il< >t .it the wheel! 
Never assassination produced so terrible a shock. For — 

"He had borne his faculties so meek, had been 
So clear in his great office, that his virtues 
Do plead like angels, tnunpet-tongued, against 
The deep damnation of Lis taking ofl'.'' 

One more impressive pageant was to commemorate Ins virtues. 
By order of Congress, the 12th of February, 1866, was observed hy 
the National authorities and both Houses as commemorative of Mr. 

Lincoln. 

The hall was richly draped; mourning festoons had been ar- 
ranged around the speaker's tabic and the " American flag" hung 
just above and encircled the old clock which has noted time there 
since the days of Clay and Webster. 

An observer in the gallery thus wrote : " Twelve o'clock, and 
Speaker Colfax called the House to order, and prayer was of- 
fered by Dr. Boynton, Chaplain of the House of Representatives, 
at the conclusion of which a letter was laid before the House by the 
Speaker, from Hon. W. H. Seward, Secretary of State, expressing 
his regrets that the state of his health forbade his participating in 
the ceremonies of the occasion. 

"At ten minutes past 12 the Senate of the United States was an- 
nounced, which entered in a body, preceded by the Sergeant-at- 
Arms, and headed by Hon. Lafayette S. Foster, Vice-President of 
the United States, pro tempore, and was received by the House 
standing. 

"Five minutes later the President of the United States and Cabi- 
net were announced. President Johnson entered arm-in-arm with 
Hon. Solomon Foote, Chairman of the Joint Committee of Ar- 
rangements on the part of the Senate, followed by Hon. George 
Bancroft, orator of the day, Senator Doolittle and the Cabinet. The 
President and Cabinet were seated immediately in front of the 
Speaker's table. Mr. Bancroft was conducted to his seat at the 
table of the Speaker of the House, and Hon. Solomon Foote seated 
at his right and Hon. E. B. Washburne at his left. Acting Vice- 



BANCROFT S ORATION. 41 

President Foote and Speaker Colfax also had seats at the Speaker's 
table. 

" Chief Justice Chase with the associate justices of the Supreme 
Court of the United States entered in full official robes of black 
and were seated to the left of the President and Cabinet. 

" Le Miserere from ' II Trovatore' was executed by the Mamie 
Band. Again we bowed our heads in prayer which was most fer- 
vently offered by Rev. Dr. Boynton. 

" Vice-President Foster arose and after a few impressive introduc- 
tory remarks, introduced the Hon. George Bancroft. 

" His oration was a masterly production. He reviewed the history 
of our Republic from its 'earliest period, showing the influence 
which slavery has exerted in our national polity until it culminated 
in rebellion and the murder of our illustrious chief. He gave a 
scorching review of the Dred Scott decision, which will fasten upon 
it fresh opprobrium. His history of the early life and career of Mr. 
Lincoln was graphic and touching. He gave a just and discrimi- 
nating analysis of his character and prominence to the leading 
events of his administration. Portions of his address were re- 
ceived with great applause. The names of Cobden and Bright 
were heartily cheered. 

" The whole oration does justice not only to the lamented dead, 
but to the orator and the peoplfe for whom he has so nobly spoken." 

Nemesis marked the murderers. Large rewards were offered for 
their capture. Payne, the wretch who attempted Mr. Seward's 
murder was first arrested. Boothe, and his associate Harrold were 
traced through the counties of Prince George, Charles and St. Mary 
in Maryland, across the Potomac into King George and Caroline in 
Virginia. They passed the Rappahannock at Port Conway, and 
advanced some distance toward Bowling Green. Some colored men 
and a paroled rebel prisoner gave information which put the pur- 
suers directly on their path, and they were tracked and brought to 
bay on the morning of April 26th, in a barn on the place of Mr. Gar- 
rett. Harrold surrendered. Boothe was defiant and desperate, and 
Boston Corbett shot him. He lingered some hours in intense pain 
and died. It came out that as he leaped from the box of the theater, 
and fell upon the stage, he fractured a small bone. Thus, unable to 



4:2 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

halt for treatment, he was driven to bay — smoked oat like a wild 
beast and shot like a hyena where lie stood ! He was not permitted 
to put on heroic parade and play the orator on the scaffold, but by 
swift and terrible retribution was sent to his account. 

Azterodt, O'Laughlin, Spangler, Dr. Mudd, Arnold and Mrs. Sur- 
ratt were arrested. On the 8th of May a Military Commission was 
convened and these parties brought to trial. Ilarrold, Azterodt, 
Payne and Mrs. Surratt were sentenced to be hanged, and the Ex- 
ecutive order carried the sentence into effect July 7th. O'Langhlin, 
Arnold and Dr. Mudd were sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor 
for life, and Spangler for six years. 

So falls the curtain upon this terrible tragedy. 



CHAPTER II. 

BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 

Action of Washington Authorities — Rosecrans' Advance — Bragg Occupies Chat- 
tanooga — Stanley's Advance — Successes — Plan of Federal Campaign — Burn- 
side's Column Reaches Knoxville — Orders — Rosecrans Reaches Chattanooga 
— Bragg Evacuates the City — Pursuit — Orders to Hurlbut, Grant, Sherman, 
Pope and Schofield for Reinforcements — Bragg at Lafayette — Cavalry Raids 
— Added Rebel Forces — Rosecrans Mistaken — His Line — Chickamauga Creek — 
Negley — Position — Bragg Waits — The 17th — Change of Federal Lines — 18th, 
Order of Battle — Saturday the 19th — Minty and Wilder — Our Line — Battle 
Opens — No Decisive Results — Night — Changed Order — Rebel Order — Sabbath 
the 20th — Battle Opens — The Fourteenth Army Corps — Desperate Fighting — 
Order to Wood — Our Army Broken in Two — Is the Day Lost ? " Rock of 
Chickamauga" — Thomas' New Position — Carnival of Death — Position Held — 
A Gap Discovered — Granger in Time — Halleck's Report — Day Saved ! — Losses 
— Effect on the Two Commanders — Burnside — Knoxville — Siege Raised — Illi- 
nois Soldiers. 

THE record of the campaigns which succeeded Vicksburg and 
Gettysburg must be brief. In the "West, Illinois was repre- 
sented on every field. At Chickamauga a sanguinary battle was 
fought, and while the hero*of Stone River lost his laurels, his wily 
competitor also came into disgrace — Rosecrans defeated, held the 
field ; Bragg successful, was compelled to retreat. 

In June, 1863, the authorities at Washington were convinced that 
Bragg's army was being weakened to strengthen Lee, and urged 
Rosecrans to bring on a contest with him, and destroy or drive him 
back into Georgia. The General, with his associates, hesitated on 
the grounds of a deficiency in cavalry, and the importance of fio-ht- 
ing near his base — Murfreesboro. Nevertheless he commenced on 
tho 25th a series of maneuvers, which, without a great battle, com- 



I I ]> \ I EUOTim <»F ILLINOIS. 

pelled Bragg to abandon Middle Tennessee, and retreat upon Chat- 
tanooga. General Stanley occupied Shelbyville, and, leaving it in 
command of General Granger, moved forward to Huntsville. 

In these preliminary movements, the Federal bucgobb w ai marked ; 
1,034 rebel prisoners were captured, with six pieces of artillery and 
a large amounl of Btores. Bragg reached Chattanooga and Btrongly 
fortified his position on the south side of the Tennessee River, as 
far up as Blythe's Ferry. 

A grand campaign was designed. Rosecrans with the main col- 
umn was to move on Chattanooga from Tullahoma and Winchester, 
while the Army of the Ohio, under Burnside, should move from 
Lexington, Kentucky, via Knoxville. Bosecrans marching almost 
due east about eighty miles, Burnside south about two hundred. 
Burnside moved August 21st, and reached Knoxville on the 3d of 
September, which surrendered unconditionally on the 9th, with 2,000 
prisoners, fourteen pieces of artillery, with military stores. 

Burnside telegraphed that lie held Cumberland Gap with all of 
East Tennessee above Loudon, with the gaps of the mountains of 
North Carolina, and was directed by General Halleck, to concen- 
trate the principal portion of his victorious legions on the Tennessee, 
west from Loudon, to co-operate with Kosecrans, who was to " oc- 
cupy Dal ton or some point on the railroad, to close all access from 
Atlanta, and also the mountain passes in the West." — [Ilalleck's 
Order, September 11, 18G3. 

Rosecrans advanced on Chattanooga, and found it too strong to 
be carried by assault, and by a series of masterly maneuvers com- 
pelled Bragg to abandon his strong Jiold and retreat, and the federal 
left wing entered the city. Bragg retreated toward Clenland and 
Dalton, important points on the triangle of the Western and Atlan- 
tic Railway. 

Rosecrans pushed on in pursuit, and the authorities at Washing- 
ton fearing Bragg was being reinforced by the flower of Lee's army 
telegraphed on the 13th of September to General Hurlbut at Mem- 
phis, to leave Steel to defend himself and send all his available 
strength to Corinth and Tuscumbia, to aid Rosecrans, and in the 
event that Bragg should attempt to turn the Federal right and re- 
cross the river into Tennessee Hurlbut was to send to Sherman for 



THE POSITION. 45 

help. Generals Grant and Sherman were also telegraphed atVicks- 
burg with similar directions. On the 14th, Hurlbut and Burnside 
were directed to hurry forward reinforcements with all possible 
speed. And similar orders were given to General Pope, in com- 
mand of the Northwest, and General Schofield, of Missouri. 

On the 14th, the enemy was concentrated near Lafayette, Geor- 
gia. By repeated cavalry raids he had threatened the severance of 
Rosecrans from his supplies and to thrust the rebel wedge between 
him and Burnside, but was in fact awaiting reinforcements, which 
were reaching him. Johnston's troops from Mississippi, and the 
men captured at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, and with the usual 
rebel candor declared exchanged, were there, and Bragg only 
awaited the arrival of Longstreet with his veteran corps, when he 
meant to avenge, amid Georgian mountains, his army for its defeat 
at Stone River. General Rosecrans, deceived by the easy capture 
of Chattanooga, into the belief that Bragg was demoralized was 
pressing on to capture him with his whole army. His line stretched 
from Gordon's Mills to Alpine — forty miles — occupying the passes 
of Lookout Mountain. On Wednesday, the 16th, he concentrated on 
West Chickamauga Creek, about ten miles northwest from Lafay- 
ette, Georgia, with headquarters at Crawfish Spring. 

The strength of the rebel force began to be felt when General 
Thomas directed Negley to debouch through a pass of Pigeon 
Mountain and at the moment met so staunch a resistance as to com- 
pel a hasty retreat. This caused the Federal leaders to consider 
whether Bragg meant to fight or to secure his retreat, and they decid- 
ed that he meant battle. McCook was next day moving back on 
Lookout Mountain, with orders to close on the center, while Critten- 
den, at Gordon's Mills, placed his corps in good position for defense. 

Rosecrpns held the ground west of the creek, the left on Gordon's 
Mills, while Bragg was east of the stream, with a position favorable 
for masked movements. Had he hurled his legions on Rosecrans 
immediately after Negley's repulse he would have crushed him. 
McCook and Thomas were separated nearly three days' march; 
Crittenden could send no help to Thomas without exposing Chatta- 
nooga and Thomas could not go to Crittenden without leaving Mc- 
Cook at the mercy of the rebel force. But Bragg waited, and, on 



4G PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

the 17th, MoCook brought his dusty, travel-worn men to Thomas 
and they were placed in order of battle. Reconnoissanoes on the 
18th convinced onr leaders that Bragg was reinforced by the arri- 
val of a portion, at least,, of Longstreet's corps, and that he was 
massing his forces in front of our left center and left wing with the 
purpose of a movement which would place them between the Fed- 
eral army and Chattanooga. Rosecrans ordered a counter-move- 
ment by the left flank, wheeling his army and placing it down the 
creek. During the night of the 18th, the 14th Army Corps (Thomas') 
forming the center, with Johnson's division of MeCook's corps, 
swung to the left, past Crittenden's (21st) corps, becoming the left 
and making the 21st the center of the army. Davis and 9heridan's 
division of MeCook's corps were to move into the position occupied 
by the 14th corps, but had not fully occupied it before the bursting 
of the battle on the morning of Saturday, the 19th. On the after- 
noon of the 18th, Colonels Minty and Wilder, watching the Ring- 
gold road crossing, withstood gallantly a severe attack from the 
enemy's left, but were compelled to retreat. 

On the morning of the 19th, the Federal battle-line extended along 
the Rossville and Lafayette roads, north and south, the right on 
Gordon's Mills, the left at Kelly's House. On the extreme left was 
Brannan, next Baird and Reynolds, with Johnson in the center as 
reserve; Palmer, with his iron men, was on the right of Reynolds, 
VanCleve was next him, and upon his right, reaching to the Mills, 
was the command of Wood. Negley, four miles south, held Owen's 
Gap. Davis and Sheridan were south of Negley, moving to the old 
position of the 14th Army Corps. General Granger held the re- 
serve on Rossville road, covering the approach from Ringgold. 

At 10 A. M. the battle opened on the Federal extreme left, and 
was continued until night-fall, being a struggle for position on the 
Chattanooga road. It was without decisive results. 

That night changes were made in both armies, preparatory to the 
terrible contest of Sunday, the 20th. The Federal line was short- 
ened about a mile, the right resting upon a strong position at Mission 
Ridge, Thomas still holding the left, Crittenden the center, McCook 
the right. 

The rebel commander divided his army into two wings. Lieute::- 



THE BATTLE CRASH. 47 

ant-General Polk commanding tlie right, while the left was assigned 
to Lieutenant-General Longstreet, who arrived at 11 o'clock on the 
night of the 19th. From right to left the rebel army was under 
Breckenridge, Cleburn, Cheatham, Stewart, Hood, Hindman and 
Preston. Brass's order was to begin the engagement on the right 
and bring in engagement after engagement until all were hurled 
upon the Federal troops, and Lieutenant- General Polk was 
ordered to open the engagement at day-break, but from a derange- 
ment of his plans, that officer could not do so until 9 A. M., when 
Breckenridge and Cleburn assailed General Thomas. His men hold- 
ing a high point, the key of the position, had constructed a rude de- 
fense of rails and logs. Onward came the gray-clad legions and 
were dashed backward. Again and yet again the brigades advanced 
en echelon, maddened to desperation, but melted like frost-work 
before the Union fire. The rebel force was massed for a final charge. 
Thomas rode along his torn line and steadied it. With a force of 
heavy artillery the rebel army came on — the Union men stood firm — 
Palmer and Van Cleve were not to be easily crushed, and their brave 
men stood against that overwhelming assault until they looked their 
foemen in the very eyes. For more than two hours the key was 
held, but they were at length compelled to yield. 

As Thomas stood like a lion at bay, General Longstreet had 
brought his veterans to the contest, and our out-numbered men were 
in sore peril. Rosecrans began moving troops rapidly from left to 
right. Thomas, compelled to fall back, had formed a new position, 
and was holding it and sent for help. Reynolds was sorely pressed, 
and General Rosecrans issued an order to Wood, concerning which 
there has been much dispute. The commanding General reports 
that it was to " close up on General Reynolds." General Wood 
supposed he was to march by the left flank, pass General Brannan 
and go to the relief of Reynolds, and that Davis and Sheridan 
would shift to the left and close up the line. Wood says Brannan's 
line was between him and Reynolds. The movement opened a 
wide gap in our line of battle, and Longstreet ordered Buckner with 
twelve pieces of artillery to press into it. The order was instantly 
obeyed ; on came the rebels, striking Davis' division in flank and 
rear, throwing it into confusion, and causing it severe loss of men. 



4r» r.YTKloTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

VanCleve'a and Palmer's divisions were struck with equal violence 

on the right, and thrown into disorder. The army was cut in twain, 

the right and renter w<re routed, and the day seemed hopelessly 

lost. 

But now Thomas won that title, " The Root of Chickamanga." 

The rout had carried the right and center, witli Rosecrans, 
M sCook and Crittenden, hack to Chickamauga. Thomas learned 
the situation from General Garfield, Chief-of-Staff, who made his 

way, somehow, through the carnage. lie had formed his line cres- 
cent shaped, on Missionary Ridge, the right at ihc Gap, the left on 
the Lafayette road, a southeast hill at the center forming the key. 
He formed his brave, bleeding men, with fragments from Sheridan's 
and other divisions, fronted the Ridge with artillery and waited the 
coming of Longstreet, who had been the resistless Achilles of the 
day, and had described a circle of victory, and stood facing his men 
as at day-break. Kershaw, of Law's division, was ordered to attack 
the Ridge and did so gallantly but was repulsed. The attack was 
renewed, and the attacking columns made repeated assaults, but 
were swept by the fire of our strong positions. At half-past three 
Longstreet ascertained there was a gap in the hills and through this 
poured his legions and the early disaster of the day was about to be 
repeated. 

But Granger came with the reserve. The God of battles held 
that forlorn hope of the Union army in his hand. Stead man's Cav- 
alry Brigade burst upon Longstreet's force. General Hal leek thus 
tells the story: "In the words of General Rosed-ans 1 report, 'swift 
was the charge, and terrible was the conflict, but the enemy was 
broken.' A thousand of our brave men killed and wounded paid 
for its possession, but we held the Gap. Two divisions of Long- 
street's corps confronted the position. Determined to take it, they 
successively came to the assault. A battery of six guns, placed in 
the gorge* poured death and slaughter into them. They charged 
within a few yards of the pieecs, but our grape and canister, and 
the leaden hail of musketry, delivered in sparing but terrible volleys 
from cartridges taken in many instances from the boxes of their fal- 
len companions, was too much even for Longstreet's men. About 

*Add to the above a cavalry loss of 1,000 — totaL 16,851, with 36 guns. 20 
caissons, 8,550 small arms, 5,831 infantry accoutrements. 



UNION LOSS. 49 

sunset they made their last charge, when our men, being out of 
ammunition, moved on them with the bayonet, and they gave way to 
return no more. In the meantime the enemy made repeated 
attempts to carry General Thomas' position on the left and front, 
but were as often thrown back with great loss. At night-fall the 
enemy fell back, leaving General Thomas victorious on his hard- 
fought field." 

The defeat of the day was saved by the victory of the evening. 
Our army had been broken, but remained upon the field. The ene- 
my vauntingly announced a great victory, and yet was not able to 
remain upon the ground. 

But it is useless to deny that we had been severely smitten. Rose- 
crans had failed in his plans ; the enemy had broken his battle 
array ; he was pressed back into Chattanooga, but Thomas with his 
brave associates plucked victory out of the jaws of defeat. Thomas 
was from thence enrolled among the great generals of the army. 

During the night Thomas fell back to Rossville, where on the 21st 
he offered battle, which was declined by the rebel foe, and on the 
night of that day, he withdrew into the defences of Chattanooga. 

The Union loss was reported as follows : 

THOMAS' FOURTEENTH CORPS. 

Officers. Men. Total. 

Killed 36 635 671 

Wounded 206 3,277 3,503 

Missing 127 2,000 2,127 



Total 369 5,932 6,301 

mccook's second corps. 

Killed 40 363 403 

Wounded 168 2,367 2,535 

Missing 77 1,503 1,580 



Total 285 4,233 4,518 

Crittenden's twenty-first corps. 

Killed 39 296 235 

Wounded 131 2,157 936 

Missing 22 655 561 



Total 129 1,603 1,732 

4 



50 patriotism of [llinoi8. 

gbangeb's reserve corps. 

Killed. 1G 219 235 

Wounded 59 877 936 

Missing 280 50? 561 

Total 355 ' 1,603 1,732 

TOTAL. 

Killed 131 1,531 1,644 

Wounded 564 8,698 9,262 

Missing 280 4,665 4,945 

Total 975 14,866 15,851* 

It was a bloody battle. Rosecrans lost both fame and position, 
and Bragg, by failing to follow up the victory he claimed, completed 
the overthrow of his reputation, which had been tottering since the 
battle of Stone River. He lost at Chickamanga some 18,000. After 
our forces retired into Chattanooga, he took possession of the 
passes of Lookout Mountain. 

Burnside failed to reach Rosecrans, and Bragg sent Longstreet to 
crush him. The Union General knew his antagonist, and evacuating 
Loudon, fell back to Lenoirs, and concentrating his forces, advanced 
on Loudon, and drew the rebel force two miles, but learning that the 
principal rebel army was advancing upon him, again fell back. He 
was overtaken at Campbell's Station and forced to give battle to a 
vastly superior force, which he held in check until night-fall, when he 
resumed his retreat, which was conducted in admirable order, and 
entered Knoxville November 17th, and was besieged by Longstreet, 
who coolly sat down to starve out the Federal force, and remained 
until Sherman was sent by General Grant to relieve Burnside, when 
he raised the siege and retreated to Virginia, Burnside in turn be- 
coming pursuer, but not securing any general engagement. 

The share of Illinois soldiers in the strife of Chickamanga was 
not small. There was a large number of regiments trained to the 
stern music of Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh and Murfreesboro, and 
they proved themselves worthy of their record. They bore their 
eagles gallantly, and braved peril and death. Both officers and men 
proved themselves worthy compeers of the best and bravest. They 
were very soon to aid in retrieving the disasters of that field, 
t > break the power of the rebel army in the West, and to bear their 
tattered banners from the mountain to the sea. 



TURCHIN — REGIMENTS. 51 

One of the most gallant feats of the battle was a headlong charge 
made by General Turchin at the head of his brigade. His impetu- 
osity carried him far into the rebel lines, and he was almost instantly 
surrounded by the rebel hordes, but the stout old Russian had no 
thought of surrendering. He turned and cut his way through and 
reached our lines, actually bringing with him three hundred prisoners. 

Major Wall, of the 25th Illinois, who was dangerously wounded, 
displayed the most signal bravery, and was subsequently promoted 
to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, for meritorious services in this battle. 

Thirty-three graves of rebels were found near a stone fence, from 
behind which, the 19th and 24th Illinois poured upon the advancing 
rebels such terrible volleys. 

The 51st Illinois captured the battle flag of the 24th Alabama, and 
the major of the regiment who was trying to rally it. 

The following Illinois regiments were in the battle of Chicka- 
mauga: 10th, Colonel Chilson ; 16th, Colonel R. F. Smith; 19th, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Raffin; 21st, Colonel Alexander; 22d, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Swanwick; 24th, Colonel Mihalotzy; 25th, Colonel 
Nodine; 27th, Colonel Miles; 34th, Lieutenant-Colonel VanTassel; 
35th, Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler; 36th, Colonel Miller ; 38th, 
Colonel Gilmer; 42d, Colonel Walworth; 44th, Colonel Barrett; 
73d, Colonel Jacques; 74th, Colonel Marsh; 75th, Colonel Bennett; 
78th, Lieutenant- Colonel VanBleek ; 79th, Colonel Buckner; 80th, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers ; 84th, Colonel Waters ; 85th, Colonel 
Dilwortk ; 86th Lieutenant-Colonel Magee ; 88th, Colonel Sherman ; 
89tb, Colonel Hotchkiss; 98th, Colonel Funkhauser ; 100th, Colonel 
Bartleson ; 104th, Lieutenant-Colonel Hopeman ; 110th, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Topping; 123d, Colonel Monroe; 125th, Colonel Harmon ; 
129th, Colonel Case ; 1st Artillery, Company C, Captain Prescott. 

It is an illustrious group, some of which we have met under fire 
on other fields, and who were destined to other deeds of daring at 
Lookout, Mission Ridge, Franklin and Nashville, and march w r ith 
Sherman from the rocky face of the Ridge to Atlanta and on to 
the sea. 

And in this list of commanders are names of men whom Illinois 
can never forget. Soon were Chandler and Mihalotzy, and others, 
to strike their last blow and fie down in the soldiers grave. 



52 PATEI0TI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

The state mourned her gallant dead. Her Sanitary and Christian 
Commissions poshed forward supplies, nurses and spiritual laborers, 
and fr< m the north line to the south, fr<>m the Indiana line to the 
Mississippi, came the cryj " No concessions to rebellion, but new 
and vigorous measures for the maintenance of the Union, the Laws, 
and the Constitution." 

General Rosecrans pronounced the battle a necessity, and so the 
people of Illinois accepted it. They had put their hand to the plow 
and would not look back until the furrow was cut (Iran through. 
They saw that new trials were before them, new burdens were to be 
borne, and were equal to the occasion. Their faith and courage rose 
to the morally sublime. They had their bereavements — Cbicka- 
mauga was to many of them indeed the river of death — but with 
unfaltering purpose to save the country, they demanded that room 
be made for new levies and then turned their eye toward the hero of 
Vicksburg, as the leader for the crisis. 

The government was dejected, and heavily pressed on the heart 
of our President the fearful loss of the brave men who fell, and the 
necessary prolongation of the contest, but the people, incorruptible 
and unconquerable, from their homes, their family altars, their tem- 
ples, spoke to the government and steadied its half desponding faith 
with the word, Onward ! 




ALL?i\ LHG3 






CHAPTER III. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

Tire Twenty-seventh — General N. B. Buford — The Thirty-eighth — The Forty- 
second — Heavy Loss at Chickamauga — The Sixty-sixth — Birge's Sharpshooters 
— The Seventy-eighth — At Chickamauga — The Eighty-eighth — Colonel Francis 
T. Sherman — The Ninety-sixth — Brevet Brigadier-General Thomas E. Champion 
— Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac L. Clark — Major JohnC. Smith — The One Hundred 
and Fourth — The One Hundred and Twenty-fifth — Death of Chaplaln Sanders 
— Colonel 0. F. Habmon 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

THE 27th regiment was raised in the counties of Adams, Scott, 
Pike, Madison, Jersey, Mason, Macoupin, Mercer, Jackson, 
Henry and Morgan. It was organized at Camp Butler, where it was 
mustered into the service on the 10th of August, 1861. The follow- 
ing is the original roster : 

Colonel, Napoleon B. Buford; Lieutenant-Colonel, Fazillo A. Harrington; Major, 
Hall Wilson ; Adjutant, Henry A. Rust; Quartermaster, David B. Sears; Surgeon, 
Edward H. Bowman; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Henry C. Barrell ; Chaplain, S. Young 
McMasters. 

Co. A — Captain, William A. Schmitt ; 1st Lieutenant, William Shipley; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Voellinger. 

Co. B — Captain, Henry W. Hitt; 1st Lieutenant, George A. Dunlap; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James M. Buchanan. 

Co. C — Captain, Lemuel Parke ; 1st Lieutenant, Lyman G. Allen ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Laommi F. Williams. 

Co. D — Captain, William M. Hart; 1st Lieutenant, Robert R. Murphy; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John W. Brock. 

Co. E — Captain, Robert S. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Stout; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Royal W. Porter. 

Co. F — Captain, Jonathan R. Miles; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas C. Meatyard ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Orson Hewitt. 

Co. G — Captain, Henry B. Southward; 1st Lieutenant, Simeon Sheldon; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert P. Lytle. 



54: PATRIOTISM OT ILLINOIS. 

Co. II — Captain, licHenrj Brooks; ls1 Lieutenant, Frederick C. Biercr; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Daniel Worthen. 

Co. I — Captain, Joseph W. Morrill ; 1-st Lieutenant, Thomas Sumner; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John A. Russell, 

Co. K — Captain, Abraham T. Bozarth; 1st Lieutenant, Horace Chapin ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Eraatus S. Jones. 

The 27tli left for the field on the 20th of August, and arrived at 
Cairo on the 30th. On the 7th of November if was engaged in the 
battle of Belmont, [vide Vol. I., p. 182,] where it was assigned the 
post of honor, and opened the engagement. After two hours' skir- 
mishing, it was ordered hack for rest, and the balance of the 
column passed through its lines. After waiting half an hour, and 
receiving no orders, Colonel Buford led the regiment by a circuitous 
route to the rear of the enemy's camp, upon which it made three 
distinct charges over fallen timber, routing the enemy and burning 
their camp. On the retreat from Belmont, the 27th was the last to 
leave, whereby it was cut off from the main body of the Union forces. 
It then marched through a railroad cutting from the river, which it. 
again reached seven miles above Belmont, and after a five miles' 
march up the bank hailed the gunboat Tyler, and was taken on 
board. On the 4th of March, 1862, it took possession of Colum- 
bus, Ky., and on the 14th proceeded to and occupied Hickman. On 
the 31st it took part in the splendid dash made upon Union City, 
which resulted in an important, though bloodless victory. [Vol. I., 
p. 200.] It took part in the siege and capture of Island No. 10, 
and was the first regiment of Union troops on the Island. On 
the 13th of April it arrived off Fort Pillow, which place it left 
four days later for Hamburg, Tenn. In May it took part in the 
battle of Farmington and the siege of Corinth, and after the evacuation 
of the latter town by the rebels, joined in the pursuit of them, 
having a skirmish with the enemy at Booneville. During the sum- 
mer of 18G2 it was encamped at Camp Big Springs and at Iuka. 
When Bragg began his march for Kentucky and the Ohio river, the 
27th was one of the regiments which ran the race with him. On the 
12th of September it arrived at Nashville, Tenn., where for two 
months it subsisted on half rations. On the 3d of October it marched 
with a detachment to Lavergne, where a rebel camp was completely 
destroyed, many prisoners captured and the enemy routed. Late in 



THE TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 55 

November, Kosecrans 1 army arrived at Nashville, releasing the troops 
from their confinement there and re-opening communication with the 
North. The battle of Stone River was one of the best illustrations 
of the tenacity, zeal and courage with which our boys fought, and 
here the 27th bore a conspicuous part, losing, among others, its Col- 
onel, Fa/illo A. Harrington. It next participated in the Tullahoma 
campaign, and in September, 1863, distinguished itself at the battle 
of Chickaniauga, where it suffered severely. In this battle, Colonel 
Miles, commanding the regiment, had the entire hilt of his sword and 
the glasses of his field glass shot away by musket balls. The 27th 
was next engaged in the storming of Mission Ridge, after which it 
marched to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, and was in the 
East Tennessee campaign which followed. It returned to Loudon, 
Tenn., January 25, 1SG4, where it remained till April 18th, when 
it was ordered to Cleveland, Tenn., to join in the Atlanta cam- 
paign. It was engaged at Rocky Faced Ridge, May 9th ; Resaca, 
May 14th; near Calhoun, May 16th; Adairsville, May 17th; near 
Dallas, from May 26th to June 4th ; near Pine Top Mountain, 
June 10th to June 14th; Mud Creek, June 18th,- Kenesaw Mountain, 
June 27th ; Peach Tree Creek, July 20th, and in the skirmishes 
around Atlanta. On the 25th of August, 1865, it was relieve 1 
from duty at the front by order of General Thomas, and ordered 
to Springfield, 111., for muster-out. On its arrival at Springfield, it 
showed the following i-ecord of casualties : Killed or died of wounds, 
102; died of disease, 80; number of wounded, 328; discharged 
and resigned, 209. 

Among the many incidents related of the 27th, is the following: 
Soon after Colonel Buford's promotion to Brigadier-General, he 
presented the regiment a magnificent stand of colors, which the men 
said should never fall into the hands of the enemy. At the battle of 
Chickaniauga, the regiment made a charge upon a body of rebels 
protected by a stone wall. Two color bearers were shot down, when 
a third sprang on the wall, grasping the colors, when he, too, was 
killed, falling on the rebel side of the wall, where his body was 
seized by the enemy, and borne off with the colors, which the rebels 
retained as a trophy. 

General Napoleon B. Buford was born in Woodford county, Ky., 



•V> l'A'l ■|:mi [8W OF ILLINOIS. 

January 13, 1807. In 1823 he was appointed a oadel at West Point, 
through the influence of Richard M. rohnson, In 1827 he graduated 
with honor, and was commissioned Lieutenant of artillery. Re was 
for a time stationed at the School of Practice at Fortress .Monroe, 
where he employed his Leisure time in the study of the law. lie 
was next detailed to make a survey <>(' the Kentucky river, and after- 
ward of the Rock Island and Des Moines rapids, <>n the Mississippi 
river, botli of which commissions he executed with credit t'> himself 
and the service. In 1830 he joined his regiment at Eastport, M<'., 
and there resumed his legal studies, and in the following year was 
granted a leave of absence, by General Scott, that be might enter 
the Law School of Harvard University, which was then under the 
direction of Chief Justice Story. In 1833 he was appointed an 
Assistant Professor at West Point, where he remained until 1835, 
when he resigned his commission and engaged in the service of his 
native State, Kentucky, as a civil engineer. In 1843 he removed to 
Rock Island, 111., where he was successively a merchant, iron 
founder and banker. He took an active part in the building of the 
Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, of which company he was long 
one of the Directors, and was subsequently President of the Rock 
Island and Peoria Railroad. The breaking out of the rebellion 
ruined his banking business, as he had a large amount of money 
invested in Southern State bonds. He gave up all his property to 
satisfy his obligations, and then offered his services to his country. 
On the 10th of August, 18G1, he was commissioned by Governor 
Yates Colonel of the 27th Illinois Volunteers, which he thoroughly 
disciplined and prepared for service. At Belmont and Island No. 
10 he gave ample evidence of his good qualities as a soldier, and for 
his gallant conduct at Union City he was commissioned Brigadier 
General by the President. After the surrender of Island No. 10 he 
was attached to the Army of the Mississippi, and moved upon Fort 
Pillow; but the overflow rendered operations impracticable, and he 
was ordered to join General Ilalleck at Corinth, where he com- 
manded a brigade during the entire siege, taking a gallant and con- 
spicuous part. During the pursuit of the enemy, after the second bat- 
tle of Corinth, he was disabled by a sun-stroke, and borne back to 
Corinth, nearly insensible. To recover his health, so greatly impaired 



GEN. N. B. BUFORD. 57 

by the summer campaign, he was granted a ieave of absence, and 
detailed upon court martial duty at Washington, for a period of two 
months. At the termination of his duties there he was commissioned 
Major- General, and the commission was handed to him by the Seci-e- 
tary of War, in person, accompanied by words of high praise and 
commendation. The Secretary also repeated the words of President 
Lincoln, that he desired to express his appreciation of his distin- 
guished and faithful services, and sent him the commission in token 
thereof, which commission he still holds and values, although allowed 
to empire by constitutional limitation. Reporting to General Grant 
then before Vicksburg, he was by him ordered to the command of 
Cairo, where he remained during the siege of Vicksburg. From 
this command he was ordered to the district of East Arkansas, head- 
quarters at Helena, where he commanded for eighteen months, reduc- 
ing the great expenses of that command, and bringing order out of 
confusion. He also held with a strong hand the horde of speculators 
and smugglers who infested that region, and who tried in vain to 
escape his strict and impartial investigation. During his long com- 
mand in this district he devoted himself with great zeal to the best 
welfare of the freedmen and refugees ; established the only self-sup- 
porting colony of freedmen, at that time, on the river ; protected 
and encouraged the schools, and founded the first orphan asylum and 
industrial school for freed people in that Department. The result 
of his labors is still apparent in the prosperity of the asylum now 
established on a permanent foundation, and in the increasing use- 
fulness of the industrial school. Both of these institutions were 
placed by him under the care of the Quakers of Indiana, who have 
most faithfully carried out his benevolent intentions. He was 
relieved by General Alex. McD. McCook, in March, 1865, and 
honorably mustered out of the service in September. He is now 
employed as General Superintendent of the Federal Union Mining 
Company, in Colorado. 

THIRTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 38th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered 

into the service August 15, 1861. Its original roster was as follows : 

Colonel, William P. Carlin ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Mortimer O'Kean ; Major, Daniel 



58 PATRIOTISM OF n.u\0I8. 

EL Gilmer; Adjutant, Arthur Lee Bailhache ; John L. Teed; l- \ 

Surgeon, Dudley W. Stewart; 2d a.ssi9tani Surge in, Edward J. Tichener; Chaplain, 
Jacob E. Reed. 

Co. A.— Captain, EenryN. A.lden; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Alcoke; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Walter E. Carlin. 

Co. B — Captain, David Young; 1st Lieutenant, Robert M. Rankin ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Harrison Tj oer, 

Co. C — Captain, Theodore C. Roding; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Cole; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James Mullen. 

Co. D — Captain, Alexander G. Sutherland; 1st Lieutenant, James A Moore; 2d 
Lieutenant, Robert Plunkett 

Co. E — Captain, James M. True ; 1st Lieutenant, John McKinstry ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John L. Dillon. 

Co. F — Captain, James P. Head; 1st Lieutenant, William P.Hunt; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Willis G. Whitehurst. 

Co. G — Captain, Andrew M. Pollard; 1st Lieutenant, William F. Chapman; 2d 
Lieutenant, Andrew J. Rankin. 

Co. H — Captain, Charles Yelton; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham E. Goble ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles H. Miller. 

Co. I — Captain, Charles Churchill ; 1st Lieutenant, William Ferriman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Edward Colver. 

Co. K — Captain, William C. Harris; 1st Lieutenant, Bushwood W. Harris; 2d 
Lieutenant, Isaiah Foote. 

On the 20th of September, the regiment left for Pilot Knob, Mo. 
On the 20th of October it marched for Fredericktown, and on the 
21st engaged in battle at that place with the rebels under Jeff. 
Thompson. It then returned to Pilot Knob, and remained there 
during the winter. From March 3d to May 10, 1862, it was cam- 
paigning in Missouri and Arkansas, and was then transferred to the 
Department of the Mississippi, and went to Hamburg Landing, 
Tenn., moving to the front at Corinth, and participating in the last 
days of tin' siege. It then engaged in the various marches of the 
brigade in that section, till August 14th, when it set out to join the 
Army of the Ohio, under Buell, reaching Louisville September 
20th, "ragged and exhausted." It left Louisville October 1st, and 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville [Vol. I., p. 341], and 
behaved with such gallantry as to receive honorable mention from 
General Mitchell in his report. It then joined in the pursuit of 
Bragg as far as Crab Orchard, from whence it marched to Edgefield 
Junction, near Nashville, arriving November 0th. It was soon, sent 
out on a scout to Harpeth Shoals, and destroyed a large amount of 



THE THIRTY-EIGHTH INFA.NTRY. 59 

rebel property, and capturing supplies of various kinds. It left 
Nashville December 26th, and with the brigade charged a rebel 
battery at Knob Gap, near Nolensville, capturing two guns. It was 
engaged in the battle of Stone River, December 30th to January 
4th [Vol. I., p. 350], and lost heavily. It encamped at Murfrees- 
boro till the following June, making, in the meantime, several scouts 
into the adjoining country. It was in the fights at Liberty Gap, 
June 24th, 25th and 26th, 1863, on the second day making a charge 
upon a hill occupied by the rebels, driving them from it, and cap- 
turing the flag of the 2d Arkansas. At the battle of Chickamauga, 
it fought with great gallantry, losing more than half the number of 
men it took upon the field. September 22d, it moved into Chatta- 
nooga, and remained there till the last of October, throwing up for- 
tifications and doing guard duty. On the 25th it left Chattanooga 
for Bridgeport, Ala., and went into winter quarters. January 26, 
1864, it broke camp and went to Ooltawah, Tenu. On the night of 
February 17th, it marched out with a detachment of the 4th Michigan 
Cavalry, and at daylight surprised and captured a rebel outpost at 
Burke's Mill, near Dalton. February 29th, it re-enlisted in the 
veteran service, was remustered March 16th, and started for home on 
the 28th, arriving at Springfield April 8th, when the men received 
veteran furloughs. On the 11th of May, the regiment rendezvoused 
at Mattoon, Illinois, and on the 14th left for Louisville and Chatta- 
nooga. On the 22d, a train containing a part of the regiment was 
thrown from the track, near Tullahoma, and several of the men 
slightly injured. On the 8th of June it joined General Sherman's 
army at Acworth, Georgia, and participated in the movement upon 
Atlanta. It was also engaged at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, 
and on the 8th of September camped at Atlanta. On the 3d of 
October it broke camp and marched through Marietta, Acworth, 
Rome, &c, arriving at Chattanooga on the 30th. The next day it 
started on escort duty for Huntsville, and rejoined the corps at 
Pulaski, Tenn., on the 12th of Novernbei'. On the 23d of Novem- 
ber, Lieutenant- Colonel Chapman died, and Captain A. M. Pollard 
assumed command of the regiment. On the same day it left Pulaski, 
reaching Columbia on the 24th. For two days it was engaged in 
throwing up fortifications, the rebels skirmishing with the pickets. 



60 P ITRIOTISM OF il. I [NOI8. 

At the battle of Franklin ii bore a creditable part, and in the battle 

of \:ish\ illc took part in a charge upon the enemy, who were driven 
back. I' nexl joined in the pursuit of Bood across the Tennessee 
river, and then inarched to Huntsville, Alabama, reaching there 
January 5, 18G5, and remaining till March 13th. Till April 22d, it 
was i ngaged in campaigning through Tennessee, when it camped at 
Nashville. On the 7th of June, the non-veterans of the regiment 
were mustered out It broke camp on the 1 7th, and on the 25th 
arrived at New Orleans. It reached Indianola, Texas, July 15th, 
and was stationed in that state until its muster out at Victoria, 
March 20, 1866. It then proceeded to Springfield, where it, was 
paid off and discharged. 

Colonel Carlin, by bravery and ability, won the successive stages 
of promotion until he wore the stars of a Major-General. He was 
born in Greene county, Illinois, November 24, 1829, entered the 
Military Academy at West Point in 1846 and graduated in 1850. 
He served at various posts in the regular service, and participated 
in Harney's Indian campaigns. In 1855 he was promoted to 1st 
Lieutenant. In 1857 he was attached to General Sumner's expe- 
dition against the Cheyennes, and participated in the engagement at 
Solomon's Peak on the Kansas river. He shared in the hardships of 
General A. S. Johnston's celebrated Utah expedition. After 
various severe marches he was assigned to the command of Fort 
Bragg, in Mendocino county on the Pacific coast. In May, 1860, 
he was detailed for general recruiting service, and arriving at New 
York in June, was assigned duty at Buffalo. He was unanimously 
requested by the officers to accept the position of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel of the 74th New York. He subsequently was authorized to 
raise a regiment of cavalry in Western New York. These positions 
he declined, determined, if he entered the volunteer service, to be 
associated with the men and the history of his native state. Gov- 
ernor Kirkwood, of Iowa, tendered him a Lieutenant- Colonelcy, 
which was declined. Governor Yates commissioned him Colonel 
of the 38th, and he soon distinguished himself. He commanded in 
several important expeditions ; was commander for some time of the 
District of Southeast Missouri, and participated in Steele's march 
on Arkansas. Subsequently he served with distinction in various 



LIEUT. ARTHUR LEE BAILHACHE. 61 

departments, in victory and defeat. Brave, full of energy and dash, 
yet duly attempered by discipline and military knowledge, General 
Carlin has won his distinction. He has been a soldier, an earnest, 
capable soldier. From choice he has been identified with the for- 
tunes of Illinois troops, and richly merits a portion of the glory they 
have Avon. 

Of far lower rank, a few paragraphs may fitly be claimed for the 
Adjutant of the 38th, Arthur L. Bailhache, son of Hon. John 
Bailhache, and a type of thousands of the young men who rushed to 
arms at a personal sacrifice, yet who were branded as " mercenary 
recruits !" 

He shared in the campaign of East Missouri, and in the battle of 
Fredericktown, October, 1861, though suffering from sickness. An 
experienced officer writes, " Lieutenant B. displayed those fine 
soldierly qualities, courage, quickness of perception and judgment 
in execution which gave pledge of future distinction." 

The same friend says : " Among the many noble young men who 
gave their lives to their country, Lieutenant Arthur Lee Bailhache 
is worthy to be remembered. His father, Hon. John Bailhache, a 
native of the Island of Jersey, subsequently prominent as an Editor 
and leading politician in Ohio, and for nearly a quarter of a century 
a resident of Alton, 111., a portion of the time Editor of the Tele- 
graph, was one of the noblest and purest of men. 

"Lieutenant Bailhache was born at Alton, April 12, 1839, was 
educated principally at Jubilee College. Anxious to enter upon the 
business of life, he withdrew from college in 1857, became an attache 
of the Journal newspaper, Springfield, where he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, performing valuable service during the 
memorable campaign of 1860. 

" He entered the public service in connection with the Commis- 
sary department at Camp Yates, was transferred to Big Muddy as 
State Commissary Agent, thence to Cairo, aiding, with much energy 
and ability, in supplying our volunteers, and pushing them to the 
field. 

" On the organization of the 38th Regiment Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, under the gallant and distinguished Colonel (now Brig- 
adier-General) W. P. Carlin, he was appointed by that officer, his 



62 PATRIOTISM OF IU.I.v »is. 

Adjutant, and commissioned by Governor Yates, with the rank of 
Lieutenant. The regiment went into active service in Southeasl 
TNI i^-. >ui i. Colonel Carlin being placed in the command of the Dis- 
trict, the complicated and weighty duties of Acting A. A. General 
fell upon Lieutenant Bailhache, who, though pursued by disease, 
continued with faithfulness at his post. Bui his health gave way, 
and "ii tit. 9tb of January, 1862, he died .-it Pilot Knob, Missouri. 
Bis remains were broughl to Springfield, the residence of his two 
remaining brothers and there buried with the sad honors and loving 
remembrances which attend the last resting place of, alas! how 
many of the noblest and best of our young men who have died that 
their country might live. A fitting tribute to the memory of this 
patriotic and estimable young man, whom the erics of a bleeding 
country drew fnnu the walks of peaceful life, to be refined and 
ennobled by duty and sacrifice, may be found in the following order, 
issued by his commanding officer: 



" ' Head-Qlartkrs 38th Fo 
" 'Pilot 



Regiment Illinois Volunteers.) 
Knob, Mo., January 9, 1862. ) 

'" [Orders, Xo. 24.] 

" 'It has become the painful duty of the undersigned to announce to the regiment 
the death of Lieutenant and Adjutant Arthur L. Bailhache. To the officers and 
men of this regiment, any eulogium on the character of the deceased would be 
superfluous. As a man, he was noble, generous and true ; as an officer, he was faith- 
ful and energetic in the performance of his duties ; as a soldier he was " without fear 
and without reproach." If he had a fault, none could see it. His virtues were 
visible in every personal and official relation. Long will we mourn the loss of 
this young officer. Ilis example may be followed with advantage by all young 
men. To the relatives and friends of the deceased, let us extend our heartfelt 
sympathies. 

'"(Signed) W. T. Carlin, Colonel Commanding.'" 

FORTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 42d regiment was organized at Chicago, and mustered into 
the service on the 17th of September, 1861, 1,051 strong. The Al- 
lowing is the original roster: 

Colonel, William A. Webb; Lieutenant-Colonel, David Stuart; Major, George 
W. Roberts; Adjutant, Edward H. Brown; Quartermaster, Edward D. Swartout; 



FORTY-SECOND INFANTRY. 63 

Surgeon, Edwin Powell; 1st Assistant Surgeon, E. 0. F. Roler ; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Octave P. F. Ravenot; Chaplain, G. L. S. Stuff. 

Co. A — Captain, Charles Northrop; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton M. Way; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Elijah S. Church. 

Co. B — Captain, George Vardan ; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander F. Stevenson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Julius Lettman. 

Co. C — Captain, Nathan H. Walworth; 1st Lieutenant, James Leighton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Nicholas P. Ferguson. 

Co. D — Captain, Bela P. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Ranny ; 2d Lieutenant, 

Jared W. Richards. 

Co. E — Captain, David W. Norton; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Townsend ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Nathaniel IT. DuFoe. 

Co. F — Captain, Charles C. Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Williams; 2d 
Lieutenant, Andrew H. Granger. 

Co. G — Captain, William H. Boomer; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph N. Gettman; 2d 
Lieutenant, John W. Scott. 

Co. H — Captain, John H. Henstein ; 1st Lieutenant, George D. Curtis; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Alexander J. H. Brewer. 

Co. I — Captain, Edgar D. Swain; 1st Lieutenant, Wesley P. Andrews: 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Ogden Lovell. 

Co. K — Captain, Jesse D. Butts ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph W. Foster ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Gilbert L. Barnes. 

The 42d left Chicago for St. Louis, where it arrived on the 21st of 
September. By order of General Fremont, it joined General Hunter 
at Tipton, Mo., October 18th. On the 13th of December it went 
into winter quarters at Smithton, Mo., and left that place February 
3d, 1862, arriving at Fort Holt, Ky., February 20th. On the 4th 
of March it occupied Fort Holt, and on the 15th proceeded to 
Island No. 10, where it remained till the capture of that point. 
[ Vide Vol. I., p. 219 et seq.] On the 17th of April it left Fort Pil- 
low and proceeded to Hamburg, Tenn. It was enga-ed in the 
battle of Farmington on the 9th of May, and entered upon the siege 
of Corinth. On the 30th it led the advance in pursuit of the enemy 
as far as Booneville, Miss., and returned to Corinth, going into camp 
at Bi» Springs, Miss., June 14th. July 21st it broke camp and went 
to Courtland, Ala., where it remained till September 3d, when it 
left for Nashville. On the 9th, at Columbia, it met the enemy in a 
brisk engagement, and on the 11th arriving at Nashville. It 
remained at Nashville during the siege, engaging the enemy, Novem- 
ber 5th, without loss. On the 26th of December it set out on the 
Murfreesboro campaign, and on the 30th skirmished with the enemy. 



64 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

On tin' following day it engaged in the battle of Stone River, where 
it lost 188 in killed and wounded and 86 taken prisoners. On the 
5th of March, L863, !l started in pursuit of Van Dorn, and went as 
far as Columbia, returning to Murfreesboro on the 14th. June •_• nh 
it entered upon the Tullahoma campaign, camping a! Bridgeport 
Ala., July 31st. September 2d it entered upon the Chattanooga 
campaign, and on the 19th and 20th foughl bravely at the battle <>f 
Chickamauga, losing loO in killed and wounded and 28 prisoners. 
On the 25th of November it was at the battle of Mission Ridge, 
being on the skirmish line during the whole engagement. It then 
pursued the retreating enemy as far as Chickamauga Creek, and 
returned to Chattanooga on the 26th. On the 28th it set out on the 
East Tennessee campaign, and established camp at Stone's Mills, 
Tenn., December 27th. On the 1st of January, 1804, the regiment 
* re-enlisted as veterans. January 15th it entered on the Dandridge 
campaign, and on the 10th, at Dandridge, had a skirmish with the 
enemy, without loss. February 2d it arrived at Chattanooga, and 
on the 21st started for Chicago, arriving on the 27th and receiving 
veteran furloughs. On the 2d of April the regiment re-organized 
and returned to Nashville, arriving on the 11th. Tt arrived at Chat- 
tanooga on the 27th, and entei'ed on the Atlanta campaign, engag- 
ing the enemy at Rocky Faced Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New 
Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree 
Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, encamping at Atlanta 
September 8th. On the 25th it left Atlanta for Bridgeport, Ala., 
and thence, October 19th, to Chattanooga, thence to Alpine, Ga., 
back again to Chattanooga, and thence to Pulaski, Tenn. Novem- 
ber 22d it began the retreat to Nashville, engaging heavily with the 
enemy at Spring Hill and Franklin, and on the 1st of December 
arrived at Nashville. On the loth and 16th it was in the battles at 
Nashville, and joined in the pursuit of Hood's retreating army. 
January 1, 1805, it marched to Iluntsville, Ala., and thence to Deca- 
tur, where it remained till April 1st, when it marched through sev- 
eral points, arriving at Nashville on the 25th. June 15th it left for 
New Orleans, arriving on the 23d. On the 18th of July it embarked 
for Lavaca, Texas. It was on post duty at Lavaca and at Camp 
Irwin until December 16th, when it was mustered out and ordered 



SIXTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 65 

home. On the 5th of January, 1866, it arrived at Springfield, and 
on the 10th was paid off and discharged. 

sixrvsixrn Illinois infantry. 

The 66th regiment was organized at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, 
in the fall of 1861, under the special patronage of Gen. Fremont, 
and was originally known as "Birge's Sharpshooters," and was com- 
posed of three companies from Illinois, two from Ohio, one from 
Michigan, and three from squads of recruits sent to Benton Barracks 
from the various Western states. When Gen. Fremont was super- 
seded, his pet scheme of a complete sharpshooting regiment was 
partly suppressed by General Halleck, who stopped all recruiting for 
it and hurried it into the field, before it was thoroughly equipped 
and organized, leaving it with but nine companies, and in numbers 
below the minimum required for a regimental organization. Its arm 
was the American deer and target rifle. The accoutrements were 
not of the kind prescribed by army regulations, but consisted of a 
bullet-pouch of bear skin covering, and a powder horn, or in some 
cases a flask. In the bullet-pouch was a compartment where the 
soldier, or rebel hunter, carried his little et coeteras, such as screw- 
drivers, bullet-molds and patch-cutter — singular implements for a 
soldier, but Birge's boys molded their own bullets, greased them 
and patched them with as much care as an old hunter would, and 
used them as effectively. It was the design to give them a complete 
hunter's dress, but this too was vetoed by Halleck ; and the only 
thing peculiar about the dress was the hat, which was a gray sugar- 
loaf shaped affair, with three squirrel tails running from both back 
and front and meeting at the apex of the crown in an indescribable 
knot. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John M. Birge, of St. Louis, commanded the 
regiment, and on the 12th of December, 1861, marched it from Ben- 
ton Barracks to take the field in North Missouri. Arriving at Cen- 
tralia, on the North Missouri Railroad, the Colonel found plenty of 
work for his little command, which he scattered in detachments over 
the country in search of rebels, several small bodies of whom were 
met and defeated, besides being badly frightened at the squirrel tail 
hats and lon^ ran^e rifles. 
5 



00 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

On the 28th of December, General Prentiss, commanding the Dis- 
tricl of North Missouri, led four companies of Sharpshooters and 
four oompanies of Curtis' Horse against the command of the rebel 
Colonel Dorsey, consisting of nearly a thousand mounted and dis- 
mounted infantry. General Prentiss' command numbered about 
four hundred men, but so impetuously did they attack and so stub- 
bornly did they fight that in less than two hours the rebels were routed, 
" foot, horse and dragoons." This battle was at Mount Zion Church, 
twenty miles from Sturgeon, and has been known as the battle of 
Mount Zion. Our loss was about forty killed and wounded, but that 
of the rebels much larger. After this battle no fighting of any 
moment occurred during their stay in North Missouri, which termi- 
nated on the 4th of February, 1862, on which day the command was 
shipped by railroad to St. Louis, where it embarked on a steamer to 
Fort Henry, arriving on the 9th, just too late to take a part in the 
capture of the Fort. Here the regiment was attached to Colonel 
Lauman's brigade of General Charles F. Smith's division, and 
marched with it on the 12th to our position in front of Donelson. 
Here the General was a little perplexed to know what to do with 
soldiers with deer rifles and no bayonets, but finally concluded to 
let them fight in their own way. And thus it was that during that 
memorable siege the Squirrel Tails scattered themselves out along 
the entire front of Smith's division, and crawling stealthily up, would 
sometimes get position behind a log within fifty yards of the rebel 
works. Every man had his hiding place, and keeping a sharp look- 
out and aiming witli a steady hand, they kept the guns in front of 
the division silent the entire three days of the siege. Although the 
regiment performed good service here, the los3 was very light. 

Remaining at Fort Donelson after its capture till March 5th, the 
command marched back again to the Tennessee river and embarked 
for Pittsburg Landing, where it landed on the 18th of the same 
month. On the Gth and 7th of April, it participated in the battles 
of Shiloh, but being used only as a skirmishing regiment its loss was 
small compared with that of some other regiments. From the 10th 
of May to the 30th, in the siege of Corinth, it was used for skirmish- 
ing almost constantly, and during that time lost a large number of 
men. Upon returning to Corinth from the pursuit of the rebels, 



THE SIXTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 67 

Colonel E. P. Burke took command, having been commissioned for 
it, Colonel Birge having been mustered out, and it was assigned to 
the city command as provost guard, where it remained till the 
battle of Corinth on the 3d and 4th of October, participating in 
the battle on the second day, and losing heavily in men and officers. 
From Corinth, in pursuit of the fleeing rebels, and back to Rienzi, 
Mississippi, consumed some weeks, and the 26th of November found 
it again encamped six miles from Corinth, where it established a 
fine stockaded camp, called after an old commander, General Da- 
vies. While here, the regiment, which had heretofore belonged to 
Missouri, was transferred, by order of the Secretary of War, to 
Illinois. 

The name, Birge's Sharpshooters, was discarded, and hence- 
forth the regiment was the 66th Illinois Volunteers, or West- 
ern Sharpshooters, with the following roster : 

Colonel, Patrick E. Burke ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles W. Smith ; Major, George 
Pipe ; Adjutant, William Wilson ; Quartermaster, Nicholas Brown ; Surgeon, 
Joseph Pogue ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Edward Vogel; 2d Assistant Surgeon, David 
0. McCord ; Chaplain, James M. Alexander. 

Co. A — Captain, William S. Boyd ; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick Ullrich ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Austin S. Davidson. 

Co. B — Captain, Henry Eads; 1st Lieutenant, Frank M. Bingham ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel B. Brightman. 

Co. C — Captain, Ensign Conklin ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert J. Adams; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Francis A. Hartzell. 

Co. D — Captain, John Piper; 1st Lieutenant, ; 2d Lieutenant, George 

W. Lusk. 

Co. E — Captain, Andrew K. Campbell ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. H. Simpkins ; 
2d Lieutenant, John V. Bovell. 

Co. F — Captain, Michael Piggott; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrus A. Lemon ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, . 

Co. G — Captain, Benjamin D. Longstreth ; 1st Lieutenant, Perry P. Ellis ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Philip C. Diedrich. 

Co. H — Captain, Thomas B. Mitchell ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Lidack ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Nicholas R. Park. 

Co. I — Captain, Jerry N. Hill ; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Hays ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel J. Smith. 

Co. K — Captain, George A. Taylor ; 1st Lieutenant, Alvin H. Davis ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William C. Jones. 

Here, too, about two hundred men of the regiment pur- 
chased with their own funds, at a cost of $43.00 each, the 



68 PATEIOTISM OF tLLINOIS. 

Henry li peating Rifle, which repeats sixteen times at a loading. 
This arm has done much to make the regiment effective, and the 
men who purchased them with their own means deserve greal credit 
The regiment remained at tliis camp till the L 2th of November, 
when the division — then (lie 2d Division, 16th Army Corps — moved 
to Pulaski, Tennessee. Here, in December, 470 men re-enlisted, 
and in January, 1864, were sent North to be furloughed. After 
being re-organized as a veteran regiment, it returned to Pulaski, and 
on the 29th of April started for Chattanooga, GOO strong, to enter 
with the grand army upon the Atlanta campaign. Leaving Chatta- 
nooga on the 6th of May, the 66th had the honor, on the 9th oi 
the same month, to open the fighting of the Army of the Tennessee 
in this campaign, at Snake Creek Gap and Resaca, and unaided and 
almost unsupported captured and held till night the heights in front 
of that stronghold. From here through the whole of that memor- 
able campaign the regiment was always in front, and participated in 
not less than ten pitched battles, and skirmishes innumerable, losing 
224 officers and men killed and wounded, among the former its com- 
mander Colonel Burke, and of the severely wounded its Major A. 
K. Campbell. Never did a regiment perform harder and better ser- 
vice than did this hardy little band of veterans. 

During this campaign the rifles of the original "Birge's Sharp- 
shooters" became unserviceable by constant use and exposure, and 
were discarded, the command being at the close of the campaign 
armed with the Springfield musket and Henry repeating rifle. The 
division to which the regiment belonged being now attached to the 
15th Corps, it marched with it on the ever-to-be-remembercd cam- 
paigns of Georgia and South Carolina. On the Ogeechee river, 
near Savannah, the regiment, being thrown in front on the 9th of 
December, captured the enemy's works protecting the Gulf railroad, 
with a fine Blakely gun. At Savannah it was awarded the post of 
honor, being quartered in the old United States Barracks, and used 
for special guard duty. At Bentonville, North Carolina, in the 
engagement of the 21st of March, it lost eight men, after which it 
met no rebels to fight, and marched to Washington and there par- 
ticipated in the grand review before the President. It was then sent 
to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out in June, 1865. 



SEYENTY-EIGIITH INFANTRY. 69 

During its three years and ten months service the 66th regiment 
marched about 3,000 miles, fought in sixteen pitched battles, and has 
lost as many men in killed and wounded as it contained at the time 
of its muster out. The following is a list of the battles in which it 
waa engaged: Mount Zion; Fort Donelson ; Shiloh; Iuka; Siege 
and Battle of Corinth ; Snake Gap ; Resaca ; Tanner's Ferry, 
Ostenala River; Rome; Cross Roads; Dallas; Kenesaw; 22d of 
July, 1864, before Atlanta; RufFs Mills; Atlanta, and Jonesboro ; 
Nickojack Creek; Savannah, Georgia; Columbia, South Carolina, 
and Bentonville, North Carolina. 

SEVENTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 78th infantry was organized at Quincy, in August, 1862. 
The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, William H. Eennison ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Carter Van Vleck ; Major, 
William L. Broddus; Adjutant, George Greene; Quartermaster, Abner V. Humph- 
rey ; Surgeon, Thomas M. Jordan ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Elisha S. Mclntire ; 2d 
Assistant Surgeon, Samuel C. Moss ; Chaplain, Robert F. Taylor. 

Co. A — Captain, Robert S. Blackburn ; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Chipman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Archibald II. Graham. 

Co. B — Captain, John C. Anderson ; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Ruddell ; 2d 
Lieutenant, David M. Taylor. 

Co. C — Captain, Charles R. Hume; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver P. Cartwright; 2d 
Lieutenant, George W. Blandin. 

Co. D — Captain, Robert M. Black ; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Warroll ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Isaac N. Kincheloe. 

Co. E — Captain, George Pollock ; 1st Lieutenant, Matthew Henry ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John J. Mercer. 

Co. F — Captain, Henry E. Hawkins; 1st Lieutenant, Clinton B. Cannon ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Seldon G. Earl. 

Co. G — Captain, Jacob F. Joseph ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas L. Howden ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Pleasant M. Herndon. 

Co. H — Captain, John K. Allen; 1st Lieutenant, George T. Beers; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel Simmons. 

Co. I — Captain, Granville H. Reynolds; 1st Lieutenant, Hardin Hovey; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James H. McCandless. 

Co. K — Captain, Maris R. Vernon ; 1st Lieutenant, Jeremiah Parsons ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Akins. 

The 78th left Quincy on the 20th of September, 934 strong, 
and reported at Louisville. From Louisville the regiment was sent 
to Rolling Forks, and remained doing duty till the latter part of 



7i> PATRIOTISM OF [LLINOI8. 

January, when, ander General Gilbert, il wenl apthe Cumberland river 
to Nashville, and there re-organized and was assigned to the lotli 
Division of the Army of Kentucky, and then moved to Franklin; 
marched from Franklin on 1 1 1 < ■ 6th of June and participated in the 
advance movement of Rosecrans' army from Murfreesboro t<. Shelby- 
ville, when' it remained till the 6th of September. 1 luring this time it 
was assigned to the Corps of < teneral ( tordon ( Granger. On the 6th of 
September moved <>n Chattanooga, reaching Rossville on the l tth. 
On the 17th a portion of the Corps marched oul to Ringgold, Ga., 
where it had a skirmish. On the 20th the 78th participated in 
the battle of Chickamauga, losing 150 killed, wounded and missing, 
fifty-eight in killed and wounded, and fifty-six taken prisoners. 
After the battle it fell back to Chattanooga, and there remained till 
the advance of the army under General Grant. It took part in the 
battles of Chattanooga and Mission Ridge, losing lightly. Next 
marched to the relief of Knoxville. Returning from Knoxville, it 
went into camp at Rossville, and remained till the 2d of May, 18G4, 
when the army of General Sherman commenced its march on Atlanta. 
During this march the regiment was engaged at Resaca, Rome and 
Peach Tree Creek. It skirmished along till the army abandoned 
its position in front of Atlanta, and moved to the flank and rear 
of that stronghold. On the 18th of August Colonel Van Vleck 
was mortally wounded while the regiment was skirmishing on 
the right of Atlanta. At Jonesboro the 78th was engaged 
next, and bore a loss of eighty-three men in killed and wounded. 
This great loss was occasioned by charging a battery of six guns, 
which it captured. Next moved back to Atlanta, where it remain- 
ed until the 28th of September, when it moved in conjunction with 
the 2d division into Northern Alabama in pursuit of General For- 
rest's guerrillas, rejoining the army at Gaysville, Alabama, and next 
helped to burn Atlanta. From Atlanta to Savannah the 78th left its 
mark all along the way. It next participated in the campaign 
through the Carolinas, burning and destroying as it went along. At 
Averysboro and Bentonville the 78th was engaged, losing heavily at 
the last place, sustaining a loss of forty-four men in killed and 
wounded. Rejoicing that "this cruel war is over," it joined in the 
grand review at Washington, and at once proceeded to Chicago, 



EIGHTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. 71 

where it arrived June 10, 1865, and was mustered out of serviee. 
It brought back 373 men and 20 officers. 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 88th regiment, commonly known as the " Second Board of 
Trade Regiment," was mustered into the service at Chicago on the 
27th of August, 1862, with an aggregate of 840 men. The follow- 
ing is the original roster : 

Colonel, Francis T. • Sherman ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Alexander S. Chadburn, 
Major, George W. Chandler; Adjutant, Joshua S. Bullard; Quartermaster, 
Nathaniel S. Bouton ; Surgeon, George Coatsworth ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Arthur 
C. Rankin ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Frank N. Burdick ; Chaplain, Joseph C. Thomas. 

Co. A — Captain, John A. Bross; 1st Lieutenant, John P. D. Gipson ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lewis B. Cole. 

Co. B — Captain, George W. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, George Chandler; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Gilbert F. Bigelew. 

Co. C — Captain, Webster A. Whiting ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry H. Cushing ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charlus H. Lane. 

Co. D — Captain, George A. Sheridan ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas F. W. Gullich ; 
2d Lieutenant, Alex. C. McMurtry. 

Co. E — Captain, Levi P. Holden; 1st Lieutenant, Sylvester Titsworth ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Lorenzo Brown. 

Co. F — Captain, John W. Chickering; 1st Lieutenant, James A. S. Hanford ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James Watts. 

Co. G — Captain, Gurdon S. Hubbard, jr. ; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick C. Goodwin ; 
2d Lieutenant, Dean R. Chester. 

Co. H — Captain, Alex. C. McClurg; 1st Lieutenant, Charles T. Boal; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Daniel B. Rice. 

Co. I — Captain, Joel J. Spalding; 1st Lieutenant, Orson C. Miller; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jesse Ball. 

Co. K — Captain, Daniel E. Barnard ; 1st Lieutenant, Homer C. McDonald ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Edmund E. Tucker. 

On the 4th of September, 1862, the 88th left Chicago for Louis- 
ville, and four weeks later we find it at the battle of Perryville 
[Vol. I., p. 345], after which, under gallant Phil. Sheridan, it went 
to the battle of Stone River. Then it went through the Tullahoma 
campaign to the battle of Chickamauga, where the regiment was 
driven back, but not without some loss and gallant fighting. 

Captain Holden wrote : " Our regiment lost heavily — think it 
will exceed one hundred and twenty-five in killed and wounded." 



7_ PATRIOTISM OF II.I.IXOIS. 

Another w riti r sal 1 : "It w as tak< □ inl i the Sghl on :i hard run ; 
was flanked righl and Left before it had time to form order of hat- 
tie, and although subjected to most murderous oblique and direct 
fire while going through their maneurers pushed on into the 
thickest of the fighl until it became a hand-to-hand contest. Borne 
back bj overwhelming numbers they pressed forward again only to 
recoil before new and overwhelming reinforcements, and only 
retreated when to stay would have been annihilation. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chadburn, although Buffering from the pain of a contused 
thigh, resolutely kept his command. Major Chandler, as brave as a 
lion in the very hail and sleet of battle, cried out: ' Come on, my 
brave boys, I won't ask you to go where I am afraid to had.' Cap- 
tain Smith, acting as field officer, was among the bravest of the 
brave. The lamented Captain J. A. Dross, who was on picket, not 
ouly dextrously extricated himself and men, but gallantly fought 
his way hack to his regiment disputing every inch of ground. "' 

At Mission Ridge, it was among the first to plant its colors on the 
heights. Then follows the campaign through East Tennessee, where, 
as Colonel Smith remarked, the 88th was " without rations, without 
tents and without clothing." Under General Sherman, in Howard's 
(4th) Corps, it participated in every battle and skirmish of the 
Atlanta campaign. It was then sent to watch Hood. After the 
skirmish at Spring Hill, it fought in the battle of Franklin, which 
made the victory at Nashville, in which the 88th bore a part, only 
the more easy. From that place it followed Hood to the Tennessee 
river. It then went into camp, where it quietly remained, with the 
exception of a brief expedition to East Tennessee, until June, 18G5. 
On the 12th of June it arrived in Chicago, mustering 229 men of 
the more than 900 who went out in 1862. It met with a cordial 
welcome from the citizens generally, and especially from the Board 
of Trade, under whose auspices it was organized. 

Colonel Francis T. Sherman was born at Newtown, Fairfield 
county, Conn., December 31, 1825. His father, Hon. F. C. Sher- 
man, Ex-Mayor, settled at Chicago in 1834, where his education was 
such as could be received in a newly-settled town. His summers 
were spent in laboring in his father's brickyard, and his winters at 
school. At the age of eighteen he entered a wholesale grocery 



NINETY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 73 

store, whore lie remained for two years. During Polk's adminis- 
tration he was for a time a clerk in the Chicago Post-Office under 
General Hart L. Stewart, P. M. He was afterward Secretary to 
the Board of Appraisers of Canal Lands, but was obliged to resign, 
on account of ill health. In the spring of 1849 he went to Cali- 
fornia* in pursuit of both health and wealth. He remained in 
California until November, 1850, undergoing the usual proportion of 
the perils and privations of a miner's life. On the 8th of October, 
1851, he was married, and from that time till the war broke out was 
engaged in business in Chicago. On the 4th of October, 1861, he 
was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 56th Illinois infantry, 
better known as the "Mechanics 1 Fusileers." On account of some 
alleged fraud in its enlistment, this regiment soon mutinied, and 
on the 5th of February, 1862, was mustered out of service, with all 
its officers. On the 8th of March following, Colonel Sherman was 
mustered into service as Senior Major of the 12th Illinois cavalry, 
with which regiment he remained till August, 1862. On the 27th 
of that month he was mustered into the service as Colonel of the 
88th infantry. With this regiment he was identified till the close 
of the war. On the 7th of July, 1864, while acting as Chief-of- Staff 
to General Howard, at the Chattahoochee river, he was captured by 
the rebels. For three months he was kept in close captivity, save 
on one occasion, when, with a number of other Union officers, he 
jumped from a railroad train and attempted to escape. The most of 
his companions were captured immediately, but Colonel Sherman 
and a few others eluded their pursuers, but on the second midnight 
were captured by blooddiounds. On the 7th of October he was ex- 
changed, when lie immediately returned to Chicago, and soon after 
rejoined his regiment. 

For gallant and meritorious conduct he was promoted first by 
brevet and subsequently, by regular appointment, Brigadier General, 
a promotion well earned, amply merited. 

NINETY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 96th regiment was composed of six companies from Jo Da- 
viess county and four from Lake. It was organized at Rockford, on 



74 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

the 5th of September, 1862, numbering 950 men. The following is 

the original roster : 

Colonel, Thomas B. Champion ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Isaac L, Clark ; Major, John 
('. Smith ; Adjutant, Edward A. Blodgett; Quartermaster, Stephen Jeffen; Surgeon, 
Charlis Martin ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Moses Evana ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Daniel 
A. Sheffield; Chaplain, Jonathan M. Clendenning. 

Co. A — Captain, George Sicks; 1st Lieutenant, William Vinoent; 2d Lieutenant, 
Robert Pool. 

Co. B — Captain, David Salisbury; 1st Lieutenant, Rolliu II. Trumbull ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Allen 15. Whitney. 

Co. C — Captain, John R. Polloek; 1st Lieutenant, Addison B. Partridge ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William M. Laughlin. 

Co. D — Captain, Afliel Z. Blodgett ; 1st Lieutenant, Caleb A. Montgomery ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Walter Hastings. 

Co. E— Captain, Joseph P. Black ; l3t Lieutenant, William F. Taylor ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Halsey II. Richardson. 

Co. F — Captain, Thomas A. Green ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Rowan ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Nelson R. Simms. 

Co. G — Captain, James H. C.'ark ; 1st Lieutenant, David James; 2d Lieutenant, 
Benjamin G. Blouney. 

Co. H — Captain, Alexander Burnette; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel II. Bayne ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Reuben L. Root. 

Co. I — Captain, John Barker; 1st Lieutenant, John P. Tarpley ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George W. Moore. 

Co. K — Captain, Timothy D. Rose ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward E. Townsend ; 2d 
Lieutenant, George W. Pepoon. 

On the 8th of October, 1862, the 96th loft for Kentucky, where it 
was stationed until the January following. While at Harrodsburg, 
Ky., in November, the boys took possession of a rebel printing office, 
and for a time issued a neat little sheet entitled the Soldier's Letter, 
under the superintendence of Maj. Hicks, who was formerly associate 
editor of the Galena Advertiser. In January, 1863, the regiment 
was sent to Nashville, Term. It was soon after sent to Franklin, and 
participated in Rosecrans' campaign against Tullahoma. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, it went to Rossville, Ga., with the Reserve Corps. At 
the battle of Chickamauga it bore a conspicuous part, losing heavily 
in killed and wounded, Lieut. Col. Isaac L. Clark being among the 
former. The 96th was next found at Lookout Mountain, on the 2Gth 
of September. From the 2d of December, 1863, till the 26th of 
January, 1864, it lay in camp at Nice-jack Creek, Ga. It was with 



GEN. T. E. CHAMPION — COL. J. S. CLARK. 75 

Palmer in the demonstration on Buzzard Roost, in February, and 
then went through the Atlanta campaign, meeting the enemy at 
Rocky Faced Ridge, Resaca, New Hope, and Kenesaw Mountain, 
and losing 117 men in that campaign. It was detached from the 
4th Corps on the march through Georgia, and returned to Pulaski. 
It was in the battle of Franklin, from whence it marched to Nash- 
ville, and participated in the glories and dangers of the battle at that 
place, where it captured the enemy's works and three twelve-pound- 
er batteries. From that date it remained in Alabama and East Ten- 
nessee until June, 1865, when it returned to Chicago, where it ar- 
rived on the 14th, and was mustered out and paid oif. It returned 
with 420 men, having left a few recruits behind, while a number of 
others had been transferred to other regiments, seven sergeants hav- 
ing received commissions in colored regiments. 

Brevet Brigadier-General Thomas E. Champion was born in Pal- 
myra, Wayne County, New York, August 3d, 1825. At twelve years 
of age his parents removed to the West, settling in Michigan. He 
commenced life a printer, employing his leisure hours in study. He 
afterwards pursued a thorough course of medical studies, and was 
admitted to the practice of medicine in 1847. In 1850 he removed 
to Freeport, Illinois, and in the following year to Warren, Jo Da- 
viess county. Here he practised medicine successfully ; but having 
a taste for the law, he studied the usual text books, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1850. From that time until the summer of 1862 
he entirely devoted himself to that profession, taking an active and 
prominent part, however, in discussing the exciting political topics 
of the day. When the new call for troops was made, he devoted 
himself with unusual energy to the raising of volunteers, and suc- 
ceeded so well that two companies were raised from his own town, 
of the first of which he was chosen Captain ; and when the regi- 
ment was organized, he was elected as its Colonel ; he filled that 
position not only to the satisfaction, but the admiration of his com- 
mand. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Isaac L. Clark was born in Orange county, 
Vt., in 1824; he graduated at Dartmouth College, July, 1848, and 
in the following September settled in Waukegan, Lake county, 111., 
as Principal of the Academy of that city. He was distinguished for 



7G PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

hia successful labors in thai position for Bevera] years, [n May, 1853, 
he was admitted to the bur, and boob i imanded a lucrative prac- 
tice. When the -'Hirer hundred thousand more*' were called for, he 
lefl his extensive business to serve his country ; by his enthusiastic 
exertions he Boon raised a company of volunteers, of which he was 
made Captain, from which position he was promoted, by the voice of 
the regiment, to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy. 11" accompanied the 
regiment on nil its toilsome marches, and was with it in its many 
skirmishes and battles until his death, on the 20th of September, 
1863, at the battle of Chickamauga. 

Major John C. Smith was born in Philadelphia, and spent the 
earlier part of his life at Norristown. in that vicinity. H^re he 
served liis apprenticeship to the carpenter's trade, and was afterward 
engaged on government buildings at Cape May and in New York 
city. In 1854 he went to Galena, where he made it his home until 
the breaking out of the war. In 18G0-'G1 he assisted in superintend- 
ing the erection of the Custom House at Dubuque, Iowa. In Au- 
gust, 1862, he raised a company of volunteers, was chosen Captain, 
and afterwords unanimously elected Major of the regiment. Major 
Snath was an Odd Fellow, and held the highest position as such in 
the State. Soon after entering the service he was presented with a 
line gold watch by the Grand Encampment I. O. O. F. of Illinois. 
While in the army he served as Provost Marshal of Shelby ville, 
Murfreesboro, North Chattanooga and several other points. The 
men and officers of the regiment ever found in him a true patiiot 
and a brave soldier. 

ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 101th infantry is emphatically a La Salle county regiment, 
nearly or cpute all its members being enlisted in that county. It was 
organized at Ottawa, and mustered into the service on the 23d of 
August, 1862. The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Absalom B. Moore ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Douglas Hapeman ; Major, J. 
IT. Widmer; Adjutant, Rufus C. Stevens; Quartermaster, Edward L. Derrick; 
Surgeon, Reuben F. Dyer; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Julius A Freeman; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Thomas B. Hamilton. 



ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH INFANTRY. 77 

Co. A — Captain, James H. Leighton ; 1st Lieutenant, Moses Osman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Alphonso Prescott. 

Co. B — Captain, George W. Howe ; 1st Lieutenant, Moses M. Randolph ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel A. Porter. 

Co. C — Captain, Samuel M. Heslet: 1st Lieutenant, Malcomb W. Tewksbury ; 2d 
Lieutenant, David C. Rynearson. 

Co. D — Captain, William H. Collins; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Brush; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James Snedaker. 

Co. E — Captain, John S. II. Doty; 1st Lieutenant, Milton Straun; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hansom P. Dewey. 

Co. F — Captain, James I. McKernan; 1st Lieutenant, William Strawn; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John C. Lindsley. 

Co. G — Captain, Johnson Misner ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert V. Simpson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John N. Wood. 

Co. H — Captain, Lewis Ludington; 1st Lieutenant, Orrin S. Davidson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel J. Haney. 

Co. I — Captain, John Wadleigh ; 1st Lieutenant, Willard Proctor; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles E. Webber. 

Co. K — Captain, Justus W. Palmer; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Fitzsimmons ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Otis S. Favor. 

On the 6th of September, the regiment, numbering 39 officers and 
925 men, broke camp, and started for Louisville, where it remained 
till the 2d of October, and then move:! to Frankfort, and was gar- 
ris med there till the 25th, when it marched to Bowling Green, ar- 
riving on the 6th of November, when it started for Torapkinsville, 
about five miles from the State line, and upon the day of arrival had 
a bout with Hamilton's guerrillas. On the 25th of November, the 
104th moved from Tompkinsvillc, and reached Hartville, Tenn., on 
the 28th, and remained till the 7th of December when it was attack- 
ed by John Morgan with a largely superior force and forced to sur- 
render after^ fighting heroically for one hour and three quarters, 
losing forty-four men killed and one hundred and fifty wounded. 
Morgan marched them to Murfreesboro, and there paroled the whole 
regiment, and it was then sent to Chicago and remained guarding 
prisoners until exchanged, which was accomplished on the 12th of 
April, 1863. On the 12th the regiment started for Nashville, and 
there remained till June 7th, when it was sent to Murfreesboro, and 
assigned to the 1st brigade of the 2d division of the 14th Corps. 
The regiment participated in what is known as the Tullahoma cam- 
paign, losing one man killed and four wounded in a fight on Elk 



TS PATEI0TI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

river on the 1st of July. On the 1st of September the 104th em- 
barked on the Chattanooga campaign ; crossed Sand and Lookout 
mountains and came out ut McLemore's Cove, on the 9th of Scp- 
tember, and on the 11th Bkirmished at Bailey's Cross Roads, with a 
loss of one man. On the 19th of the same month the regiment 
fought in a battle at Crawfish Springs, losing one man killed and 
seven wounded. On the 20th the battle of Chickamauga was fought, 
and the 104th came out with a loss of sixty-three men killed, wound- 
ed and missing. Fell back on Chattanooga and remained during 
the whole siege. On the 24th of November was engaged al Look- 
out Mountain ; on the 25th took part in the assault on Mission Ridge, 
the colors of the 104th being the first of the 14th Corps raised over 
the abandoned works. In the assault this regiment lost twenty- 
three men in killed and wounded. On the 7th of May skirmished 
in the vicinity of Buzzard's Roost, and on the 12th passed through 
Snake Creek Gap. Previous to starting on this campaign, the 104th 
was transferred to the 1st brigade, 1st division of the 14th Corps, 
then commanded by General Palmer. On the 13th and 14th the 
battles before Resaca were fought, the 104th participating with a loss 
of one man killed and fifteen wounded. On the loth the regiment 
marched into Resaca, and on the 16th continued its march, gaining 
Kingston on the 20th, where it remained until the 23d, when it moved 
to Dallas and skirmished from that time till about the 1st of June, 
1 >sing one man killed and four wounded. Kenesaw Mountain was 
the next fight, where the loss to the 104th was ten men, mostly all 
killed. On the 17th of July the regiment crossed the Chattahoochee 
river, and the next day was engaged in the battle of Peach Tree 
Creek, losing two officers and fifteen men killed, ajid thirty-two 
wounded. On the 21st had another engagement, losing one man 
killed and four wounded. On the 3d of August moved on Atlanta, 
and on the 7th, 8th and 9th skirmished, losing one officer and twenty- 
one men killed. On the 8th moved to the right of Atlanta to Jones- 
boro, and on the 7th of September reached Atlanta. On the 3d of 
October marched north in pursuit of Hood ; returning, started on 
the grand march to the sea, reaching Savannah on the 23d of 
December, 1864. Quitted Savannah on the 19th of January, and 
on the 19th of March was engaged in the battle of Bentonville, S. C, 



ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIFTH. 79 

losing two men killed, fourteen wounded and twelve captured. At 
Averysville it was engaged, and then marched north, passing 
through Goldsboro, Raleigh and Richmond, taking part in the grand 
parade at Washington, arriving in Chicago on the 10th of June, 
1865, where it was mustered out. 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 125th regiment was composed of seven companies from Ver- 
million county and three from Champaign. It was mustered into 
the service at Danville on the 3d of September, 1862, with the fol- 
lowing roster : 

Colonel, Oscar F. Harmon ; Lieutenant-Colonel, James W. Langley ; Major, John 
B. Lee; Adjutant, 'William Mann ; Quartermaster, Alexander M. Ayers ; Surgeon, 
John J. McEIroy; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charlea H. Mills; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Joel F. Erving ; Chaplain, Levi W. Sanders. 

Co. A — Captain, Clark Ralston ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Jackson; 2d Lieutenant, 
Harrison Low. 

Co. B — Captain, Robert Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Wilson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Stephen D. Conover. 

Co. C — Captain, William W. Fellows ; Is*; Lieutenant, Alexander Pollock ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James D. New. 

Co. D — Captain, George W. Galloway; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Stevens; 2d 
Lieutenant, John L. Jones. 

Co. E — Captain, Nathan M. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, William G. Isom ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John Urquhart. 

Co. F — Captain, Frederick B. Sale ; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Lester ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alfred Johnson. 

Co. H — Captain, Pleasant M. Parks ; 1st Lieutenant, David A. Benton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John C. Harbor. 

Co. G — Captain, John H. Gass ; 1st Lieutenant, Ephraim S. Howell; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Josiah Lee. 

Co. I — Captain, Levin Vinson ; 1st Lieutenant, John E. Vinson ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Stephen Brothers. 

Co. K — Captain, George W. Cook ; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver P. Hunt ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Joseph F. Crosby. 

On the 13th of September, 1862, the 125th left Danville for the 
field, reporting at Cincinnati, and occupying a position in the works 
around Covington, Ky., which was then threatened by the enemy. 
On the 25th it marched to Louisville, and from there took up the 
line of march under General Buell in pursuit of Bragg, coming up 



80 PATBIOTI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

with him at PeiTyville, where the L25th was actively engaged [VoL 
T., p. 841], Upon the enemy retreating, the regiment marched to 
Nashville, and there remained in garrison for the aii e months follow- 
ing its arrival in that city. Upon being relieved, by a circuitous 
march, the 125th reached Chattanooga in season to participate in the 
dreadful battle of Chickamauga, being one of the regiments tin-own 
into Rossville Gap for the purpose of preventing the enemy's ad- 
vance on our retreating army, and lost upward of thirty men in 
killed and wounded. Afterward the 125th was stationed at Cald- 
well's Ford, on the Tennessee river, about nine miles north of Chat- 
tanooga, and suffered severely from exposure to the elements and 
short supplies. Upon the arrival of Sherman's force i from the West, 
the regiment crossed the ford with him, and took an important pail 
in the assault on Mission Ridge ; and upon Bragg's retreat from that 
stronghold, the division to which the 125th belonged inarched to the 
relief of Knoxville, then besieged by the forces of Longstreet, and 
after defeating him the regiment took up the line of march for Chat- 
tanooga, a distance of two hundred miles, through snow, sleet, hail 
and torrents of rain, the men enduring the most terrible hardships, 
forae of them without shoes, and the blood from their cut and 
lacerated feet marking the whole distance. From the 25th of De- 
cember, 1863, till May 1, 18G4-, the 125th was stationed at McAfee's 
Church, Ga., and on the 3d started on the grand Atlanta campaign 
under the indomitable Sherman. The first engagement it partici- 
pated in was at Buzzard's Roost, next at Resaca, and then following 
in close succession the buttles of Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, and the various skirmishes before Atlanta, ending with 
the battle of Jonesboro, which was the cause of Hood evacuating 
his strong works at Atlanta. The 125th lost at the battle of Kene- 
saw Mountain one hundred and fifty men killed and wounded, be- 
ing more than one-half the number which went in at the beginning 
of the battle. Seventy of these men were killed on the field, and 
forty afterward died from wounds received that day. 

The 125th started with Sherman's grand army on its march to the 
Atlantic ocean on the 10th of November, being in the 3d brigade, 
2d division of Jeff. C. Davis' 14th Corps. On this march the 125th 
had its full share of the resources of Georgia, doing its full duty as 



COLONEL O. F. HARMOX. 81 

foragers. The regiment remained in Savannah till the 20th of Jan- 
uary, and then left on the campaign through the Carolinas, leaving 
its mark wherever it went. 

On the 19th of March happened the almost disastrous battle 
of Bentonville, which was retrieved by the 2d division of the 14th 
Corps, bringing victory out of defeat. The whole of Johnson's 
army was on that day thrown upon the two divisions of the 14th 
Corps, and upon the first division giving way before the overwhelm- 
ing forces of the enemy, the 2d division gallantly came to the res- 
cue, and succeeded, after a desperate fight, in driving the foe from 
the field. 

The 125th marched from Bentonville to Goldsboro, and thence to 
Raleigh, where it witnessed the surrender of Johnston. Then on to 
Richmond and Washington, where it took part in the grand review. 
It arrived in Chicago, June 14, 1865, with 371 men of the 854 with 
whom it started for the field. 

A noticeable incident occurred during the stay of the 125th at 
Caldwell's Ford, on the 17th of November, 1863. On that day a 
rebel battery opened upon the camp from the opposite side of the 
river, killing the Chaplain, Rev. L. W. Sanders, but doing no other 
damage whatever, though over a hundred shots were fired from the 
battery. 

Colonel O. F. Harmon was born in "Wheatland, Monroe County, 
New York, May 31, 1827. He lived with his parents until about 
twenty-one years of age, working on his father's farm during the 
summer season, and going to district school in the winter. After 
spending two years in academic studies, he engaged in the study of 
law in the fall of 1849, entering the law office of Messrs. Smith and 
Griffin, Rochester, New York. Was admitted to the bar in Albany, 
December, 1850, having attended lectures for six months in the Law 
School of Professor Fowler at Ballston Spa, New York. Upon be- 
ing admitted to the bar he returned to Rochester, and continued 
with Smith and Griffin most of the time for the next two years. In 
November, 1852, he started west, with the intention of settling in 
Flint, Mich., but not being pleased with the town, went to Detroit, 
remaining there five weeks, and then started south, reaching Lafay- 
ette, Ind., in a few days. Falling in with Gen. H. L. Ellsworth at 
6 



82 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

this place, he was induced by the General's glowing descriptions of 
Illinois prairie, to return home for funds to purchase at government 
price a few hundred acres in the Danville Land district. Listening 
to his stories of the wonderful West, his father gave him fifteen hun- 
dred dollars, and on the 24th of March, 1853, he again left home, 
arriving at Danville, 111., on the 31st of the same month. The land 
office was then closed. Meeting with Abram Stansberry of Che- 
ney's Grove, he went home with him, and while there, selected 1000 
acres of choice land for entry, and returned to Danville. The land 
was entered in the early part of May. lie soon opened a law office, 
and commenced the practice of law, determining to abandon specu- 
lation, as detrimental to his success as a lawyer. He was married 
February 22, 1854, to Mrs. Elizabeth C. Hill, daughter of Alex- 
ander McDonald, Vermillion county, 111., by whom he had four 
children. He was elected to the State Legislature in 1858, and 
served one session. In 1860 he was nominated for re-election by 
the Republican party, but declined the nomination. In June, 1850, 
formed a co-partnership with Hon. O. L. Davis. The firm had an 
extensive practice in Eastern Illinois. While attending Court at 
Urbana, Illinois, in August, 1862, Col. Harmon was solicited by 
numerous citizens and personal friends to attempt the organization 
of a regiment of infantry. After some hesitation he consented, 
left the Court, returned home, and immediately commenced the 
work. The organization was perfected within two weeks, and 
the regiment mustered into the service. The command being unani- 
mously tendered to him, it was accepted, and he left home and 
friends for the field, at great pecuniary sacrifice. He continued in 
command of his regiment until the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, 
when he fell, pierced by a rebel bullet while leading an assault. He 
was one of the bravest soldiers and most honorable gentlemen that 
ever drew sword in defense of his country. 



CHAPTER IV. 

REGIMENTAL AND PERSONAL. 

The Seventh Infantry — Muster Roll of the First Company Enlisted in the 
State — General John Cook — The Eighth — Colonel Lloyd Wheaton — The 
Ninth — Its Campaigns — The Tenth — The March to Knoxyille — The Eleventh 
— Its Original and Final Rosters — Colonel Garrett Nevids — The Twelfth — 
What It Did — Chicago Board of Trade Battery — Heroism and Devotion of the 
Men — Bridges' Battery. 

SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

THE 7th Regiment was organized and mustered into the service 
at Camp Yates, Springfield, April 25, 1861, with the following 
roster : 

Colonel, John Cook ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Wilford D. Wyatt ; Major, Nicholas 
Greusel. 

Co. A — Captain, Edward S. Joslyn ; 1st Lieutenant, Reuben H. Adams ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James Davidson. 

Co. B — Captain, James Monroe ; 1st Lieutenant, Edmund W. True ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert H. McFadden. 

Co. C — Captain, Samuel E. Lawyer ; 1st Lieutenant, Silas Miller; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Rufus P. Pattison. 

Co. D — Captain, Benjamin M. Munn; 1st Lieutenant, Elizur Southworth; 2d 
Lieutenant, Mark P. Miller. 

Co. E — Captain, George H. E stab rook ; 1st Lieutenant, OttoBuzard; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, H. C. Worthington. 

Co. F — Captain, J. F. Cummings; 1st Lieutenant, William 0. Jenks; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, C. F. Adams. 

Co. G — Captain, William Sands ; 1st Lieutenant, David L. Canfield ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, W. G. Kerchival. 

Co. H — Captain, Clifford W. Holden; 1st Lieutenant, Chris. C. Mason; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, L. Wash. Myers. 

Co. I — Captain, Andrew J. Babeock ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Moffitt ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Noah E. Mendell. 

Co. K — Captain, Richard Rowett; 1st Lieutenant, Manning Mayfield ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George Hunter. 



84 PATBIOTTSM OF ILLINOIS. 

The 7th left Camp Fates for Alton and Mound City, at which lat- 
ter place, on the 25th of July, it was mastered into the three years' 
service. Its roster was then as follows: 

Colonel, John I '<»>k ; Lieutenant-Colonel, A. .T. Babcock ; Major, Nicholas Grcusel ; 
Adjutant, Leroy K. Waller; Quartermaster, Wm. Brown, Jr. ; Surgeon, Richard L. 
Metcalf; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James Hamilton; 2d Assistant Surgeon, George C. 
McFarland; Chaplain, Jesae P. Davis. 

Co. A — Captain, Samuel G. Ward ; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan Kimball ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Wm. Renwick. 

Co. B — Captain, Jaiues Monroe ; 1st Lieutenant, Hector Perrin ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Orlando D. Ellis. 

Co. C — Captain, Samuel E. Lawyer; 1st Lieutenant, Leroy Walker; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Ed. R. Roberts. 

Co. D — Captain, Benjamin M. Munn ; 1st Lieutenant, Ira A. Church; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James M. Munn. 

Co. E — Captain, George H. Estabrook; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Smith ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, H. N. Estabrook. 

Co. F — Captain, James T. Cummings ; 1st Lieutenant, William Mathie ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, A. D. Knowlton. 

Co. G — Captain, Henry W. Allen; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Tipton; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Adam E. Vrooman. 

Co. H — Captain, ; 1st Lieutenant, Leo W. Myers; 2d Lieutenant, 

■Jacob L. Ring. 

Co. I — Captain, Noah E. Mendell; 1st Lieutenant, Ed. S. Johnson; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Newton Francis. 

Co. K — Captain, Richard Rowett ; 1st Lieutenant, George Hunter ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas B. Rood. 

It was then sent to Ironton, Mo., where it joined the command 
of General Prentiss. From Ironton it marched through Missouri 
to Cape Girardeau. From here it was sent to Fort Holt, Kentucky, 
General U. S. Grant being district commander. Here Colonel 
Cook was made commander of the post. During the battle of 
Belmont, it was sent to Elliott Mills, just above Columbus, returning 
the same night. On the 3d of February, 1862, the 7th was sent to 
Fort Henry, where it remained till February 12th, when it went to 
Fort Donelson, and participated in the capture of that place, being 
engaged in the last charge on the right of the enemy's works. On 
the 21st of February, it was sent to Clarksville, Tennessee. From 
here it made an expedition up the Tennessee river, and in April 
took part in the battle of Shiloh. Then followed the movement on 
Corinth, after the evacuation of which place it marched to Farm- 



FIRST COMPANY KAISED IN ILLINOIS. 85 

ington. At the battle of Corinth, on the 3d and 4th of October, the 
regiment fought almost continually. On the 18th of December, it 
was sent to Lexington, Kentucky, in pursuit of guerrillas. From the 
15th of April, 1863, till May 3d, it was engaged in raids through 
the country to the Alabama line, when it returned to Corinth. 
From this date it was continually engaged in scouting and skirmish- 
ing until the re-enlistment of the men as veterans, on the 22d of 
December. It was mounted on the 18th of June, and remained a 
mounted infantry regiment until its re-enlistment. On the 11th of 
January, 1864, it arrived at Springfield, where, on the 19th, it 
received thirty days 1 furlough, at the expiration of which it returned 
to Pulaski. Here it was again mounted, and placed on scouting 
service in Northern Alabama. "While thus engaged it had a skir- 
mish with the enemy at Tilton, Georgia, where the rebels had torn up 
the railroad track and destroyed a supply train. On the 16th of 
June it was dismounted and ordered to Rome, arriving on the 10th 
of July. On the 5th of October it was engaged at the battle of 
Allatoona Pass, where it lost 143 officers and men. It remained at 
Rome, on guard duty, during the Atlanta campaign. On the 9th of 
November, Rome was evacuated, and the 7th joined Sherman's 
grand army in the march to the sea, and in the Carolina campaign. 
It took part in the review before the President in "Washington, after 
which it proceeded to Louisville, where it was mustered out of the 
service on the 9th of July, 1865. On the 14th it was paid and 
finally discharged at Springfield. 

The following is the original roll of the first company mustered 
into the service from Illinois, with the promotions afterward received 
by some of its members : 

Captain John Cook, Major-General TJ. S. A. ; Captain Andrew J. Babcock, 
Colonel 7th Illinois Infantry. 

1st Lieutenant Thomas G. Hoffett, Adjutant 7th Illinois Infantry. 

2d Lieutenant Noah E. Mendell, Captain Co. I, 7th Illinois Infantry. 

1st Sergeant Edward S. Johnson, Major 7th Illinois Infantry. 

Sergeant — John C. Reynolds; William A. Dubois, Lieutenant-Colonel 80th Illi- 
nois Infantry; Henry Yan Hoff, Adjutant 14th Illinois Infantry. 

Corporals — Edward R. Roberts, Captain 7th Illinois Infantry; John S. Caulfield, 
1st Lieutenant 114th Illinois Infantry ; Thomas Bishop, Sergeant-Major 114th Illi- 
nois Infantry ; John M. Pearson, Captain 4th New Jersey Infantry. 

Privates — Armstrong John W., Captain; Kain Albert W., ( Musician ) ; Adams 



B6 PATRIOTISM OF ILLIXOI8. 

Alexander, (Musician), Lieutenant 7ih [llinoia Infantry; Alden William, Alsop 
Henry, Arnold Alfred, Lieutenant 183d Illinois Infantry ; Butler Thomas II., liutts 

Thomas, Lieutenant, Regimenl ; Boring William, Clark William II., Cook 

Thomas H., Caufield John 0., Decker John C, Dickerson Samuel, Hat-lev Charles, 
Lieutenant 50th Illinois Infantry ; Fcssendcn George T., Leader 11th Missouri Hand ; 
Frances Thomas N., Adjutant 7th Illinois Infantry ; Ferguson Robert J., Fisher 
Joseph 8., lieutenant Tth Illinois Infantry; Flint Solomon F., Lieutenant 7th Illi- 
nois Infantry ; Fox James, Gregory Peter, Gourley Charles S., Green Francis M., 
Captain list Illinois Infantry; Gibson John, Captain 11 tth Illinois Infantry; 
Hiikox Silas W., Lieutenant 10th Illinois Cavalry ; Higgins Edwin S., Captain 33d 
Illinois Infantry; Heskett Benjamin S., Ide Albert L., Johns Chester, Lieutenant 
10th Illinois Cavalry; Elipple Jacob, Kerlin George W., Captain 2fith Illinois 
Infantry; Keefner George, Lawhead Charles, Manning George G., Morris Thomas 
A., McClease John, Captain 30th Illinois Infantry; Mclntire Marshall M., 1st Lieu- 
tenant 29th Illinois Infantry ; Nixon William A., Captain 33d Illinois Infantry ; 
Norton Luke, Newman William, Naral Joseph D., Opdyke Thomas G., Post Truman 
S., Captain 29th Illinois Infantry ; Polusky David R., Reed Lawson, Ruth J. Dillcr, 
Ruby Andrew M., Russell Samuel H., Captain 29th Illinois Infantry; Riley Asher, 
Lieutenant 114th Illinois Infantry; Richmond John S., Captain 26th Illinois 
Infantry; Strickland Edward P., Captain 114th Illinois Infantry ; Sullivan John 
E., Captain 7th Illinois Infantry; Spriggs Fredrick R., Lieutenant 10th Illinois 
Cavalry ; Saunders Henry A., Shunkland John H., Steele Reuben, Swearinger 
Thomas A., Captain 28th Illinois Infantry ; Stockdale William G., Thorpe William 
G., Truman Oliver, Taylor Charles A., Uhler Martin J., Wells Charles II., Captain 
38th Illinois Infantry ; Wilson William II., Wyatt Frauk, Williams Louis M., Jayne 
Henry, Lieutenant 7th Illinois Cavalry, A. D. C. 

Major- General John Cook was born in Belleville, Illinois, June 
12, 1826. In 1855, he was Mayor of Springfield. He was made 
Major-General of Illinois Militia, by Governor Bissell, in 1856. 
In the same year he was elected Sheriff of Sangamon County. 

He was Captain of the Springfield Zouave Grays, Company "A," 
20th Regiment Illinois State Militia. It was an admirably drilled 
company, and was to go to Washington as escort to Mr. Lincoln, 
when he went from Springfield, but was forbidden by General Scott. 
This was the first company tendered to the United States by the 
Governor of Illinois. 

Upon the organization of the 7th, he was elected Colonel, April 
25, 1861. He was in the battle of Fort Donelson, in command of a 
brigade in General Smith's division, where his gallantry and efficient 
services won the approbation of his superiors, and he was recom- 
mended for promotion. He received a commission as Brigadier- 
General. He served faithfully wherever assigned to duty, whether 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. 87 

on the field or in the state, and at the close of the war was mustered 
out as Major-General. 

General Cook had the honor to lead the gallant 7th, a heroic regi- 
ment, and was worthy of the command. Cool and yet confident, he 
proved himself worthy of position as a general officer. 

EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 8th regiment was mustered into the service at Camp Yates, 
Springfield, April 25, 1861, with the following roster: 

Colonel, Richard J. Oglesby; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank L. Rhodes; Major, John 
P. Post. 

Co. A — Captain, Isaac C. Pugh ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Martin ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George M. Bruce. 

Co. B — Captain, Henry P. Westerfield ; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Lowry; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Goodman. 

Co. C — Captain, James M. Ashmore ; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Hill; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Daniel Saver. 

Co. D — Captain, John Lynch ; 1st Lieutenant, L. M. Startsman ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John H. Roberts. 

Co. E — Captain, Charles E. Dennisou; 1st Lieutenant, John Wetzel ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles Prcebesting. 

Co. F — Captain, Joseph M. Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Christ. C. Glass; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Josiah A. Sheetz. 

Co. G — Captain, John McWilliams ; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Bernard ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Butler. 

Co. H — Captain, A. J. McCraner; 1st Lieutenant, R. H. Sturgess; 2d Lieutenant, 
John R. Mabry. 

Co. I — Captain, Daniel Grass; 1st Lieutenant, "William C. Clark; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles Fairbanks. 

Co. K — Captain, William H. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, Price Keith ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Ab'm Yandenburg. 

After serving three months at Cairo, the regiment re-organized for 
the three years' service, with a nearly new roster, as follows : 

Colonel, Richard J. Oglesby; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank L. Rhodes; Major, John 
P. Post ; Adjutant, William C. Clark; Quartermaster, Samuel Rhodes; Surgeon, 
Silas T. Trowbridge ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John M. Pfaipps ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Charles N. Denison ; Chaplain, Samuel Day. 

Co. A — Captain, G. M. Bruce; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Leeper; 2d Lieutenant, 
Walter J. Taylor 

Co. B — Captain, Herman Lieb ; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Schlosser ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henrv J. Marsh. 



88 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Co. — Captain, James M. Ashmore ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel Savers; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James 8. Brown. 

Co. D — Captain, L. M. Btartsman; 1st Lieutenant, Jos. W. Robards; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Joseph B. Jones. 

Co. E — Captain, John Wetzel ; 1st Lieutenant, Lloyd Whcaton ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel Caldwell. 

Co. F — Captain, Joseph M. Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Josiah A. Sheetz; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel lihodes. 

Co. Q — Captain, James S. Barnard; 1st Lieutenant, Elilni Jones; 2d Lieutenant, 
William P. Sitton. 

Co. II — Captain, Robert II. Sturgess; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Shaw; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alva C. Bishop. 

Co. I — Captain, Robert Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, William Zeidlcr; 2d Lieutenant, 
Deitrich Smith. 

Co. K — Captain, William II. Ilarvey ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph G. Howell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Noah W. Dennison. 

In September, 1861, the regiment was stationed at Bird's Point, 
Mo., where it remained till January, 18G2, when it joined in the 
movement on Columbus. On the 2d of February it left Cairo with 
General Grant, to " hew a way to the Gulf," and actively partici- 
pated in the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. It after- 
ward took part in the battle of Shiloh and in the siege of Corinth. 
After the evacuation of this place, the regiment remained for a brief 
time at Bethel, Term., and then went to Jackson, where it remained 
till November 17th. In this month it joined the army of Grant in 
the movement southward on the line of the Memphis and Charles- 
ton Railroad to Mississippi. On the 19th of January, 1863, it reached 
Memphis, where it remained till February 22d, when it embarked for 
Lake Providence. It was engaged in various minor movements till 
the grand advance upon Vicksburg was made. It took part in the 
battles of Thompson's Hill, Raymond, Jackson and Champion Hills, 
and in the siege of Vicksburg. It afterward went upon several 
expeditions, and in February, 1864, marched with General Sherman 
to Meridian, Miss. On its return to Vicksburg, three fourths of its 
number having re-enlisted as veterans, it was furloughed for thirty 
days. On the 17th of May it returned to Vicksburg, where it 
remained on post duty, varying this with an occasional brief expe- 
dition. On the 21st of June it was strengthened by the consoli- 
dation with it of the veterans of the 17th regiment. On the 21st of 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. S9 

July it left Vicksburg on an expedition render General Dennis to 
Jackson, Miss., skirmishing with the enemy on its return. On the 
25th of July the regiment left Vicksburg for Morganzia, La., where 
it remained till August 23d. While stationed at Morganzia, it made 
an expedition to Port Hudson and Clinton, La., in which it met the 
rebels in two or three slight skirmishes. On the 23d of August, it 
went upon an expedition to the mouth of White River. It 
remained at the latter place till October 18th, when it proceeded to 
Memphis, afterward to the mouth of White River, and thence to 
Duvall's Bluff. Here it remained but a few days, when it returned 
to Memphis. While here it made a scout in the direction of La- 
grange, returning to Memphis on the 1st of January, 1865, when it 
left Memphis for New Orleans, in the vicinity of which it remained 
till February, when it was sent to Dauphin Island, where it was in 
camp till March 17th, when it started on the campaign against Mobile, 
and took part in the siege of Spanish Fort. It was also in the charge 
made upon Fort Blakely, where it did gallant service and was the 
first to plant its colors on the enemy's works. From this date until 
May 27th, it was stationed at Mobile, doing guard duty. It then went 
to New Orleans, and from thence up the Red River to Shreveport, 
where it remained till June 15th, when it marched to Marshall, Texas. 
Here and at Shreveport it remained till its muster out in May, 1866. 
Colonel Lloyd Wheaton was born in Calhoun County, Michigan, 
July 15, 1838. He came to Illinois at the age of fifteen, and settled 
at Peoria. He learned civil engineering from his father, and fol- 
lowed his profession until the breaking out of the war, when he 
joined the first company of volunteers raised in Peoria. The com- 
pany was mustered into the 8th infantry on its original organization 
at Springfield. When the regiment was mustered for three years' 
service he was made First Lieutenant. At the battle of Shiloh, 
where he was seriously wounded, he won his promotion to the cap- 
taincy, and from that passed step by step to the colonelcy of the 
regiment ; gaining his promotion through every grade by gallant 
and meritorious conduct. He was one of the first men to enter the 
rebel works at Fort Blakely, and was always in the front when dan- 
ger was near. 



00 PATRIOTISM OF Il.UV'IS. 



NIMH ILLINOIS INFANTKY. 

The 9th regiment was organized at Springfield, and mustered into 
the service on the 28th of April, 1861. The following is the original 
roster : 

Coloin'l, Eleazer A. Paine; Lieutenant-Colonel, Augustus Mersey; Major, Je?.n; 
J. Phillips. 

Co. A — Captain, Aug. Mersey; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Koercha ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hugo Wcsterman. 

Co. P» — Captain, Rudolph Beckier; 1st Lieutenant, F'd. T. Ledergerbcr; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Ilenry C. Hay. 

Co. C — Captain, D. F. Tiedman ; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Conrad ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hamilton Leiber. 

Co. D — Captain, Alex. G. Hawes; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Cox; 2d Lieutenant, 
Cassius F. Roman. 

Co. E — Captain, Otto Kochlein; 1st Lieutenant, "William Scheittcin : 2d Lieuten- 
ant, S. Scheiuminger. 

Co. F — Captain, Collins Van Cleve ; 1st Lieutenant, Loren Webb ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George Adams. 

Co. G — Captain, Benj. W. Tucker; 1st Lieutenant, Cary II. n. Davis; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Jared P. Ash. 

Co. II — Captain, Jesse J. Phillips ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Kitehell ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Wm. F. Armstrong. 

Co. I — Captain, Jos. G. Robinson ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Newsham ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Gerhard Gerride. 

On the day of its muster into the service, the 9th was ordered to 
Cairo, where it joined General Prentiss' command. It was engaged 
in scouting service through Missouri, and on the expiration of its 
term of service, July 26, 1861, was mustered out of service. Under 
orders from the War Department, however, it was re-organized and 
mustered into the three years' service on the day of its muster out. 
The following is the second roster: 

Colonel, Eleazer A. Paine ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Augustus Mersey; Major, Jesse J. 
Phillips; Adjutant, Thomas J. Newsham; Quartermaster, Wm. C. Pinckard ; Sur- 
geon, Samuel M. Hamilton; 1-t Assistant Surgeon, EmilGuilick; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Wm. A. Allen ; Chaplain, James J. Ferree. 

Co. A. — Captain, John H. Kuhn ; 1st Lieutenant, Emil Adam ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Ernest J. Weivrick. 

Co. B — Captain, Wm. C. Kueffner ; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton Leiber ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Frederick E. Vogeler. 

Co. C— Captain, Dederick F. Tedeman; 1st Lieutenant, Oscar Rollman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles Scheve. 



NINTH INFANTRY. 91 

Co. D — Captain, Rudolphus Beckier ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Krebs ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Bollen. 

Co. E — Captain, Alexander G. Hawes ; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Craig; 2d 
Lieutenant, R. B. Patterson. 

Co. F — Captain, Loren Webb ; 1st Lieutenant, William Britt ; 2d Lieutenant, G. 
W. Williford. 

Co. G — Captain, Eager M. Lowe ; 1st Lieutenant, John S. Tutten; 2d Lieutenant, 
Isaac Clements. 

Co. H — Captain, Wm. F. Armstrong; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrus H. Gillmore ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Alfred Cowgill. 

Co. I — Captain, Jos. G. Robinson ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Purviance ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel J. Hughes. 

Co. K — Captain, George B. Poor ; 1st Lieutenant, Jas. C. McCleary ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Gilbert G. Low. 

On the 1st of September, 1861, the aggregate strength of the 
regiment was 1,040 men. On the 5th it left Cairo for Paducah, Ky., 
where it remained until February 5, 1862. While there, the regiment 
made numerous marches and reconnoissances through that portion of 
Kentucky. It next participated in the battles of Forts Henry and 
Donelson, in which it did excellent service. On the 22d of Febru- 
ary it took possession of Clarksville, Tenn., where a large amount of 
commissary stores and supplies were captured. It was engaged in 
the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th and 7th of April, 1862, and in the 
advance on Corinth. After the evacuation of that place it was sent 
as far as Booneville, in pursuit of the retreating rebels. From June 
13th to August 15th, it was in camp within two miles of Corinth. 
From there it went to Rienzi, and remained till October 1st. It was 
engaged in the battle of Corinth, October 3d and 4th. It was soon 
afterward ordered out on a reconnoissance to Guntown, Saltillo, 
Tupelo and Marietta. It Avas engaged in the battles of Buzzard 
Roost, Decatur, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, Rome Cross 
Roads, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, and a number of 
others. It was also in the grand " march to the sea," actively and 
honorably participating in the Carolina campaign. It was present 
at the grand review at Washington, in 1865, after which it returned 
home for muster and discharge, having participated in not less than 
one hundred and ten battles and skirmishes. 

TENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 
The 10th regiment was originally formed in 1861, from indepen- 



92 PATBIOTI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

dent companies, put together for three months, and afterwards re- 
organized as a three years' regiment. The original roster was as 

follows : 

Colon.], Benj, If. Prentiss; Lieutenant-Colonel, James D. Morgan ; Major, Charles 
H. Adam- ; Assistant Surg >, Daniel Stahl. 

Co. A.— Captain, John Tillson ; 1st Lieutenant, Jos. G. Rowland ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Wood, jr. 

Co. B— Captain, Ohaa. EL Adams ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. King ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Thomas W. Smith. 

Co. C — Captain, Lindsey IT. Carr; 1st Lieutenant, Israel Jones. 

Co. I) — Captain, Francis A. Dallam; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Edson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel J. Wilson. 

Co. E— Captain, ('has. S. Sheeley ; 1st Lieutenant, William II. Mintcr; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James Short. 

Co. F. (Artillery) — Captain, Chas. Houghtaling; 1st Lieutenant, Chas. C.Camp- 
bell; 2d Lieutenant, A. M. Wright; 3d Lieutenant, John \V. Simmons. 

Co. G — Captain, McLain F. Wood ; 1st Lieutenant, James Mitchell ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James F. Lor.glev. 

Co. II — Captain, Daniel H. Gilmer; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Olney ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James W. Harris. 

Co. I. (Artillery) — Captain, Caleb Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Lott ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James P. Flood. 

Co. K. (Artillery) — Captain, Edward McAlister; 1st Lieutenant, George J. Wood ; 
2d Lieutenant, Win. C. Chapman. 

Colonel Prentiss was made a Brigadier- General on the 10th of 
May, 1861, and afterward commissioned as Major-General. His suc- 
cessor, Colonel Morgan, was appointed Brigadier-General on the 
17th of July, '61. The third commanding officer, Colonel John Till- 
son, wore the star of a Brevet-Brigadier- General on his muster out, 
in 1865. On the re-organization of the regiment for three years' ser- 
vice, in July, 1861, the roster was as follows : 

Colonel, James D. Morgan ; Lieutenant-Colonel, John Tillson ; Major, Francis A 
Dallam; Adjutant, Joseph G. Rowland; Quartermaster, Oliver I. Pyatt; Surgeon, 
Henry R. Payne; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Daniel Stahl; 2d Assistant Surgeon, John 
W. Craig; Chaplain, William H. Collins. 

Co. A — Captain, McLain F. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, James F. Langley ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Otho D. Critzer. 

Co. B— Captain, Thomas W. Smith ; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Green ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Chas. P. McEnally. 

Co. C— Captain, Charles S. Sheley ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Wood ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William Morgan. 

Co. D— Captain, Samuel T. Mason ; 1st Lieutenant, Harry M. Scarritt; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William G. Galion. 



THE TENTII INFANTRY. 93 

Co. E — Captain, Charles S. Cowan ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel I. Wilson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Colin McKinney. 

Co. F — Captain, George A. Race ; 1st Lieutenant, Ricbm'd Wolcott ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, A. Neighmeyer. 

Co. G — Captain, John D. Mitchell; 1st Lieutenant, David R. Waters; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Guy W. Blanchard. 

Co. H — Captain, Lindsay H. Carr; 1st Lieutenant, Edward II. Sylla ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, J. B. Carpenter. 

Co. I — Captain, Morton S. McAtee ; 1st Lieutenant, David Gillespie ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert H. Mann. 

Co. K — Captain, George C. Lusk ; 1st Lieutenant, Godhold Girnth ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Edward L. Friday. 

On the 10th of October, 1861, the 10th left Cairo, and on the 10th 
of January, 1862, started on a raid through that portion of Kentucky 
adjacent to Cairo, in which it accomplished the destruction of a large 
amount of rebel property. On the 10th of March it left Bird's Point 
and joined General Pope at New Madrid, and took part in the head- 
ing off of the rebels who were endeavoring to escape from Island 
No. 10. On the 10th of April, three days later, it returned to New 
Madrid, and thence went to Osceola, near Fort Pillow, which place 
it soon left for Pittsburg Landing, on hearing of the battle of Shiloh. 
It then took part in the siege of Corinth until that place fell, and 
was foremost in pursuit of the flying rebels. From the 13th of 
July till the 28th of August it lay at Tuscumbia, Ala., and was then 
sent to Nashville, which place it guarded until relieved by General 
Rosecrans' army. During this time it was fighting almost constantly, 
for a part of the time being on half rations, then one fourth, until it 
was almost without rations at all. Yet the boys found time to build 
Fort Negley. Under General Thomas the regiment went through 
the Alabama and Mississippi campaigns, and on the 3d of October, 
1864, joined Rosecrans' grand army, participating in the battles of 
Mission Ridge, Lookout Mountain and the campaign on Knoxville. 
Then followed the famous march to the relief of Burnside at Knox- 
ville, made in mid- winter, without shoes, blankets or tents. On the 
1st of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted for another three 
years. At the expiration of its "veteran furlough," it joined in the 
advance on Atlanta. Then came Sherman's " march to the sea," 
in which the 10th took a part, as also in the grand review at Wash- 
ington. On the 4th of July, 1865, the regiment was mustered out at- 



O-i PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Louisville, and two days later arrived at Chicago for final muster 
and discharge. At (his date it numbered, all told, only 686 men of 
the 1,850 which it mastered at one time in 1861. 

The following is a list of the larger battles in which the 10th was 
engaged: New .Madrid, Island No. 10, Tiptonville, Farmington, 
Corinth (May 8th and 28th, 1862), Tuscumbia, Columbia, Mission 
Ridge, Chickamauga, Tunnel Bill, Buzzard Roost and Rocky Face, 
Resaca (May llth and loth and October 14, 1864), Rome, Dal- 
las, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain. Marietta, 
Nickojack, Chattahoochie River, Peacb Tree Creek, Before Atlanta 
(thirty days), Jonesboro, Snake Creek Gap, Oliver Station, Pooler, 
Savannah, Rivers' Bridges, Bennaker's Bridge, Cheraw, Fayetteville, 
Bentonville. 

ELEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The llth regiment was organized at Springfield, and was mustered 
into the three months' servioe on the 30th of April, 1861 — two weeks 
after the President's first proclamation calling for volunteers. The 
following is the original roster : 

Colonel, W. H. L. Wallace ; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. Warren Fillers ; Major, Thomas 
E. G. Ransom. 

Co. A — Captain, Smith D. Atkins; 1st Lieutenant, M. E. Newcomer; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Silas W. Fields. 

Co. B — Captain, Fred. W. Shaw ; 1st Lieutenant, Greenbury L. Foot ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, J. M. MeClanahan. 

Co. C — Captain, A. L. Rockwood ; 1st Lieutenant, S. P. Jones ; 2d Lieutenant, J. 
C. Jewell. 

Co. D — Captain, Garrett Ncvius ; 1st Lieutenant, R. A. Bird; 2d Lieutonant, 
Wm. D. E. Andrews. 

Co. E — Captain, T. E. G. Ransom; 1st Lieutenant, Lloyd D. Waddell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Alvin II. More}-. 

Co. F — Captain, Wm. T. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Elton ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George S. Doane. 

Co. G — Captain, J. Warren Filler; 1st Lieutenant, John H. J. Lacy; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Geo. W. Parks. 

Co. H — Captain, Theodore C.Gibson; 1st LieutenaDt, Benjamin F. Hotchkiss ; 
2d Lieutenant, Douglas Hapeman. 

Co. I — Captain, Wm. L. Gibson; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph E. Skinner; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, E. A. Mullett. 

Co. K — Captain, Henry H. Carter ; 1st Lieutenant, John Dick ; 2d Lieutenant, 
James Ireland. 



THE ELEVENTH INFANTRY. 95 

For three months the regiment was stationed at Villa Ridge, 111., 
and Bird's Point, Mo., doing garrison duty. During this term the 
lowest aggregate was 882 and the highest 933. On the 30th of 
July it was re-mustered for the three years' service, with the follow- 
ing roster : 

Colonel, W. H. L. Wallace ; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. Warren Fillers ; Major, T. E. 
G. Ransom; Adjutant, Cyrus E. Dickey; Quartermaster, Guyan J. Davis; Surgeon, 
Owen M. Long ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Oliver G. Hunt ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Geo. 
H Dewey ; Chaplain, Benjamin H. Pierson. 

Co, A — Captain, Smith D. Atkins ; 1st Lieutenant, Guyan J. Davis ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James 0. Churchill. 

Co. B — Captain, Fred W. Shaw; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred R. Wilcox; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Samuel B. Dean. 

Co. C — Captain, George C. McKee ; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. S. Doane ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, H. F. McWilliams. 

Co. D — Captain, Wm. D. E. Andrews ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry H. Doane ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Orrin C. Towne. 

Co. E — Captain, Lloyd D. Waddell ; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison C. Vore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel C. Moore. 

Co. F — (Formerly Co. K, 109th ) Captain, Samuel 0. Lewis ; 1st Lieutenant, Rob- 
ert B. Bartleson ; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew Colvin. 

Co. G — Captain, Lucius Rose ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. J. Boyce ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Wm. M. Murray. 

Co. H — Captain, James H. Coates ; 1st Lieutenant, William Duncan ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Douglas Hapeman. 

Co. I — Captain, Greenbury L. Fort ; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Widmer ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Benjamin F. Blackstone. 

Co. K — Captain Henry H. Carter ; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan C. Kenyon ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Theo. H. Walrod. 

At the time of re-muster the regiment numbered 288. During the 
four months succeeding it was recruited to an aggregate of 801, in 
the meantime doing garrison and field duty, and it participated in 
various expeditions to New Madrid, Charleston, Bloomfield, Colum- 
bus and Sikeston. February 2, 1862, it embarked for Fort Henry 
and took part in the campaign against that place. On the 11th of 
the same month it moved toward Fort Donelson, and bore a gallant 
and bloody part in the siege and capture of that place, losing 329 
killed, wounded and missing, out of about 500 engaged. On the 
5th of March it embarked for Savannah, Tenn., and on the 6th and 
7th of April took part in the battle of Shiloh, where it lost twenty- 
seven killed out of one hundred and fifty engaged. It next partici- 



96 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

pated in the siege of Corinth, and thence marched to Jackson, 
Tennessee, camping there till August 2d, taking part, in July, in 
expeditions to Trenton and Lexington, Tennessee. On the 2<1 of 
August, it was sent to Cairo to recruit. It remained here and at 
Paducah until November 20th, in the meantime engaging in various 
expeditions to Clarksvillc, Tennessee, and Hopkinsville, Kentucky. 
At the latter date it started for Lagrange, Tennessee. From this 
time till January 12, L863, it participated in the campaign in North- 
ern Mississippi, having a sharp -skirmish with the enemy at Talla- 
hatchie. Halting at Memphis, on the 17th it embarked for Young's 
Point, where it remained till February 11th, when it moved to Lake 
Providence. It made headquarters here till April 20th. On the 23d, 
the 389 "faithful men " of the 109th Illinois Infantry [ Vide history 
of the latter regiment] were transferred to the 11th. April 26th the 
11th marched to the rear of Vicksburg, arriving May 18th. On the 
19th and 22d, it participated in assaults upon the enemy's works, and 
then in the advance siege works till the rebel surrender. During 
the assaults and siege it lost one field officer (Colonel Garrett Nevius) 
killed and three line officers and forty men killed and wounded. 
On the 17th of July it moved with an expedition to Natchez, partici- 
pating in another to Woodville, Mississippi, returning to Vcksburg, 
October 12th, making headquarters there till July 29, 1864. In the 
meantime it took part in various expeditions, skirmishing at Liver- 
pool Heights, February 5th, Yazoo City, March 5th, and at several 
other places. July 29th, it moved to Morganzia, and remained there 
till September 3d, thence by water, to the mouth of White River, 
Arkansas. On the 18th of October, it moved to Memphis, Tennes- 
see, returning to White River on the 27th. From this time it was 
engaged in "general campaigning," till February 4, 18G5, when it 
moved to Dauphin Island, and from the 17th of March till April 
12th, was engaged in operations against Mobile, on the latter date 
marching into and taking possession of the city. It had a part in 
the investment and siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and in 
the assault on the latter. On the 27th of May it left Mobile for 
New Orleans, from thence to Alexandria, La., where it remained till 
June 22d, when it was sent to Baton Rouge, where it was mustered 
out of service on the 14th day of July, 1865, and was sent thence 
to Springfield, where it was paid off and finally discharged. 



COLONEL GARRETT NEVIUS. 97 

Killed on the field and died of wounds received. . . .149. 

Aggregate in three months' service 933 

" years' service 1,879 

Field and Staff " " " 53 

Total 2 875 

The following general officers have been in the regiment : Gene- 
ral W. H. L. Wallace, General T. E. G. Ransom, General Smith D. 
Atkins. 

The following field officers of other regiments were members of 
the 11th: Colonel Hotchkiss, Colonel Hapeman, Major Widmer, 
Colonel H. H. Dean, Major S. B. Dean, Lieutenant-Colonel McCaleb, 
Colonel G. L. Fort. Line officers made from this regiment to other 
regiments, thirty-three. The following is the roster at muster out : 

Colonel, Jas. H. Coates ; Lieutenant-Colonel, N. C. Kenyan ; Major S. 0. Lewis ; 
Adjutant, A. A. Thompson ; Quartermaster, J. W. Brewster ; Surgeon, 0. G. Hunt; 
Assistant Surgeons, Myron Hopkins, W. D. Briggs. 

Co. A — Captain, 0. Ingersoll; 1st Lieutenant, Jerome H. Liveland ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, R. J. Hurlbut. 

Co. B — Captain, I. D. Vore ; 1st Lieutenant, John Spire ; 2d Lieutenant, Geo. D. 
Carrington. 

Co. C — Captain, Geo. S. Doane ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Reading; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Wm. J. Mclntyre. 

Co. D — Captain, Ira Beddo ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Stalker ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Aaron Bayless. 

Co. E — Captain, S. Bostwick; 1st Lieutenant, ; 2d Lieutenant, John 

Stevenson. 

Co. F — Captain, Robert Bartleson; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Calvin; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John W. Carnes. 

Co. G — Captain, Wm. S. Johnston; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. C. Ginter; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Richard Hughes. 

Co. H — 2d Lieutenant, M. D. Ayres. 

Co. I — Captain, C. A. Peirronet. 

Co. K — Captain, Henry C. Mansfield; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Ricken ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas Williamson. 

Colonel Nevius entered the service as Captain of " Co. D," in the 
11th, when it enlisted in the three months' service, his commission 
bearing date May 14, 1861. When the regiment enlisted for three 
years he was chosen Major and commissioned July 30, 1861. In 
the changes following the promotions of Colonel W. H. L. Wallace 
and T. E. G. Ransom, he became Lieutenant-Colonel, his commis- 
7 



98 PATRIOTISM 01 ILLINOIS. 

sion bearing date February ]•">, 1862. Upon the promotion of Colo- 
nel Ransom to Brigadier-General, November 29,1863, he became 
Colonel of the regiment. 

He was a brave, competent commander, and maintained the morale 
tlir lltli had acquired under Wallace and Ransom. 

In the fearful assault of May 22d, when Ransom led his brigade, 
the 116th, 1 lili, 95th ami 72d Illinois against the defences of Vicks- 
burg [ see Vol. I., pp. 468-9 ], where that brigade won deathless 
fame, when Humphrey went down stunned, where Wright was mor- 
tally wounded, Colonel Nevius was killed, and no truer patriot or 
braver soldier went down in that terrific charge. 

His remains were borne to Rockford and buried, June 4, 1863. 
The last letter he is known to have written to a Rockford friend, 
said : " I am not afraid of death — I may fall at any moment on the 
field of battle. I think I am ready to meet my fate if such it should 
be." 

TWELFm ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 12th regiment was mustered into the three months' service at 
Springfield, May 2, 1861, and was one of the six regiments organized 
under the call for 75,000 troops. Its original roster was as follows: 

Colonel, John McArthur; Lieutenant-Colonel, Aug. L. Chetlain ; Major, Wra. D 
Williams. 

Co. A — Captain, Joseph Kellogg; 1st Lieutenant, John Noyes, jr. ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Arthur C. Ducat. 

Co. B — Captain Phineas B. Rust ; 1st Lieutenant, Tyler Hale; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry Stephenson. 

Co. C — Captain, Samuel Frazier; 1st Lieutenant, William Maum ; 2d Lioutenant, 
Joseph Kirkland. 

Co. B — Captain, Wm. D. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, Bavid Benson; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Quincy McNeill. 

Co. E — Captain, Vincent Ridgely ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Fisher; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Nathaniel Sanford. 

Co. F — Captain, Lucies M. Rose ; 1st Lieutenant, Wallace Campbell; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, J. Bates Bickson. 

Co. G — Captain, ('has. H. Brookins ; 1st Lieutenant, S. B. Whetmore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Guy C. Ward. 

Co. H — Captain, Wm. T. Swain; 1st Lieutenant, Thompson Gordon; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John M. Mills. 

Co. I — Captain, Frank B. Ferris; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. L. Paddock; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, G. Gilbert Gibon. 



THE TWELFTH INFANTRY. 99 

Co. K — Captain, Jas. R. Hugunin ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. E. Waite ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Eben Bacon. 

When re-mustered into the three years' service, the roster was as 
follows : 

Colonel, John McArthur ; Lieutenant-Colonel, A. L. Chetlain ; Major, Wm. D. 
Williams; Adjutant, J. Bates Dickson; Quartermaster, S. R. Wetmore ; Surgeon, 
Horace Wardner ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James H. Ferris ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Wm. II. Newell ; Chaplain, Joel Grant. 

Co. A — Captain, Arthur C. Ducat ; 1st Lieutenant, William Fisher ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Duncan McLean. 

Co. B — Captain, John Tyler Hale ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry S. Stephenson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Justin D. Towner. 

Co. C — Captain, Wm. J. Allen ; 1st Lieutenant, Rob't V. Chesley ; 2d Lieutenant 
David Jones. 

Co. D — Captain, Robert H. Lackey; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Koehlor; 2d Lieu 
tenant, Wm. F. Jobe. 

Co. E — Captain, Vincent Ridgely ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Fisher ; 2d Lieuten' 
ant, Henry V. Sellar. 

Co. F — Captain, Wallace Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, J. Bates Dickson; 2d Lieu 
tenant, Nicholas Roth. 

Co. G — Captain, Guy C. Ward ; 1st Lieutenant, J. M. McArthur ; 2d Lieutenant 
John F. Watkins. 

Co. H — Captain, Wm. T. Swain ; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Mills ; 2d Lieutenant 
W. S. Merriman. 

Co. I — Captain, Frank B. Ferris ; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. L. Paddock ; 2d Lieuten 
ant, Wm. D. Mills. 

Co. K — Captain, Jas. R. Hugunin ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. E. Waite ; 2d Lieuten 
ant, Eben Bacon. 

On the 10th of May, 1861, the regiment left for Cairo, from whence 
it was sent to Cape Girardeau, to reinforce the troops at that point. 
It was afterward sent on an expedition through the country surround- 
ing Belmont, Missouri, but failed to discover any armed rebels. It 
afterward went down the river to Columbus, where could be distinctly 
heard the firing of the guns at the battle of Belmont. It was 
intended to advance on Belmont the next morning, but the retreat 
of our army prevented it. It was next engaged in a " reconnoissance 
in force " to Fort Henry, and afterward took part in the battles at 
that place and at Fort Donelson. From the latter place the regiment 
was sent to Clarksville, Tennessee, and from thence to Nashville, 
being among the first Union troops to occupy the latter city. It bore 
an honorable and active part in the battle of Shiloh, where it lost 



100 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

i<)!> killed and wounded and seven missing. Then came the siege of 
Corinth, in wliicli the L2th was engaged. After Corinth had been 
evacuated, the 1 2th and other regiments pursued the rebels to Boone- 
ville, Mississippi It was present at the battle of [uka, but took no 
part in it, being held Ln reserve J) next engaged in the battle of 
Corinth, where it suffered severely. Itthen lay al Corinth, on guard 
duty, until June 6, 18G3, when it was sent to Pocahontas to guard 
important bridges. On the 29th of October, the left wing of the 
16th army corps was transferred to the 15th corps, under General 
Sherman. This regiment was engaged in a raid to Lauderdale, 
Alabama, where our troops destroyed a large cotton factory and 
several hundred bales of cotton. The 12th arrived at Pulaski, 
Tennessee, November 12th, and remained there until the 25th, when 
it again engaged in guarding railroad bridges. On the 14th of 
January, 18G4, 311men and 24 officers of the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans and were mustered into the service, and ordered home on 
furlough. The regiment rendezvoused at camp Fry, Chicago, and 
remained there, recruiting, until March 28th, when it was sent to 
Pulaski, Tennessee. It was engaged in the engagements at Lay's 
Ferry and Rome Cross Roads, Georgia, and assisted in repulsing a 
heavy night attack of the rebels at Dallas. It was slightly engaged 
at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain. It was also engaged at Nico- 
]ack Creek and Decatur. On the 28th of July it was engaged at 
Ezra Church. It took part in the siege of Atlanta, losing nearly 
forty men killed and wounded. At the battle of Allatoona, Octo- 
ber 5th, it lost more than one third of the men it took into action. 
On the 11th of November it started on the inarch to the sea, and 
took a part in the Carolina campaign which followed it. It arrived 
at Raleigh, North Carolina, April 14, 1865, and at "Washington on 
the 24th, where it passed in the grand review before the President. 
It was then sent to Louisville, and from there, July 10th, to Spring- 
field, when it was mustered out and paid off. 

CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE BATTERY. 

The Chicago Board of Trade Battery was raised in July, 1862, 
by the organization whose name it bears. From the opening of its 
rolls until the company was full was only thirty-six hours. On the 



BOARD OF TRADE BATTERY. 101 

31st of July it was mustered into the service, with the following 
roster : 

Captain, James H. Stokes ; Sen. 1st Lieutenant, George I. Kobinson ; Jun. 1st 
Lieutenant, Albert F. Baxter ; Sen. 2d Lieutenant, Trumbull D. Griffin ; Jun. 2d 
Lieutenant, Henry Bennett. 

On the 9th of September, 1862, the battery left Chicago for Louis- 
ville, whence it participated in the expedition which resulted in driv- 
ing Bragg from Kentucky. It went as far as Crab Orchard, and 
then returned to Bowling Green. At its own solicitation it was 
sent to Nashville, arriving there about the 1st of December. During 
the next campaign it participated in the battle of Stone River, 
firing, during the first day of the battle, nearly two thousand 
rounds of ammunition. In June, 1863, it moved with the army 
in the campaign in which Bragg was driven from Tennessee, 
at Elk river, taking part in its principal skirmish on that 
campaign. At Chickamauga the battery occupied the extreme 
right of the line. On Saturday morning it was forty -five miles from 
the scene of action, and arrived there on Sunday afternoon, having 
to drive the enemy ten miles to get into position. In the Cumber- 
land Mountains, after the battle of Chickamauga, it passed through 
one of those scenes of suffering with which many of our Illinois 
organizations became so familiar. For four weeks the men were 
without rations, except corn obtained from the enemy. This was 
made into meal by rubbing over a grater extemporized by punching 
holes through the bottom of a tin pan. And this was borne, too, 
while they were suffering from lack of clothing and shelter ; and it 
was borne cheerfully and even gaily, for the salvation of the country 
the brave boys loved so well. At McMinnville and Farmington the 
battery was particularly distinguished for gallantry. In the spring 
of 1864, it moved from its winter quarters, at Huntsville, to Nash- 
ville, to refit and re-organize, after which it took part in the Atlanta 
campaign. When General Sherman cut loose from Atlanta, the bat- 
tery returned to Nashville, joining Thomas' command, participating 
in the battle of Nashville, and afterward went into camp at East- 
port, Miss. In the spring of 1 865 it took part in the successes at 
Selma, Montgomery, Columbus and Macon. It arrived in Chicago 
on the 26th of June, for final discharge. 



102 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

BRIDGES' BATTERY. 

In Vol. I. | ]>. 420 et *"/■]• we have given the record of Battery B 
(Bridges' Battery), 1st Illinois Lighl Artillery, to January l, 18G5. 
From that date it had but little active Bervioe, and arrived in Chicago 
on the 27th of June for final muster and discharge, having shared 
in the greater part of the important campaigns and battles in 
the West, and won for its officers and members imperishable renown. 
Captain Bridges was promoted to Major, and subsequently was bre- 
vetted Lieutenant-Colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct. 



CHAPTER V. 

CHATTANOOGA— LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN— MISSION RIDGE— KNOXVILLE. 

Disasters Retrieved — Situation of the Armies — Rosecrans Reinforced by Hooker 
— Grant in Command — Thomas Supersedes Rosecrans — Burnside Takes Knox- 
ville — Is Besieged by Longstreet — Union Peril — Sherman Sends Osterhaus — 
Ordered to Take His Whole Army — Its March — Sherman Placed in Command 
of Department of tils Tennessee — McPherson and Hurlbut — Sherman Ordered 
On — Goes — Hooker's Assault on Lookout — Capture — Knoxyille — Plan for 
Battle — Pontoons — Our Army — Orchard Knob — Sherman's Position — Corse 
Opens the Battle — Loomis — Sherman's Forces Hard Pressed — Granger's Ad- 
vance — Grant and Thomas — Up the Ridge — Victory — The Dead — Wounded — 
Lincoln's Letter — Illinois Men — Grant's Order of Congratulation — Pursuit — 
Ringgold — Burnside Relieved — Campaign Ended. 

THE indecisive results of Chickamauga were to be redeemed ; 
its disasters retrieved, its reproach rolled away. The soldiers 
of the West, with the leader of Shiloh, and the conqueror of Vicks- 
burg again at their head, were to achieve such a triumph as should 
ring around the world. In the armies of Sherman and Thomas, 
were the gallant " Illini " by thousands. Sun-burnt, hard-handed 
veterans, familiar with battle thunder, they were there on that moun- 
tain ridge, this time, to break the backbone of the rebellion. 

Briefly, the situation was the following : Rosecrans was at Chat- 
tanooga receiving reinforcements, the flanks of his army resting on 
the Tennessee above and below the place. The rebel sharp-shoot- 
ers cut off communication by way of Bridgeport on the south bank, 
compelling the hauling of supplies sixty miles over almost impassa- 
ble roads. A bold rebel raid damaged the railway between Steven- 
son and Nashville, and captured the train of the 14th Corps. It 
became a question whether starvation would not compel the evacua- 
tion of Chattanooga, which would be virtually abandoning, all that 
had been won in the valley of the Mississippi. 



104 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Bragg remained strangely quiet. If he had won the brilliant vic- 
tory claimed in his dispatches, why did ho fail to improve it; to 
hurl his force upon the shattered columns of the Union army, cap- 
ture Chattanooga, and again hold the key of East Tennessee? Two 
days after the battle, a war-council of the Confederates chieftains 
agreed thai there should he a grand movement toward Knoxville. 
The generals under Bragg were making preparations accordingly, 
when he announced another plan and sat down three weeks before 
the tripple lines of Chattanooga. 

Rosecrans worked with energy, strengthening defences, and 
accumulating supplies. On the 23d of September the 11th and 12th 
Corps of the Army of the Potomac advanced. Hooker was sent to 
his relief increasing the fighting force and multiplying the number 
to be fed. 

In the meantime Major-General Grant was placed in command; 
Thomas superseded Rosecrans who took leave of his army on the 
19th of October. On the 18th Grant issued the following: 

"Head-Quarters Military Division of the Mississippi,) 
"Louisville, Kentucky, October 18, 1863. ) 
" [ General Orders, No. 1.] 

"In compliance with General Orders, No. 337, of date "Washington, D. C, Octo- 
ber 16, 1863, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the Military Division of 
the Mississippi, embracing the Departments of the Ohio, of the Cumberland, and of 
the Tennessee. 

"The Head-quarters of the Military Division of the Mississippi will be in the 
field, where all reports and returns required by army regulations and existing orders 
will be made. 

"U. S. Grant, Major-General." 

He telegraphed Thomas to hold Chattanooga if he starved, and the 
grim veteran answered that he would and he did, with starvation 
perilously near. General W. T. Sherman was placed in command of 
the Department of the Tennessee. 

During the summer General Burnside planned an attack upon 
Knoxville. In August he began his advance, and moved with such 
caution and celerity as to throw the rebel forces into a panic and thus 
entered the town, September 1st, amid the joyful tears, and jubilant 
shoutings of the Union citizens. The rebel garrison at Cumberland 
Gap, 2000 strong, surrendered on the 9th of September and Burnside 
thus occupied the East Tennessee Railroad as far as Morristown. A 



SHERMAN ORDERED TO CHATTANOOGA. 105 

strong force moved toward Chattanooga, and a junction with Rose- 
crans was expected, when that General was ordered in his defenses, 
and it was evident that his own position was fraught with peril for 
Bragg detached Longstreet to besiege him, and thus it was confi- 
dentially expected by the rebels that from Chattanooga and Knoxville, 
our brave men would be driven back to the Ohio. It was a dark day. 

Grant's appointment restored heart and hope. Before he had been 
placed in command he ordered Sherman to send from Big Black a di- 
vision to the aid of Rosecrans. The order reached Sherman on the 22d 
of September. At four P. M. Osterhaus was on the war path towards 
Vicksburg twenty miles away, and the next day with his division 
was steaming toward Memphis. On the 23d Sherman was ordered 
to follow with his entire command. Four days later he was on the 
river but the ascent was tedious. Fuel was gone, and his soldiers 
were compelled to procure rails and haul wood from the interior to 
keep the engine in motion. He reached Memphis early in October. 
Here he received orders from Halleck to go to Athens, Alabama, 
repairing the railway as he marched and to secure his own supplies. 
He began and worked details day and night, until he found it ne- 
cessary to move upon the highways and clear his way, which he did. 
Blair drove the enemy from the front and entered Tuscumbia Oc- 
tober 27 th. 

On the 25th Sherman received the order placing him in command 
of the Department of the Tennessee, and from Iuka issued an order 
placing the brave Mc Pherson in command with full authority at 
Vicksburg, and the heroic Hurlbut in West Tennessee. 

On the 27th a messenger from Grant, who had floated down the 
Tennessee over the Muscle Shoals, came to Sherman's head-quar- 
ters with this sententious order. 

"Drop all work on the railroad east of Bear Creek. Put your command toward 
Bridgeport till you meet orders." 

The order of march was reversed, and headed for Eastport, the 
only practicable crossing of the Tennessee. On gunboats and a 
coal-barge he commenced the crossing, expedited, by the arrival on 
the 31st, of a ferry-boat. Onward, through thickening difficulties, 
that indomitable will pressed his brave men. On the night of the 
13th he reached Bridgeport and reported by telegraph to Grant, was 



10G PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

summoned by him lo his head-quarters; took boat, and on the morn- 
ing of November 15th was at Chattanooga, his men coming forward. 

Others were active. When Grant arrived at Chattanooga, matters 
were gloomy enough. General Thomas had studied the situation 
and these able chieftains saw where advantage could be gained. 
Hooker, who held the right at Bridgeport, was ordered to cross the 
Tennessee and assail the rebel left-flank. A force under General 
Hazen crossed at Brown's Ferry, below, where pontoons had been 
laid by General W. F. Smith, and commenced the ascent of Lookout 
Mountain. By this movement the rebel retreat was eut off, and his 
forces compelled to march up the valley toward Trenton, Georgia, 
about twenty miles, before joining Bragg's main army. Hooker 
crossed at Bridgeport and the forces united at Brown's Ferry. In a 
drizzly, foggy atmosphere the march was made. The rugged sides 
frowned defiance, but in spite a storm of leaden hail, upward and 
still upward pressed the resistless column, until it passed into and 
above the low clouds. Below, our leaders, Grant and Thomas 
watched and waited the result, but at length the clouds rifted and it 
was seen that Hooker was carrying the rebel works, and that in his 
victory, so gloriously won, the first success of the campaign was 
achieved. Communication was opened with Chattanooga, and the 
river cleared between Thomas and the Nashville railroad. Steam- 
ers brought up supplies and full rations succeeded scanty food. 

Burnside was holding Knoxville, and had a succession of sharp 
contests wiih the enemy under Longsti-eet, aided by some of the 
ablest of the Confederate generals, and by falling back, and again 
renewing the contest with desperation, drew Longstreet away from 
Bragg and held him pounding fruitlessly at the defenses of Knox- 
ville, as Grant desired him. Meanwhile preparations proceeded to 
repay Chickamauga. 

Sherman's army came to the Tennessee, by Fayetteville to Bridge- 
port. He was to cross, effect a lodgment on the. end of Missionary 
Ridge, and with a part of his force act against Lookout Mountain, 
near Trenton. Ewing's division was to make the demonstration 
upon Lookout, but was to be ready to march rapidly on Chattanooga. 
Sherman rowed in a small open boat from Kelly's to Bridgeport, and 
1 put his force in motion, and at Hooker's head-quarters on the 20th, 



ORDERING THE BATTLE. 107 

received Grant's orders for an attack the next day. But only Gene- 
ral John E. Smith's division, the 3d, was in position ; the 1st, under 
Osterhaus, and the 2d, under Morgan L. Smith, were slowly, and 
footsore, coming over a wretched road from Shell-Mound to Chatta- 
nooga, and Ewing's, the 4th, had not left Trenton. 

Morgan L. Smith's crossed the bridge at Brown's Ferry on the 
21st, Ewing reached it the same day, but it was so broken he could 
not complete his crossing until the 23d. Again it broke, and 
Osterhaus was not over, but Sherman proposed to go into action 
with the three divisions with him, supported by Jeif. C. Davis' divi- 
sion of the 14th Ai-my Corps, leaving Osterhaus to co-operate with 
Hooker against Lookout. Pontoon boats were silently carried, under 
the shelter of hills and woods, to the North Chickamauga, manned, 
and at midnight silently floated below the mouth, our men capturing 
the pickets along the banks, and taking a position on the left bank of 
the Tennessee, sending the boats across for reinforcements. M. L. 
Smith's division was rapidly ferried over, and by daybreak of the 
24th the two divisions of Morgan L. and John E. Smith, numbering 
8,000 men, were across the Tennessee, and had thrown up a line of 
rifle-pits to protect the crossing. A substantial pontoon bridge was 
laid, and soon three divisions were on the left bank, and Jeff. C. 
Davis declared his command ready to take Missionary Ridge. 

Grant now had his forces well in hand. Above was Sherman 
with his Western boys, below Hooker with his battle-tested veterans, 
and Thomas, eager to avenge Chickamauga was in front of Chatta- 
nooga. 

Bragg had requested Grant to remove all non-combatants, as he 
was about to bombard Chattanooga. He was astounded on the 
morning of the 25th to find Sherman's army on his right. Hooker 
made his successful demonstration on Lookout Mountain, and the 
army had shouted his victory. On the 23d an unusual movement 
was observed in the rebel camps, and orders were given for a division 
of the Fourth Corps to make a reconnoissance in the direction of 
Orchard Knob. Wood's division was selected, to be supported by 
Sheridan's. Forming his men on the slope, outside of the fortifi- 
cations, Wood advanced rapidly, made his reconnoissance a storm- 
ing party, carried the Knob and the adjacent works at the point of 



108 PATRIOTISM 01 Illinois. 

the bayonet, and made the interior line of rebel works untenable. 
So rapid and sweeping \\ as the advance, thai only about, two hundred 
were killed and wounded. An important position was gained and 
the 28th Alabama, with its colors, captured. General Wood was 
ordered to hold the position. The night of the 28d was a busy one. 
Before the dawn of the 24th, the intrenchments were reversed, 
strengthened and made impregnable. Bragg, awaking from his 
dream of easy victory, was startled to find Sherman on his right, 
Hooker on his left, and before him the " Rock of Chickamauga." 
But he still had faith in the impregnable sides and inaccessible 
bights of Missionary Ridge. 

Between Sherman and the hill was a deep valley, how deep he 
did not know, but the steep hill beyond was covered with trees, and 
across the top a breast-work of logs and earth, thick with rebel 
soldiers. The narrow path leading to it was enfiladed by two guns. 
Behind, a still higher hill bristled with guns, placed to throw a 
plunging fire on the first, if taken. 

Colonel Bowman says: "The brigades of Colonel Cocherill of 
Ewing's division, Colonel Alexander of John E. Smith's and Gene- 
ral Lightburn of Morgan L. Smith's wore to bold their hill as the 
key point; General Corse, with as much of his brigade of Ewing's 
division as could operate along the narrow ridge was to attack from 
the right center; General Lightburn was to dispatch a regiment 
from his division to co-operate with General Corse, and General 
Morgan L. Smith was to move along the eastera base of Missionary 
Ridge, connecting with General Corse and Colonel Loomis of 
Ewing's division, in like manner to move along the west base, sup- 
ported by Mathias and Baum's brigades of John E. Smith's division 
in reserve." 

The sun arose red and lurid, and Corse ordered the advance. 
The Fortieth Illinois, with two Ohio regiments moved down into the 
valley and steadily up the hill-side held by the foe. It moved onward 
within eighty yards of the entrenchment, where Corse found a crest 
on which he halted, called his reserve and asked reinforcements, which 
came. His crowded ground was swept by musketry and artillery, 
and the approach to the entrenchment was through a sea of fire, and 
for an hour, the battle for that crest was fearful. Fortune was vary- 



THE LEFT AND THE CENTER. 109 

ing, but the position taken by Corse was never yielded. Morgan L. 
Smith gained on the left spur of the Ridge, while Loomis pushed 
with unfaltering courage, his way until opposite the tunnel and rail- 
way embankment, and by concentrating upon his command a portion 
of the enemy's fire, relieved in part the assaulting column. 

Bragg hurled his forces against our column, but Corse held his 
ground until about 10 A. M., when he was severely wounded and 
borne from the field, the command devolving upon Colonel Wolcott 
of Ohio, who gallantly held the position and continued to advance. 
On the right, Loomis fought his way. There was a temporary fall- 
ing back of two of John E. Smith's reserve brigades, causing a 
report that Sherman's left had been repulsed. Sherman awaited 
with some anxiety the moving of Thomas on the center. Grant 
kept watch of the contest, but held the troops of Thomas as in a vice. 
Sherman says, " column after column of the enemy was streaming 
toward me ; gun after gun poured its concentric shot on us from 
every hill and spur that gave a view of any part of the ground." 
Hooker moved along the Rossville road to assail the rebel left and 
his appearance moving north on the ridge was to be the signal for 
the assault of the Center. And thus, until three P. M. Sherman 
fought alone, and it was evident that his weared troops could 
not abide much longer the fearful strain upon their endurance. 
Hooker's detention was occasioned by the necessity of building a 
bridge. Grant learned that he was coming, and seeing the rebel 
center weakened gave orders to Thomas to advance. The division 
of Granger's Corps, upon the signal of six guns was to cross the 
wooded valley between Orchard Knob and Mission Ridge and carry 
the intrenched lines at the base of the Ridge, and then halt, 
under the belief that the Ridge was too formidable to be carried. It 
is a bold rugged hight, towering 800 feet above Chattanooga, and 
was crowned with a skillfully constructed line of defensive works brist- 
ling with veteran-bayonets and buttressed with famed batteries. 

Sherman saw the white line of smoke and knew the wearily 
waited movement was made. 

Onward rushed the heroes of the army of the Cumberland — 
through shot and shell they gained the pits and swept them clear. 
Bragg appears not to have suspected that men would be mad enough 



110 PATRIOTISM Or ILLINOIS. 

to attempt to eliinl> that bold ascent, ragged, steep, and with a fire like 
the lava-streams of Vesuvius rolling over its rocky side But they 
did. Granger led his men to the mountain side and with shouts they 
began to olimb — to climb in a cataract of fire. Upward — upward, 
they bore their torn banners. Grant and Thomas stood side by 
side at Orchard Knob. The latter exclaimed "I fear, General, they 
will never reach the top." Only puffing the smoke of his cigar, the 
hero of Vicksburg quietly said " Give 'em time, General, give 'em 
time." By sunset they had planted their standards on the crest of 
the Ridge, the enemy was defeated and his Gibraltar carried! No 
wonder that catching the afar-off shouts of Grangei-'s men, those in 
the valley responded with such cheers as only strong-lunged soldiers 
can give. 

The enemy was soon in full retreat. All the succeeding day pur- 
suit was made, and more than seven thousand prisoners, and forty- 
seven guns were captured. Among the brave men of Sherman's 
command, who fell on that field of honor, were Colonel Putnam of 
the 93d Illinois, Colonel O'Meara of the 90th Illinois and Major 
Bushnell of the 13th Illinois, while among the wounded were Colo- 
nel Raum, 56th, Lieutenant- Colonel Patridge, 13th, and Major A. P. 
Welch of the 56th. 

Colonels J. M. Loomis of the 26th and Raum of the 56th were 
recommended by Sherman for promotion as Brigadier-Generals, for 
gallantry and competency. 

Bragg had been beaten. The best army of the rebellion, save 
Lee's, had been broken ; the most difficult positions had been taken ; 
the Tennessee was our own, and the gateway into the South a\:is 
open. President Lincoln wrote thus to Grant: 

"Washington, December 8th. 
" Major- General Grant : 

"Understanding that your lodgment at Chattanooga and Knoxville is now secure, 
I wish to tender you, and all under your command, my more than thanks — my pro- 
foundest gratitude — for the skill, courage and perseverance with which you and they, 
over so great difficulties, have effected that important object. God bless you all ! 

"A Lincoln." 

Here, as elsewhere in the battle-fields of the west, Illinois blood, 
was shed like water. The shouts of victory upon its prairies were 
mingled with many a sob of bereavement. Its soldiers were present 



RESULTS OF MISSION RIDGE. Ill 

in great numbers, and never were they more willing to assume the 
post of honor and peril. 

They were among the first to lead Sherman's advance, and among 
the first to surmount the crest of the Ridge. Captain Guthrie of 
the 19th Illinois, captured with his own hand a brave rebel Brigadier. 

We cannot specify their deeds of daring. It is enough that the 
record of Illinois on November 25, 1863, was one of the most glori- 
ous it has made during the war for the Union. 

Grant — the former Colonel of the 21st Illinois, thus addressed the 
army : 

" The General commanding thanks you individually and collectively. The loyal 
people of the United States thank and bless you. Their hopes and prayers for your 
success against this unholy rebellion are with you daily. Their faith in you will not 
be in vain. Their hopes will not be blasted. Their prayers to Almighty God will be 
answered. You will yet go to other fields of strife, and with invincible bravery and 
unflinching loyalty to justice and right, which have characterized you in the past, 
you will prove that no enemy can withstand you, and that no defense, however 
formidable, can check your onward march." 

His name was spoken throughout the land. Congress voted him 
a gold medal, and soon after, reviving the grade of Lieutenant-Gene- 
ral, his name was sent in by the President and he was confirmed. 

Bragg was chased to Dalton. A stand was made and a despe- 
rate show of resistance opposed to Hooker at Ringgold, but his 
impetuous bravery made it unavailing, and the enemy was compelled 
to fly. Again our victory was complete. Sherman and Howard 
pushed for the railroad and cut it up. 

Grant could have marched his army to Atlanta, or anywhere else, 
but Burnside was sorely pressed in Knoxville, and must be relieved. 
General Granger, who was designated to march to his assistance, 
did not march with energy, and Sherman was assigned the work. 
True his men had traveled from "Big Black" to Chattanooga, and 
without rest had gone into the battle of the 25th, true they had 
been active in pursuit of Bragg and were without tents, comfortable 
clothing or supplies, but Burnside was in Knoxville with 12,000 
fellow soldiers, and that was enough. With rapid marches they 
went forward, and found that Longstreet, hearing of Bragg' s defeat, 
and anticipating the approach of our troops, had raised the siege and 
was in full retreat. Sherman's cavalry reached Knoxville Dec. 3d. 



112 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

This virtually closed the Union campaigns of 18C3, for only the 
attack upon Charleston was subsequently of general interest. Bad 
General Grant's 'hiring plan of the assault upon the rocky hights of 
Lookout and Missionary Ridge failed, the consequences had been 
most disastrous. It was fraught with peril, but was a stupendous 
success. It saved our cause. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE RED RIVER EXPEDITION— MISSOURI. 

Great Expectations — Sabine Pass — Loss — McPherson's District — The Invincible 
Armada — De Russy — Grand Advance — Ransom's Advice — Disastrous Engage- 
ment near Mansfield — Heavy Sacrifice — Pleasant Hill — Smith's Charge — 
Rebels give Back — Summing Up — Retreat — Grand Ecore — Through the Dam — 
Steele's Army — Retreats on Little Rock — Sabine Crossings — Rosecrans in 
Missouri — Hundred Day Regiments — Pleasanton's Command — Price Escapes — 
Union City — Colonel Hicks at Paducah — Fort Pillow — North Carolina. 

GREAT results were anticipated from an expedition under Gen- 
eral Banks. After the fall of Vicksburg he had been reinforced 
from the troops under General Grant, and every facility was afforded 
by the government to enable him to strike a severe blow destined to 
be a costly and disastrous campaign, losing heavily, gaining lightly. 
In September, 1863, General Banks was ordered to lead an expe- 
dition against Sabine Pass. It was to be a combined land and 
naval attack — General Franklin with 400 men, and Lieutenant 
Crocker with four steamers, transports, &c. On the 8th, the attack 
was made by the naval force and failed, losing the steamers, Clifton 
and Sachem. The expedition returned to Brashear City. General 
Franklin had his headquarters at New Iberia. " The Nineteenth 
Army Corps under the immediate command of General Weitzel, 
had crossed and camped at Berwick. The Thirteenth (formerly 
Mc demand's) followed, leaving sufficient force to hold the base at 
Brashear." 

There was some sign of activity in McPherson's district. In 

October, a rebel force of infantry and horse, numbering about 2,500, 

were seen on the east side of the Big Black, and continued a series 

of feints and threatened advances, sometimes approaching closely 

8 



114 PATBIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

to our lines. McPherson concluded they were ;i blind to more impor- 
taut operations farther interior, and, on the 14tli, ordered Logan's 
ami Tuttle's divisions of the Seventeenth Army Corps, to make a 
demonstration. They marched sixteen miles and encamped at 
Big Black. By daylight, the cavalry advance had crossed the River 
at Mi ssenger's Ferry, closely followed by Logan, with Tuttlc in the 
reai-. At noon our cavalry was at Brownsville, which the infantry 
reached at 3 P. M. The next day, Logan's advance met a part of 
Wirt Adam's confederate cavalry strongly supported by a battery in 
the timber at the right of the road. McPherson sent forward 
Maltby's brigade of Logan's division, and two pieces of artillery, 
Avhile our cavalry dismounting and advancing through the timber, 
deployed as skirmishers and a sharp contest began. The rest of 
Logaifs division coming up by the Canton road, confronted Whit- 
field's brigade of cavalry and artillery, mostly Texas roughs of fight- 
ing celebrity. They commanded the road. There was spirited 
skirmishing. Night came on, and daylight showed that rebel rein- 
forcements had come up, and McPherson returned to Vicksburg. 

General Banks had succeeded in occupying the coast of Texas;, 
to within one hundred miles of Galveston, and early in 1804 a grand 
expedition was projected. Another "Invincible Aramada" was set 
afloat. Dick Taylor was to be swept from Louisiana, Magruder 
from Texas, and Price from Arkansas. A grand fleet under 
Admiral Porter, was to ascend Red River to Shreveport, Steele was 
to sweep down from Little Rock, Arkansas, and unite with Banks 
at Shreveport, while another column should move from Brownsville. 
There were twenty heavily armed steamers of various draught, 1 * 
including monitors Ozark, Osage and Neosho ; iron-clad gunboats 
Benton, Carondelet, Pittsburg, Mound City, Louisville, Essex and 
Chillicothe, and the rams Price, Choctaw and Lafayette. General 
A. J. Smith embarked 10,000 men at Vicksburg, including the la*, 
and 3d divisions of the Sixteenth Army Corps, and the 1st and 4th 
divisions of the Seventeenth. The following afternoon the trans- 
ports joined the fleet, and on the 12th the Aramada moved up the 
old Red River into the Atchafalaya, and in the afternoon came to 
anchor at Semmesport, an old town burned by the Ellett's. 

The appearance of our gunboats caused the abandonment of two 



FORT DE RUSSY — RANSOM. 115 

partly completed earthworks. Smith having landed a part of his 
forces, headed them toward Fort De Russy, a rebel strong-hold, 
thirty miles distant. The enemy's cavalry swarmed about them, 
striking them at every opportunity. The fort was a strong quad- 
rangular work, with bastions and bomb-proofs, covered with rail- 
road iron, with a strong water-battery, having casemates capable 
of defying Federal guns and artillery, commanding the river above 
and below. Dick Taylor marched the main body of his troops out 
to give battle to our forces, who, by an adroit movement, placed them- 
selves on his interior line and pushed straight for De Russy. Taylor, 
angry beyond endurance, pressed after them, but they reached it in 
advance, and compelled the garrison to surrender and thus render- 
ing futile a year's hard work of rebel engineering. General Smith 
destroyed the guns. 

The Armada passed on, occupying Alexandria on the 16th, the 
army entering on the lVth. Eighty miles beyond was Natchitoches, 
and that was occupied on the 21st. Thus far all had gone well. 

On the 26th, General Smith left Alexandria with the advance for 
Shreveport, the objective point of the expedition. On the 4th of 
April, General Banks reached Natchitoches in person, remaining 
two days, moving on the 6th with General Lee's cavalry in advance. 
On the 7th, Lee came — was compelled to maintain a constant skir- 
mish as he advanced, until he passed Pleasant Hill, whei'e he came 
upon the main body of the rebel cavalry under Maj or- General 
Green. Colonel Robinson commanded the Union cavalry advance 
of live thousand sabers, and engaged Green until the latter fell back 
upon the infantry and artillery at Bayou du Paul. Colonel Robin- 
son halted and awaited reinforcements, his weary men sleeping on 
their arms. Morning came and he was joined by an infantry 
brigade of the old 13th under Colonel Landrum, and he again 
advanced, the enemy falling back seven miles. Here was the main 
rebel force, massed in strength at a strong position in the vicinity of 
Sabine Cross Roads, east of Mansfield. And now it was seen that 
the wily foe had drawn our forces into almost inevitable disaster. 
Banks had arrived with Ransom, who with two divisions of the 13th 
Army Corps, came on the field on the 8th. Ransom's keen eye took 
in the situation, and he earnestly counseled against attack until the 



1 L6 PATEI0TI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

Nineteenth Corps under Franklin, and Smith with his Vicksburg 
veterans of the 10th and 17th Army Corps, ye1 twenty miles distant, 
should arrive. That advice followed, had averted disaster, but it 

was over-ruled, and while orders were sent to General Franklin to 
hurry forward, an advance was ordered. 

The enemy were ready. Major-General Dick Taylor was in com- 
mand. General Green commanded the left, General Mouton the 
right with Walker's division and two cavalry regiments still farther 
to the extreme right. A strong force, wedged-shape, was concealed 
in the woods. Our brave men were marched into the open base of 
that wedge and directed to charge upon its apex. As they advanced 
the wings of fire closed upon them, and on either flank and in front 
rolled in the waves of flame. Ransom made heroic efforts to turn 
defeat into victory, and to retrieve from disaster the terrible mistake 
of his superior. He saw with anguish his brave companions in arms 
mowed down, and did what man might to save the day. The cav- 
alry was thrown into confusion ; the Chicago Mercantile Battery, 
with Battery G, Regular Artillery, and Nim's Massachusetts Battery 
were driven from their guns. Retreat was the order, and was fast 
becoming a route, when Franklin came up with reinforcements, and 
the panic was stayed. The six guns of the Chicago Mercantile Bat- 
tery, two of Battery G, four of the 1st Indiana, six of Nim's and 
two howitzers of the 6th Missouri were in rebel hands, and two 
thousand brave men hors du combat. 

The forces of General Smitb were known to have reached Pleasant 
Hill, and there General Banks concentrated his forces, and on the 
morning of tbe 9th awaited battle, on ground open and rolling, 
ascending both from the village, and from the direction of the rebel 
approach, while a belt of timber swept almost around it. On the right 
was Smith with bis soldiers of the 16th and 1*7 th Corps, Franklin 
held the left with the 19th. The 13th was in reserve. "Taylor's 
Battery " was there — two guns in the rear of General Dwight's 
(19th) brigade on the left, and four on an eminence to the left of the 
road. General Emery's division was exposed to the first assault, 
Colonel Lynch commanding his right brigade, Colonel Shaw the 
left. 
\ About 5 P. M. the enemy came on, and received a discharge of 



PLEASANT HILL — RETREAT. 117 

case shell from our batteries. They came forward grandly, and 
Emery slowly retired, pressed back. Part of Taylor's guns were 
captured, and the confident foe crowded up to the crest of the bill. 
Suddenly Smith's men poured upon them a sweeping shower from 
their batteries, and the infantry followed by round after round of 
musketry at short range and rushed forward to the charge with 
bayonets. It was not in rebel flesh and blood to withstand that ter- 
rific reception and they gave back, and were driven. Taylor's guns 
were recaptured with two of Nim's, and the Union army was for the 
present saved, but saved at fearful cost. Three thousand men were 
killed, wounded and missing, Ransom was wounded, never to recover. 
Twenty guns and one hundred and thirty wagons with twelve hun- 
dred horses and mules were lost. True we had captured Fort De- 
Russy, Alexandria, Grand Ecore and Natchitoches, had opened 
Red River, had captured three thousand bales of cotton, twenty-five 
guns, and twenty-three hundred prisoners, principally trophies of the 
navy, and had material for two colored regiments, but our brave 
army was defeated, wounded and bleeding, the objective point of the 
expedition must be abandoned and a line of suffering was to be 
traversed. 

The enemy hung upon our retreat, which, leaving our dead upon 
the field, began on the 10th and continued until the troops reached 
Alexandria. 

Orders were sent to Commodore Porter to fall back to Grand Ecore, 
but the river falling rapidly, rendered it almost impossible, and the 
destruction of the fleet seemed inevitable, and with'it the destruction 
of the army. Below the fleet were the falls, rocky, rapid, turbulent 
and dangerous. Over this it was impossible for boats to pass. But 
there was an escape. Providence had reserved the man. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Bailey, acting engineer of the 19th Army Corps, pro- 
posed constructing a series of tree dams, thus deepening a channel 
over the falls and opening a door of escape. Thousands helped. 
Trees were felled, stone barges were made, teams moved — all were 
active, and yet, Commodore Porter says " not one in fifty believed 
in the undertaking." The hour came ; in spite of an inopportune 
breakage of the dam the Lexington drove through the narrow open- 
ing and was greeted with cheers from thirty thousand soldiers. The 



118 



PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 



frightened pilol of the Neosho blundered, but the vessel oame 
through with slight damage, and the Hindman and Osage followed 
Bafely. Then Bailey repaired and improved the dam, and on the 11th 
the Mound City, the Carondelet, and Pittsburg came through, and 
the day following, the Louisville, the Chillicothe and the Ozark and 
the two tugs. The fl eel was saved, and on the 14th of May the 
army, under the protection of the gunboats, commenced its retreat 
from Alexandria, which it left in dames. On the 16th and 18th it 
had severe fighting. On the 19th it placed its pontoons over the 
Atchafalaya, which it crossed at Semmesport on the 20ih, and 
marched toward the Mississippi. The next evening it was at Mor- 
ganzia, and so ended General Banks' Red River expedition. 

The rebels marched a strong force to crush General Steele, who 
had marched from Little Rock, Arkansas, to join Banks at Shrevc- 
port. Steele was confronted at Camden, but made a flank march 
toward Washington, sending a detachment to secure Elkin's Ferry, 
heading the main column southward, turning from his former course 
almost at right angles. 

His forces skirmished with Marmaduke and Shelby, and on the 3d 
of April held both banks of the Little Missouri, crossing at Elkin's 
Ferry. On the 4th he was assailed by Marmaduke and Cabell, 
whom he repulsed, and entered Camden on the loth. Kirby Smith 
reinforced the rebels, and Banks' defeat enabled Taylor to send 
Smith help. Steele's supplies were cut off, Colonel Drake mortally 
wounded, losing 2,000 prisoners captured, four guns, and two hun- 
dred and forty wagons. Steele fell back, retreating with loss and 
constant fighting on Little Rock. Here he could only stand on the 
defensive while the enemy overrun the State, and organized a move- 
ment on Missouri. 

This State had been the Western battle-ground through the early 
stages of the war and its kaleidoscopic fortunes wore not yet ended. 
Late in September, 1863, the rebel General Cabell crossed, with 
8,000 men, the Arkansas River cast of Fort Smith. He sent General 
Shelby to join Coffrey at Crooked Prairie to make a destructive raid 
into Southwestern Missouri. This force was met and routed Octo- 
ber 12th at Booneville by the State militia, and its artillery captured. 
General Ewing took up the pursuit and chased them to Pea Ridge, 
where General McNeil took it up and drove them into Arkansas. 



MISSOURI. 119 

Steele assisted by Generals Solomon, Thayer, Rice and Ingleman 
and Colonel Benton fought the rebel force sharply at Sabine Cross- 
ings, losing some seven hundred, and inflicting a heavy loss npon 
the foe, capturing three pieces of artillery. This secured Steele a 
safe retreat into Little Rock, and temporarily relieved Missouri. 

General Rosecrans assumed command in Missouri, relieving Gene- 
ral Schofield. About the 21st of September, 1864, he learned that 
Price, crossing the Arkansas with two divisions of cavalry and three 
batteries of artillery, had joined Shelby to invade Missouri again 
with some 14,000 veteran mounted men. He had about 6,500 men, 
scattered in various posts. A portion of A. J. Smith's troops had 
crossed the Missouri in June and defeated Marmaduke, and re-em- 
barked for Memphis. 

As Price set forward, Steele's forces came out of their defenses 
and followed him. A. J. Smith was halted at Cairo, en route to 
join the army of the Cumberland, and marched to confront Price, 
who was marching for Jefferson City. 

When Springfield was safe, General Sanborn went to reinforce 
General McNeil at Rolla, while General Ewing defended Pilot Knob, 
and ascertained on the 27th of September that the main force of 
Price was in Southeastern Missouri. E wing's defense saved St. Louis, 
then only covered by A. J. Smith's command, giving its militia 
and citizens time to organize, and also the hundred day regiments 
of Illinois time to arrive. These were the 132d, the 134th, 136th, 
139th, 140th and 142d. They were but partially drilled, but soldiers 
more ready for the conflict had never gone to the field. In the 
central district, General Brown was in command at Jefferson City, 
and was reinforced by Brigadier-General Fiske. 

Price waited a few days at Richwood, and finding his way into 
St. Louis arrested, and that not yet could he supply his ruffian hordes 
from the stores of that city, marched for Jefferson City. By forced 
marches McNeil and Sanborn arrived there, and with their cavalry 
and artillery united with Brown and Fiske, and again the invaders 
were thwarted. 

General Pleasanton assumed command at Jefferson City on the 
8th of October, and sent a strong force of cavalry under Sanborn to 
follow up and harass the rebel force — keeping Price between our 



120 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

force and the Missouri River. On the 22d of October Sanborn's 
force routed General Pagan a1 Independence. On the 23d the Big 
Blue was crossed and there was a sharp engagement with the main 
rebel force, driving it beyond the Little Santa Fe. "On the 24th, 
after a march of sixty miles, the enemy were overtaken at midnight 
at Marias dea Cygnes. Skirmishing began at 4 A. M. on the 25th 
with artillery, when the enemy were driven from the field with loss 
of mules, horses, etc. They fell back skirmishing to the Little Osage 
Crossing, when a charge was made upon two divisions of them by 
two advanced brigades under Colonels Benton and Phillips, and 
eight pieces of artillery and nearly one thousand prisoners, including 
Generals Marmaduke and Cabell were captured. The pursuit was 
kept up by Sanborn's brigade, with repeated and successful charges 
to the Marmiton, whence the enemy fled under cover of night toward 
Arkansas. Kansas troops and General Benton's brigade followed 
rapidly, and on the 28th Sanborn reached Newtonia, where the 
enemy made his last stand, in time to turn the tide of battle going 
against General Blunt, thus giving the final blow to the invasion. 

" The loss of the enemy was ten pieces of artillery, a large number 
of small arms, nearly all his trains and plunder, and, beside his killed, 
wounded and deserters, 1,958 prisoners." 

There was general disappointment that Price's army was not 
destroyed or captured, and General Rosecrans failed to retrieve in 
Missouri his laurels which withered at Chickamauga. 

Elsewhere were events worthy of note, some of which are men- 
tioned here, to clear the way for the record of the grand events of 
the closing campaigns of the war. 

The rebel General Forrest moved on Union City March 23d and 
summoned its commander, Colonel Hawkins, to surrender. In oppo- 
sition to the wishes of his subordinates it was given up. General 
Brayman marched from Cairo within six miles, when he heard of 
the surrender and returned. Forrest next occupied Hickman and 
with Buford's division marched against Paducah, which was held by 
Colonel S. G. Hicks [see Vol. I., p. 325] of the 40th Illinois volun- 
teers and 655 men. He retired into Fort Anderson and made a 
defiant stand, assisted by gunboats Peosta and Paw Paw, under 
Captain Shirk of the navy. Forrest sent the following note: 



PADUCAH — FORT PILLOW. 121 

" Head-Quarters Forrest's Cavalry Corps,) 
Paducah, March 25, 1864. ) 
" To Colonel Hicks, Commanding Federal forces at Paducah : 

" Having a force amply sufficient to carry your works and reduce the place, in 
order to avoid the unnecessary effusion of blood, I demand a surrender of the fort 
and troops with all the public stores. If you surrender you will be treated as 
prisoners of war, but if I have to storm your works, you may expect no quarter. 

"N. B. Forrest, Major-General Commanding." 

To this summons from a greatly superior force Colonel Hicks made 
the following reply, free from bravado, but dignified and high-toned : 

"Head-Quarters, Post Paducah,) 
" Paducah, Kt., March 25, 1864. j 
" Major- General N. B. Forrest, Commanding Confederate forces : 

"I have this moment received yours of this inst., in which you demand an uncon- 
ditional surrender of forces under my command. I can answer that I have been 
placed here by my Government to defend the post. In this, as well as all otber 
orders from my superior officers, I feel it my duty as an honorable officer to obey, 
and must, therefore, respectfully decline surrendering as you require. 

" Very Respectfully, 

" S. J. Hicks, Commanding Post." 

The assault was ordered, twice made and repulsed. Forrest 
occupied the town and made some captures, but retired leaving 
Hicks uncaptured, with a loss of fourteen killed and forty-six 
wounded. 

On the 12th of April Forrest assaulted Fort Pillow, under Major 
Booth. After a desperate resistance the fort was carried, and then 
occurred the most disgraceful and inhuman butchery of the war. 
Atrocities were committed scarcely equaled by Sepoys. The rebels 
were infuriated at the presence and bravery of colored troops and 
slaughter held high carnival. No special pleading can ever mitigate, 
much less justify the atrocity of that wholesale massacre. 

Columbus was summoned to surrender, but did not, and no assault 
was made. 

In North Carolina events of importance were transpiring, but 
Illinois troops were not engaged, although General J. N. Palmer 
was in command. 






CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Change of Plan, not of Base — Governor Oglesry — Memoir — Extracts from 
Inaugural — Adjutant-General Hatnie — Personal Sketch. 

THE grand closing campaigns of the war were about to commence. 
In obedience to the clearly expressed will of the people, Con- 
gress revived the grade of "Lieutenant-General, " and the President 
gave the act his approval, February 29, 1804, and placed Ulysses 
S. Grant in command of the armies of the United States. This was 
the beginning of the end. Summoning Sherman to his Counsel, the 
plan of the two great campaigns was laid down. Independent, not 
to say rival movements were to end, and the enemy was no longer to 
have the opportunity to swing his armies, as upon a pivot, nor to 
move upon interior lines and crush, at will, our armies. The policy 
of the Lieutenant-General is best indicated in his own sententious 
language : 

" I therefore determined first, to use the greatest number of troops practicable 
against the armed forces of the enemy, preventing him from using the same forces 
at different seasons against first one and then another of our armies, and the possi- 
bility of repose for refitting and producing necessary supplies for carrying on 
resistance." 

The " anaconda" of the earlier stages of the war was remembered, 
but was no longer to be in a state of torpor, but lithe an 1 strangely 
terrible. The armies East and West were to be one, and under one 
mind. .Sherman, with the- brave veterans of the West, should go 
against and thr< >ugh the army of Johnston ; Grant, himself, would go 
with Meade and the army of the Potomac against Richmond; 
' Sheridan should sweep the Shenandoah and Butler operate upon 




'I J -IE, 









GOVERNOR OGLESBY. 123 

James River. Grant's eye ran over a battle-front of nearly 5,000 
miles, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. His preparations were 
made, and soon the railways groaned under the movements of vast 
bodies of men and supplies. 

Before tracing these grand movements, especially those of Sherman 
and his co-laborer, Thomas, brief space may be given to changes in 
the State Government, which occurred before their close, and are 
now introduced to avoid a break in the military narrative when the 
date shall be reached. 

Governor Yates declining a re-nomination as Governor, and becom- 
ing a candidate for the United States' Senate, the people chose as 
his successor 

RICHARD JAMES OGLESBY. 

He was born in Oldham County, Kentucky, July 25, 1824, was 
orphaned by the death of both parents when but eight years of age, 
in consequence of which his early education was much neglected, 
for he attended school but twelve months before he was twelve 
years of age, and not more than three months afterward. He 
removed to Decatur, Illinois, in the spring of 1836; lived during 
the year 1838 in Terre Haute, Indiana, returned to Illinois and 
remained until the fall of 1840, when he returned to Oldham County, 
Kentucky, to learn the carpenter's trade ; remained eighteen months, 
returned to Illinois in the spring of 1842, worked at his trade and 
at farming until the spring of 1844, when he commenced the 
study ofLaw with Judge Silas W. Robins, at Springfield, Illinois ; 
was licensed, as an attorney, in the fall of 1845, and commenced 
practice in Sullivan, Moultrie County, Illinois. 

He returned to Decatur in the spring of 1846, volunteered and 
assisted in raising Company " C," 4th Regiment (Colonel E. D. 
Baker), Illinois Volunteers in the Mexican war, of which he was 
elected 1st Lieutenant — served twelve months — participated in the 
siege of Vera Cruz, and commanded his company at the battle 
of Cerro Gordo, where it lost twelve in killed and wounded out 
of forty-one engaged. Returned to Decatur in 1847, and practiced 
Law in '47 and '48. The winter of '48 and '49, he attended the Louis- 
ville Law School, and received the diploma of the institution. The 






124. PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

next spring ho returned to Decatur, and in April crossed the plains 
from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, driving a six 
mule team. He remained in California, mining, until the fall of 
1851, when he returned to Decatur to renew the-practice of Law. 
in the spring of 1856, he visited Europe, Egypl and ihe Holy Land. 

He returned to Decatur in the winter of 185V, having been absent 
twenty months ; was elector on the Whig ticket in the year 1852; 
was Republican candidate for Congress in the Vth Congressional 
District in 1858, but was beaten by Hon. James C. Robinson, by 
1,900 majority. The district had formerly given from 4,000 to 
5,000 Democratic majority. In 1860, he was elected on the Repub- 
lican ticket, State Senator, in a district that was largely Democratic, 
thus securing the election of the Hon. Lyman Trumbull to the 
United States Senate. Resigned his seat in the Senate, and accepted. 
a commission as Colonel of the 8th Regiment Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, on the 25th day of April, 1861. His regiment, was stationed 
at Cairo, Illinois, until July, 1861, when he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the United States forces at Bird's Point, Missouri, where 
he remained six months in command of two brigades of mfantry, 
and a portion of the time was also in command of the forces at 
Cairo, Illinois. 

He commanded a force of 4,000 men sent from Bird's Point to 
Bloomfield, Missouri, a movement in connection with one made by 
General Grant, against the rebel forces at Belmont. 

On February 1, 1862, he was relieved of the command at Bird's 
Point, and placed in command of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 
Army of West Tennessee, under command of Brigadier-General 
Grant. The brigade consisted of his own regiment, the 8th, also 
the 18th, 29th, 30th and 31st Illinois infantry. 

The brigade moved at the head of the army, and w r as the first to 
enter Fort Henry. It led the advance from Fort Henry to Fort 
Donelson during all the skirmishing, and was moved at the head or 
right of the army in the investment of Fort Donelson, and on the 
12th, 13th and 14th of February, was constantly under fire. 

On the morning of February 15th, this command was the first at- 
tacked by the rebels, maintaining the unequal contest without re- 
inforcements for four hours, with a loss of 500 killed and wounded, 



PROMOTION AND RESIGNATION. 125 

the brigade numbering, 2,500 rank and file, present. It bore an ac- 
tive and most gallant part in the battle, and in the victory. 

He commanded a brigade, until the evacuation of Corinth, but 
was not in the battle of Shiloh, the brigade now consisting of the 
9th and 12th Illinois Vols., 2 2d and 81st Ohio, and the 14th Mis- 
souri Volunteers. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, he commanded the 2d Division, 
Army of the Tennessee, some two months during the absence of 
Brigadier-General Davis, but on the return of the latter, resumed 
the command of his brigade, which he led through the terrible battle 
of Corinth, on the 3d day of October, 1862. Oglesby' s and Hack- 
leman's brigades of the 2d Division kept the entire rebel army at 
bay from 3 o'clock p. m., this day, thus saving Corinth to the Union 
arms. 

While nobly charging at the head of his command, the noble 
Hacklcman was killed, and Oglesby was taken from the field appar- 
ently in a dying condition from a wound received by a ball which 
entered the left lung, and which has never been removed. 

On the 29th of November, 1862, for gallantry in the above battle, 
he .was promoted Major- General over the Brigadier-General com- 
manding the Division, and was confirmed by the Senate. 

By the 1st of April, 1863, he had so far recovered as to be able to 
report for duty, and was assigned to the command of the left wing 
of the 16th Army Corps, consisting of two divisions of Infantry 
and one division of Cavalry, embracing all the territory in West 
Tennessee and Northern Mississippi, except a strip along the Missis- 
sippi River. 

Constant pain, resulting from his wound, compelled him to tender 
his resignation on the last of June, 1863, which General Grant re- 
fused to accept, but gave him a leave of absence for six months. On 
the 24th of May, 1864, his resignation was accepted. 

On the 25th of May, 1864, the Union Convention of the State of 
Illinois nominated him as candidate for Governor, and on the 8th of 
November, 1864, he was elected Governor, over James C. Robinson, 
(his former competitor for Congress), by 32,000 majority, the largest 
majority ever given in the State for any office. 

General Oglesby was inaugurated Governor of the State of Illi- 



126 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

nois for four years on the L6th day of January, 18G5. Alter taking 
the oath <>i' office, the Governor sai<l : 

"I do not disguise the fact, nor do I desire to do so, that I have been chosen to tliis 
high position bj the Onion people of the State, without regard to party, and am cx- 
pected b] them to administer its executive affairs, with a view to no partisan or self- 
ish purposes, ami thus relieved of many of the burdens which usually attend a mere 
party triumph, am left free with you, to follow the path of duty pointed out so 
clearly that I hope to be able to adhere to it. 

" In addition to the large number of troops of every branch of the service, including 
infantry, cavalry, artillery and engineers, voluntarily furnished by the State, in the 
last tlm e and a half years, to carry on the war, could anything further have been 
required of us to have shown to the General Government our original, persistent and 
unalterable purpose to contribute every energy of the State and the cordial, hearty 
and soul-determined will of the people to maintain the integrity of the Union, and 
assisl in extirpating from the soil of the republic the last vestige of treason, the 
recent matured and deliberate expression of an overwhelming majority of the peo- 
ple of the State, at the ballot-box, upon the well defined issues of the contest, reas- 
sure the nation and the civilized world that the State of Illinois, true to her in- 
stincts of loyalty and constitutional liberty, will remain faithful to her allegiance, 
true to the Union, an humble participant in the proud history and pure glory of the 
holy sisterhood of States, sharing their experience and abiding their fortune to the 
( nd of time. We say the Republic shall not die, the Union shall not be divide d, the 
rebellion shall not prevail, traitors shall not conquer patriots pledged to the main- 
tenance of these noble and dignified issues, believing their defense essential to the 
complete enjoyment of all the blessings promised us in the Constitution and laws of 
of our country — with an entire consciousness of the exacting sacrifices imperiously 
demanded to support and uphold them — with our eyes upon and hearts full of devo- 
tion to the flag of our country, we declare before the world that the rebellioa and 
human slavery shall fall and perish together. 

"The biennial message of my predecessor is before you. I invite your attention 
attain to the full and careful statements it contains in reference to the present con- 
dition of the government. A faithful service of four years, the most interesting and 
embarrassing since the organization of the State government, has amply qualified 
him to study carefully the various interests of the State, ami lends a dignity to his 
statements and recommendations, not to be accorded to those of one less experienc- 
ed in the affairs of the State. The result of his arduous labors are felt in every part 
of the State, and everywhere there will greet him, as he retires from the distinguish- 
ed office he so ably administered, the plaudits of his generous countrymen, " Well 
done thou good and faithful servant." 

"It is a gratifving reflection that, since the commencement of the war, our State 
lias been faithful to all her obligations to the National Government. No call has 
been in - ie upon 1mm- thai has not been promptly and fully answered. When it was 
the custom to fill the quotas of the State by volunteering, she exceeded all calls upon 
he.- by in my t nds, and although there was some difference of views as to the 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 127 

credits to which the State was entitled, she nevertheless proceeded to fill the quota 
settled upon her under the apportionment made by the Provost Marshal General. 
When the attempt was made last year to raise the required number of men by draft 
ing, and although, for a time, serious apprehensions were felt that stubborn resistance 
would be made against the efforts of the regularly appointed officers of the law to 
enforce the draft, time and reflection sufficiently demonstrated to those who may 
have contemplated the folly of this appeal to force, that there was no reliable or 
respectable portion of the community to be found to sustain this discreditable and 
dishonorable feeling. The law has been faithfully executed in every part of the 
State. 

" I think I may with all truthfulness say, in communicating to you the state of the 
government, that at no time in the history of the State, has Illinois been in a better 
condition, in reference to all the great interests ol the people." 

********* 

"It is made the duty of the Governor to see that the laws of the State be faith- 
fully executed. Ordinarily, this can be no great task ; but in turbulent times, when 
the authorities of the nation are openly defied and resisted, and the peace of the 
people is threatened by armed bodies of men, in actual rebellion, it becomes a serious 
responsibility. Happily for us, our State, thus far, has escaped the ravages and 
desolation of the war raging on our borders. There have been a few attempts, how- 
ever, in the last year, by two or three gangs of outlaws, to disturb the quiet of our 
people and involve the State in civil war. Their field of operations seems to have 
been confined to a few counties in the center of the State. Their time was spent in 
pillaging and murdering unprotected persons, and inflicting all manner of annoyance 
upon the peaceable inhabitants of those counties. Some of them claimed to be 
emissaries from the rebel States, sent into Illinois to raise recruits for the rebel 
army. As they were of the very lowest order of human existence, it is very likely 
true they were engaged in this infamous project. Another attempt was made, upon 
the eve of the election in November last, by a gang of desperate men, to release 
the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, fire the city of Chicago, by force take pos- 
session of the polls, and inaugurate revolution in the north part of the State. By 
the timely and prudent interference of the commanding officer at Camp Douglas, 
Colonel B. J. Sweet, zealously supported by his command, and the earnest co-opera- 
tion of the police of the city of Chicago, the chief men engaged in the plot, with 
many miserable dupes following their vicious instigations, were arrested and confined, 
the scheme defeated, and the city and State saved from the terrors of this dark 
plot. To meet emergencies like these, and to be ready, at any moment, to resist 
the efforts of evil-disposed persons against the State, it may be prudent to have such 
a force at the disposal of the State as will enable the officers of the law faithfully 
to execute their duties in any part of the State, and, if serious resistance be made 
to the law, to crush it at once, and bring the offenders to speedy and exemplary 
justice. The very slightest attempt at insurrection, in our State, should be met by 
the firm and united efforts of the people to annihilate it. So confident am I of the 
support of the peace-loving and law-abiding citizens of the State, and so firmly do 
I rely upon their determination to sustain the rights of the State and its high 
character, against the machinations of all evil-disposed persons we may venture to 
hope we shall pass safely through the perils that still seriously threaten the country. 



lL'S 



1'ATKIoTISM OF ILLINOIS. 



Every attempt ;it insurrection in the State, or inyasioa of our territory by an armed 
force, would involve a cri against the National Government, and would, in ti , 

be met and resisted by the forces of tli<' United States. 
"It is the deliberate purpose of the National Government to maintain peace and 

good order throughout the whole country, to subdue the spirit of resistance to and 
violation of the Constitution, and laws of the country, w lie i her it is dignified by the 
name of revolution, or seeks its covert designs in rebellion. 

********* 

"I desire to impress upon the defenders of our country, volunteers and drafted 
men alike, engaged in the same noble cause, the fact that the man who lias faith- 
fully served his country in this war, has much to be proud of and much to honor 
him. Such a man owes it to his reputation to guard it well, and see that no foolish 
blemish gathers upon it to ruin and destroy it. lie is interested in cultivating the 
morals of the country and elevating the tone of society, because he becomes a mem- 
ber again of the community in which, when he returns, he fixes his home. The 
conduct of our soldiers in the field continues to deserve our highest praise. From 
the first hour of the war to the present moment our arms have been upheld upon 
almost every field and in almost every battle. The blood of Illinois is mingled with 
the blood of traitors on the mountain top, amid the hills, through the valleys and 
along the streams, as far as the mad waves of war overlap the once peaceful domain 
of our proud country. For prompt obedience, submission to the necessary discipline 
of war, skill in the performance of their duties, bold and daring courage in battle 
and humane treatment to the defeated foe, both officers and men continue to receive 
the highest encomiums of their commanders and deserve the lasting gratitude of 
every man, woman and child in the State and the nation. Illinois gives to our ar- 
mies the best general of modern times. 

" Although the war is not over, it is rapidly approaching the end. However for- 
midable the rebellion at first, we have seen the worst of it. We have measured its 
breadth, sounded its depth and ascended to its hight, and are bearing down upon 
it and crushing it out. It required nearly two years of dearly bought experience to 
learn its magnitude and discover the true means to be employed in halting its pro- 
gress. There was always a well-founded belief, with a large portion of our people, 
that to speedily and certainly break the back-bone of the rebellion, it wou'd be nec- 
essary to strike directly at the institution of slavery. So long, however, had this 
institution been fostered and protected by the indulgent sympathy of a vitiated pub- 
lic sentiment ; so firmly were we convinced that, under our Constitution, it had 
found some sort of foothold ; and, above all, so careful were we of the rights of our 
Southern brethren, and their delicate sensibilities upon this peculiar institution, that, 
to some extent, we had educated ourselves not to look fairly and squarely at the 
question; and I firmly believe, had the rebels remained true to the Union, and re- 
spected, in their true dignity, the rights of the people of the United States, and not 
sought, in a forcible appeal to arms, to divide and destroy the Nation and the Con- 
stitution, ages would have passed by before the wisdom and justice of man would 
have reached and stricken from the roll of human errors this monstrous evil upon 
our country. They went to w r ar to make slavery the corner-stone of a new confed- 
eracy, and to build upon this error, in the very face of God, a hideous despotism. 
To do this, it was first essential that the only well established and divinely favored 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 129 

Republic should be destroyed, and they actually began the war for this purpose. 
Nor is this monstrous truth to be hidden or denied by all the falsehood and pre- 
tense — the slander and misrepresentation — that fiction can invent or man concoct. 
The public sentiment of the whole North and Northwest was, to let slavery alone, in 
the slave States, forever ; but it has forfeited whatever of real or imaginary pro- 
tection it ever was entitled to, and an impatient and outraged people will put up with 
its pretensions no longer By a joint resolution of Congress of March 2, 1861, the 
following amendment was proposed to the Constitution of the United States: 'No 
amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Con- 
gress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institu- 
tions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said 
State.' And the Legislature of this State, at the session of 1863, ratified said 
amendment. It is well known that this amendment was proposed to conciliate the 
South — to show to them our temper on the slavery question ; and thus, by a timely 
exhibition of moderation and forbearance, on the part of the administration coming 
into power, allay all cause for strife, or the pretense for it, on this embarrassing 
question. It was soon manifest, however, that no antidote could heal the mad spirit 
of rebellion. The South had deliberately prepared for the crisis, and were bent on 
involving the country In ruin. No concession could head off the furious purposes of 
these self-conceited and self-constituted usurpationists, who claimed, at last, the 
right to dictate who should and who should not be elected President of the United 
States. Another proposed amendment to the Constitution is now pending before 
Congress. It came near passing the last session. There are some reasons for be- 
lieving it may yet be passed by the present Congress. This amendment is very 
unlike the one above quoted but, like the other, will, I hope, when it reaches our 
Legislature, receive its early sanction and approval. It is as follows : 

Rmoh<«d, etc. (two thirds of both houses concurring), That the following article be 
proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as an amendment of the Consti- 
tution of the United States, which, when ratified by three fourths of said Legisla- 
tures, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as a part of said Constitution, 
namely: 

"ARTICLE XIII. 

"Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the Uni- 
ted States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

" Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

" These different amendments, proposed at different periods during the progress 
of the rebellion, show the marked change the sentiment of the country has under- 
gone on this question. Moral convictions sometimes rest upon the demonstrations 
of moral proof. In this instance, there is the additional weight of moral conscious- 
ness, based upon the aggravated sufferings of a whole nation for nearly four years, 
arising solely out of this great evil — nor will the public sentiment of the country 
be checked or delayed, in its determination to eradicate slavery from the soil of the 
Republic by the constant inquiry, ' What is to become of the negro after ho ia 
free ?' It might better be asked, what may not become of him ? He can labor. 
9 



130 PATBIOTXm OF ILLINOIS. 

He can team. Hi' can fight, improve and aspire, and if after we shall have tried, 
for as long to make him a useful free man as we have a useless slave, we shall fail, 
and he shall fail, there will be time enough left in which to solve this per- 
question. It there were no other or higher motive for emancipation, I would still 
fervently advocate it as a punishment to traitors for the crime of treason, for it is 
useless to talk about ending the rebellion in any other way, than upon our own 
terms and conditions. If we cannot subdue them, to the extent of an unqualified 
Detention of hostilities against the National Government, and a positive return to 
obedience to the laws of the land, as they are honored and obeyed by every good 
citizen of the United States, we shall not have conquered them at all. The people 
of Illinoisare not aiding in the prosecution of this war, with any view of at last, and 
when resistance to our laws is no longer possible, entering into any flimsy and 
deceptive compromise, to cajole ourselves and rebels into a fallacious and senseless 
settlement of the difficulties. They are in hostile rebellion against the National 
Government, savagely, and without cause, waging a cruel and barbarous war on us, 
and should be made to feel the strong arm of that government. When they lay 
down their arms and cry for peace, as they took them up and shouted for war, it 
will be time enough to arrange for them the terms upon which they shall be per- 
mitted to participate in the government. I do not adhere to the distinction so gen- 
erally made between leader and follower in the monstrous offence. Both arc guilty. 
But as it may be impossible, in the administration of justice, to reach all, those 
most prominent in guilt should be made to suffer most. In theory, I know no dis- 
tinction amongst them ; every man in rebellion against the United States, is guilty 
of treason and deserves the punishment of death. Those who are not, and who 
have not been in rebellion, are not to be classed with them, in any event. Thej 
deserve and will receive the gratitude of the whole country in all time to come. 
Those who were forced to take up arms against their will, deserve and will receive 
our clemency." 

General Allen C. Fuller resigned the position of Adjutant-General 
of the State to take his seat in the General Assembly of which he 
was chosen Speaker of the House of Representatives. Naturally 
the appointment of a successor fell to a soldier, late the gallant col- 
onel of the 18th. 

General Isham Nicholas Haynie was born on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1824, near Dover, Tennessee, and emigrated with his parents to 
Illinois in 1830, settling in Marion county, where both his parents 
still reside. He began the study of law in June, 1844, and was licensed 
to practice in March, 184G. In 1847, when volunteers were called 
out for the Mexican war, he volunteered, and was commissioned by 
Gov. French, as First Lieutenant of Company C, 6th Illinois, com- 
manded by Col. E. W. B. Newley. He was mustered in at Alton, 
in May, 1847, and served till the close of the war in 1848, being mus- 
tered out Oct. 12th. He then resumed the practica of law at Salem, 
and in 1850 was elected a member of the Illinois Legislature, serv- 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL HAYNIE. 131 

ing during the sessions of 1851-52. In 1853 he graduated at the 
Louisville University with the highest honors of the law class, and 
thereupon resumed the practice of law until 1856, when he was ap- 
pointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas at Cairo, and remov- 
ed his residence thither. In 1860 he was nominated on the Douglas 
ticket for Presidential elector from the old 9th District, and vigor- 
ously canvassed his district for Douglas and Democracy. He retir- 
ed from the bench in 1861, and soon after the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter, declared in favor of the administration of Mr. Lincoln, and 
warmly supported him to the day of Mr. Lincoln's death. 

In the fall of 1861 he raised and organized the 48th Illinois Infan- 
try, and in September, 1861, was commissioned by Gov. Yates as its 
Colonel. In November he reported with his regiment to General 
Grant, at Cairo, and accompanied the army into Tennessee. He was 
at the taking of Fort Henry, and in the first assault upon Fort Don- 
elson, Feb. 13, 1862, commanded a brigade. On the 15th his regi- 
ment formed a part of the brigade of the lamented W. H. L. Wal- 
lace, and remained on the field till ordered to withdraw. At the bat- 
tle of Shiloh he was severely wounded while at the head of his reg- 
iment, but resumed command on the 23d of May following, and took 
part in the investment of Corinth. In the summer of 1862, he ran 
as the war candidate for Congress, in the 9th district, and was de- 
feated by only 700 votes — the former Democratic majorities in the 
district being 1,300 or more. During the balance of the summer 
of 1862 he was in command of a brigade and the post of Bethel, 
Tennessee, near Corinth. He was appointed Brigadier-General by 
Mr. Lincoln in November, 1862, and served till March 4, 1863, when 
the failure of the Senate to act on the appointment made the same 
expire by limitation. He resumed the practice of law till December, 
1864, and in the following month was appointed by Governor Ogles- 
by Adjutant- General of the State, which position he now holds with 
great credit to himself and advantage to the people and the State. 

General Haynie is entirely a self-made man. Till twenty years 
of age he was reared to hard labor on a farm, and thereafter prosecut- 
ed his studies and profession with no other aid than the means 
which he had himself earned. He has been a successful man, as is 
testified by a handsome private fortune and by an honored name as 
a citizen, a lawyer and a soldier. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

REGIMENTS AND BATTERIES. 

The Fifteenth — First Enlisted for Three Years — Its Part at Shiloh — Brevet 
Brigadier-General George C. Rogers — The Seventeenth — Its Campaigns — The 
Eighteenth — Brevet Brigadier-General Jcles C. Webber — The Twentieth — 
Life in Prisons — The Twenty-second — The Twenty-third — List of Battles in 
which It was Engaged — The Twenty-ninth — Re-enlistment in the Veteran Ser- 
vice — The Thirtieth — A Veteran Regiment — The Thirty-first — The Charge at 
Fort Hill — The Thirty-second — Eleven Thousand Mile3 of March — Busteed's 
Battery — Old Batteries A and B, First Artillery — An Honorable Record. 

FIFTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

THE 15th Regiment was organized at Freeport, in April, 1861, and 
mustered into the United States service May 24th, being the 
first Illinois regiment mustered into the three years' service.* The 
following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Thomas J. Turner ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edward F. Ellis; Major, Wm. 
R. Goddard ; Adjutant, Cyrenus C. Clark ; Quartermaster, Samuel Hice, Jr. ; Sur- 
geon, William J. McKim ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Harman A. Buck ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Leonard L. Lake; Chaplain, David E. Halteman. 

Co. A — Captain, Louis D. Kelly; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel C. Joslyn; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Mark Hathaway. 

Co. B — Captain, William Haywood, 1st Lieutenant, David L. Baker; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Addison N. Longcor. 

* In Vol. I [p. 296], we have stated that the 13th was the first mustered into the 
three years' service. Both the 13th and 15th were so mustered on the same day; 
but the former was mustered in in the afternoon, and the latter in the forenoon — 
giving the 15th the honor of being the first. It was also the second regiment of 
volunteers in the Union to be mustered for the three years' service— the 15th Mas- 
sachusetts being the first. 



THE FIFTEENTH. 133 

Co. C — Captain, Holder Brownell ; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrenua C. Clark ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Bradley. 

Co. D — Captain, Harley Wayne; 1st Lieutenant, Frank S. Curtis; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Fred. A. Smith. 

Co. E — Captain, James Rany ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel J. Benner ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John W. Luke. 

Co. F — Captain, John H. Paddock ; 1st Lieutenant, William Henry ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John J. Sears. 

Co. G — Captain, James 0. P. Burnside ; 1st Lieutenant, R. C. McEathron ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Albert Bliss, Jr. 

Co. H — Captain, Morton D. Swift; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Hewitt; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William H. Gibbs. 

Co. I — Captain, Joseph B. Jones ; 1st Lieutenant, George C. Rogers; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John S. Pratt. 

Co. K — Captain, Adam Nase ; 1st Lieutenant, James O'Brien ; 2d Lieutenant, 
J. W. Puterbaugh. 

On the 1st of June, the regiment proceeded to Alton, where it 
remained till the 1st of August, when it went to Jefferson Barracks, 
Missouri. It then went to Rolla, Missouri, where it arrived in time 
to cover General SigePs retreat from Wilson's Creek. On the 1st 
of October it marched to Tipton, where it joined General Fremont's 
grand army, and began a campaign in Missouri. Near Sedalia it 
assisted in the capture of 1,300 of the enemy. Thence it marched 
to Otterville, where it went' into winter quarters on the 26th of 
December, remaining there till February 1, 1862. On the 7th of 
the latter month it was ordered to St. Louis, whence it proceeded to 
Fort Donelson, arriving on the morning of the surrender. Here it 
was assigned to Hurlbut's "Fighting Fourth Division." It then 
went to Pittsburg Landing, being the first regiment to disembark 
there. At the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April, the 15th was in 
the first line of battle, with the 77th and 53d Ohio regiments on 
either flank. At the first fire of the rebels, the Buckeyes broke and 
ran, and the enemy was soon on both flanks of the 15th, which 
bravely stood its ground for an hour, and until entirely cut up. It 
was in the final charge on the 7th, led by General Grant in person, 
which gave our army the victory. In this battle the 15th lost 252 
men killed and wounded. Among the former were Lieutenant- 
Colonel E. F. W. Ellis, Major Goddard, Captains Brownell and 
"Wayne and Lieutenant John W. Puterbaugh. It was in the advance 
on Corinth, when Colonel Turner, who had been absent on account 



of severe illness, :i;_cain assumed oommand, bul was obliged to 
It up after the evacuation of that place. Captain George 0. Rogers 
then took oommand of the regiment, and was soon afterward appointed 
Lieutenant-ColoneL After the evacuation of Corinth, the 15th 
marched to Grand Junction and Holly Springs, and on the 2lst of 
July arrived ;it Memphis. After making numerous expeditions into 
the country, it broke camp at Memphis, on the 6th of September, 
and marohed to l><»livar, Tennessee, and thence to the Ilatchie Kiver, 
and took an active part in the battle of the TIatchie, where General 
Hurlbut, with his division of 5,000 men, met 15,000 of the enemy 
on the retreat from Corinth, under VanDorn and Price, defeating 
them and capturing a large amount of property and many prisoners. 
It accompanied General Grant in his campaign through Northern 
Mississippi, and in the spring of '63 was ordered before Vicksburg, 
where it participated in the siege of that place, and was also with 
the army that pursued the rebel General Johnston to Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, taking part in the battle that was fought there, forcing the 
enemy to evacuate the city. It afterward, likewise, assisted in tho 
reduction of Fort Beauregard, Louisiana, and was with General 
Sherman on his grand raid to Meridian, having a severe engage- 
ment with the enemy at Champion Hill, where it was deployed as 
skirmishers, and routed three regiments of rebel cavalry. The men 
now re-enlisted as veterans, and proceeded north on furlough, after 
the expiration of which they again returned south, and after a long 
and fatiguing series of marches, joined the grand army moving 
against Atlanta. Here, as attached to the brigade commanded by 
Colonel George C. Rogers, the regiment was detached with that 
command, and ordered to remain and fortify Allatoona Pass. 
While thus engaged, the 14th and 15th regiments, both in the same 
brigade, having become fearfully decimated, were consolidated by 
oommand of Major-General McPherson, and were afterward known 
as the Veteran Battalion, 14th and 15th Illinois Volunteers, the com- 
mand numbering in all 625 men. After remaining at Allatoona for 
some days, the Veteran Battalion, with which the 14th regiment had 
become identified, was ordered to Marietta, Georgia, and thence to 
Ackworth, being detailed to guard the railroad at these places, the 
only communication of General Sherman. During this service, the 



THE FIFTEENTH. 185 

battalion was constantly scouting through the country, and fighting 
guerrillas, until about the 1st of October, when the rebel General 
Hood with his army, then making a demonstration in the rear ot 
Sherman, struck the railroad at Ackworth and Big Shanty, and after 
a fierce engagement succeeded in capturing a portion of the battalion. 
Those who escaped capture in this engagement now returned to 
Marietta, and after being mounted, started with General Sherman 
on his grand march to the sea. On this memorable incursion, the 
battalion acted as scouts, flankers, and advanced guard, and were 
the first to drive the rebel pickets inside their works at Savannah. 
During the long and arduous marches through the Carolinas, the 
battalion also accompanied General Sherman, being continually in 
the advance or on the flanks, skirmishing with the enemy. It was 
the first command to enter Cheneau, South Carolina, and Fayette- 
ville, North Carolina, upon the capture of those places, and also 
participated in the battle of Bentonville. While at Goldsboro, 
recruits sufficient to refill both regiments were received, and. the 
organization of the Veteran Battalion was discontinued from that 
time, and the 14th and 15th regiments re-organized. After the sur- 
render of Johnston, the regiment marched to Richmond, and thence 
to Washington, where it participated in the grand review of Sher- 
man's army, May 24, 1865, being afterward ordered to Louisville, 
Kentucky, and thence to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. It was sent for 
a short time to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, but soon returned to Fort 
Leavenworth, where it was mustered out on the 16th of September, 
1865, and ordered to Springfield for final discharge. At that time 
its roster was as follows : 

Colonel and Brevet-Brigadier-General, George C. Rogers ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Lemuel 0. Gilman ; Major, Joseph Devlin ; Adjutant, Andrew H. Hershey ; Quarter- 
master, George A. Austin; Assistant Surgeon, Only P. B. Wright ; Chaplain, Barton 
F. Rogers. 

Co. A — 1st Lieutenant, George W. Thompson; 2d Lieutenant, David McGrath. 

Co. B — Captain, Arthur Dawson ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles W. White. 

Co. D — Captain, Ezekiel Giles; 1st Lieutenant, Voluey Bliss; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles A. Harper. 

Co. E — Captain, Benjamin F. Gardner; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Older. 

Co. F — Captain, Jonathan M. Clendening ; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin H. Riley. 

Co. G — Captain, Albert Bliss, Jr. ; 1st Lieutenant, Devalson J. Kimball; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Augustus S. Chappell. 



136 Pi I i:l"ll>M Of ILLINOIS. 

Co. H — Captain, Edward Hurrell ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas C. Shelly: 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William Dodds. 

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin J. Gifford; 1st Lieutenant, Scptio Roberts; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Derth. 

Co. K — Captain, John A. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Paul; 2d Lieutenant, 
Tilghmaii Driesbaek. 

During its term of service (four years and four months) the 15th 
mustered in an aggregate of 1,905 men, and at the date of its muster 
out numbered 640. It marched on foot 4,299 miles; traveled by- 
rail, 2,403 miles; by steamer, 4,310; total, 11,012 miles. 

General George C. Rogers was born at Piermont, New Hamp- 
shire, November 22, 1837, and came to the West in 1853. He was 
educated at Bradbury Academy, New Hampshire, and at Wauconda, 
Lake County, Illinois. He studied Law with Hon. E. P. Ferry, at 
Waukegan, and in 1860 was admitted to the bar, at Springfield. 
In that year he canvassed the State for Douglas. On the breaking 
out of the rebellion he raised the first company in Lake County, 
and went into the 15th regiment as First Lieutenant of Company I, 
and in September was made Captain. At the battle of Shiloh he 
was wounded four times, and while at home received from Governor 
Yates a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. After 
the battle of the Hatchie, he was appointed Colonel, in the place of 
Colonel Turner, who had resigned. At the battle of Champion Hills 
he was twice wounded. The works at Allatoona were built under 
his direction. In the Atlanta campaign he commanded a brigade, 
and in Washington, in June, 1865, he received his promotion by 
brevet as Brigadier-General — an honor fairly and bravely won. He 
was mustered out of the service with his regiment. 

SEVENTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 1 7th regiment was organized at Peoria, and was mustered 
into the State service on the 13th of May, 1861, and into the United 
States service on the 24th of the same month. The original roster 
was as follows: 

Colonel, Leonard Fulton Ross ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Enos P. Wood ; Major, Francis 
M. Smith ; Adjutant, Abraham H. Ryan ; Quartermaster, Henry L. Smith ; Surgeon, 
L. D. Kellogg; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles B. Tompkins; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Henry H. Penneman ; Chaplain, Sanford A. Kingsbury 



THE SEVENTEENTH. 137 

Co. A — Captain, Addison S. Norton ; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham H. Ryan ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Robson. 

Co. B — Captain, Benjamin T. Baldwin; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph L. Dodds; 2d 
Lieutenant, Albert W. Jones. 

Co. C — Captain, Allen D. Rose; 1st Lieutenant, William Walsh ; 2d Lieutenant, 
David A. Parks. 

Co. D — Captain, Henry H. Bush; 1st Lieutenant, James McCartney; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John J. Biggs. 

Co. E — Captain, Francis M. Smith ; 1st Lieutenant, Roderick R. Harding ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James C. Beswick. 

Co. F — Captain, Josiah Moore; 1st Lieutenant, John R. Charter; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles C. Williams. 

Co. G — Captain, Otis A. Burgess ; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan H. Rowell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Frederick D. Callsen. 

Co. H — Captain, Leonard F. Ross ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas A. Boyd ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Asias Willison. 

Co. I — Captain, Enos P. Wood ; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Saunders ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Edward S. Bruington. 

Co. K — Captain, James P. Walker; 1st Lieu-tenant, John Q. A. Jones; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Andrew J. Bruner. 

The 17th left Peoria on the 19th of June, 1861, for Alton, from 
whence it proceeded to Missouri, and was enrployed there and in 
Kentucky until the 20th of October, when it opened and engaged 
in the battle of Fredericktown, Missouri. It then remained at Cape 
Girardeau until February 6, 1862. It was at the taking of Fort 
Henry, February 10th, and Fort Donelson, February 12th. It was 
also in the three days' battle at Savannah, Tennessee, and in the 
battle of Shiloh, where it suffered severely. It next engaged in the 
siege of Corinth, frequently skirmishing with the enemy, but " more 
frequently using the shovel and the hoe." From Corinth it was 
ordered to Bethel, thence to Jackson, and on the 17th of July to 
Bolivar, where it was assigned to guard and provost duty. Here it 
remained till November, 1862, participating in an expedition toluka 
to reinforce General Rosecrans at the battle of that name, and in 
another to reinforce General Hurlbut at the battle of the Hatchie, 
but did not arrive in time to participate in either of those engage- 
ments. About the middle of November it was placed on duty at 
Lagrange, Tennessee, Colonel Norton commanding the post. Here 
it was continually on the alert, as this was the general depot for 
supplies for the armies south of this point. Early in December, it 
was ordered to Holly Springs and thence to Abbeville, where it 



138 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

remained till the surrender of the former place, when General Grant's 
forces were compelled to fall hack for supplies. The regiment was 

soon after ordered to Memphis, remaining there till January 16, 
1863, when it was sent to Vickshnrg. A few days after arriving 
there, it proceeded to Lake Providence, Louisiana, then the head- 
quarters of the 1 7th Army Corps. It remained on duty at this point 
until the operations for the investment of Vickshnrg were com- 
menced. Arriving at Milliken's Bend, La., on or ahout the 1st of 
May, it commenced the march across the Delta, to Perkins' Land- 
ing, on the Mississippi River, thence, via " Hard Times," to the 
place of crossing, below Grand Gulf, and advancing with Mcpher- 
son's command, via Raymond, Champion Hills, Jackson, Big Black 
and to the final investment of Vickshnrg, during which time it was 
on picket duty in the trenches before Vickshnrg, on alternate days 
being employed as sharp-shooters. It remained in this position until 
the final capitulation of Vickshnrg, when, having previously been 
assigned to General John A. Logan's division, it had the honor of 
marching into that city together with the other forces comprised in 
that division, on the final surrender of the city. Here, and in the 
vicinity of Big Black, it remained doing garrison duty, making 
frequent incursions into the enemy's country, once as far east as 
Meridian, under command of General Sherman, thence returning 
to Monroe, Louisiana, thence to Vicksburg and vicinity, where it 
remained until May, 1864. The term of service of the regiment 
expiring on the 24th of May this year, it was ordered to Springfield, 
Illinois, for muster out and final discharge; when and where those 
of the original organization, Avho did not re-enlist as veterans, were 
mustered out and discharged. A sufficient number not having enlisted 
to entitle them to retain their regimental organization, the veterans 
and recruits whose term of service had not expired, were con- 
solidated with the 8th Illinois infantry, with whose history they 
were afterward identified, and were finally mustered out with that 
regiment, and discharged in the spring of 1866. 

EIGHTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

This regiment was organized in Camp Anna, in the 9th Congres- 
sional District, under the u Ten Regiment Bill," and rendezvoused 



THE EIGHTEENTH. 139 

at Anna. On the 16th of May, 1861, it was mustered into the State 
service for thirty days by Captain U. S. Grant. On the 28th it 
was mustered into the three years' service, Avith the following roster: 

Colonel, Michael K. Lawler ; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas H. Burgess ; Major, 
Samuel Eaton; Adjutant, William B. Fondey; Quartermaster, John Olney; Sur- 
geon, Henry W. Davis ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Orange B. Ormsby ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, William W. Hipolite; Chaplain, Lewis Lambert. 

Co. A — Captain, James Baird ; 1st Lieutenant, James S.Craig; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry S. Wilson. 

Co. B — Captain Elias W. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Cornelius C. Weaver; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Scanland. 

Co. C — Captain, William S. Crawford ; 1st Lieutenant, William J. Dillon ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Andrew J. Ice. 

Co. D. — Captain, Jos. T. Cormick ; 1st Lieutenant, Wimer Bedford ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Green. 

Co. E — Captain, William Hunter; 1st Lieutenant, Edgar Potter ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles H. Reed 

Co. F — Captain, Jabez J. Anderson ; 1st Lieutenant, John Olney; 2d Lieutenant, 
William M. Thompson. 

Co. G — Captain, Wilson M. Cooper ; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan Crews ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William H. Robinson. 

Co. H — Captain, Richard R. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Moberly ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas G. Barnes. 

Co. I — Captain, Samuel B. Marks ; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Barton ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Joseph Williams. 

Co. K — Captain, Daniel H. Brush ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Lawrence ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Argill Conner. 

The regiment left camp on the 24th of June, and proceeded to 
Bird's Point, Mo. On the 27th of August, it was sent to Mound 
City, and on the 6th of October to Cairo. On the 1st of November, 
it was sent on a brief expedition to Bloomfield, returning on the 1 2th. 
Jan. 10, 1862, it took part in the reconnoissance before Columbus. 
It was at the taking of Fort Henry, and bore an active part in the 
capture of Fort Donelson, where it lost 50 killed and 150 wounded. 
It next participated in the battle of Shiloh, losing 10 killed and 65 
wounded, and in the siege of Corinth. After the evacuation of that 
place, it joined in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Brownsville, 
when it returned to Jackson. Dec. 20th, it started in the pursuit of 
Forest, returning the following day. It remained at Jackson until 
May, 1863, doing garrison duty. In the spring of that year it was 
mounted, and participated in the pursuit of the guerrilla bands which 
infested that region, making frequent captures — at one time taking 37 



140 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

of Chalmers' guerrillas, including Col. Newsome and 12 of his men. 
April '29th it went to Covington, Teim., and captured the town, where 
it had a brisk engagement with Roddy* On the 28th of May it was 
ordered to Vicksburg, via Memphis, and was one of the first regi- 
ments to occupy Haines' Bluff, where it constructed works for the 
defence of the rear against Johnston, occupying them until the sur- 
render of Vicksburg. About the 10th of July it joined in General 
Steele's Little Rock expedition, and took part in the capture of the 
Arkansas capital on the 10th of September. Here it remained on 
garrison duty until October, when it was ordered to Pine Bluff, Ark. 
On the 18th it took an active part in the battle of Mount Elba, where 
it distinguished itself by sharp fighting. Early in December it was 
ordered back to Little Rock, and on the 16th re-enlisted for the vet- 
eran service, and was consolidated into three companies. On the 
16th of March, 1864, seven new companies were assigned to the 
regiment, and Col. J. C. Webber commissioned as its commander. 
The regiment remained on guard duty at Little Rock until Septem- 
ber, 1865, when it was ordered to Pine Bluff. Here it was en- 
gaged on guard duty, Col. Webber in command of the post, until 
Dec. 16th, when it was mustered out. It arrived at Springfield on the 
81st, and was paid off and discharged on the 8th of January, 1866. 

It is related of the 18th that it was composed very largely of the 
friends and supporters of Senator Douglas, by whose influence, as 
exerted in the last grand efforts of his life, they were induced to 
enter the army, and warmly to support the Government in its hour 
of need. 

Col. Jules C. Webber was born at Mayville, Chautauque county, 
N. Y., August 27, 1838. At an early age he emigrated to Michigan, 
where he resided until 1850, when he took up his residence in Grun- 
dy county, 111. Here he studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in February, 1861. He entered into partnership with Richard Rit- 
ter, afterward Colonel of the 28th Illinois. Col. Webber raised a 
company of volunteers for the army, and proceeded with it to Spring- 
field, but was unable to secure its acceptance, and was compelled to 
disband it. Hearing of the organization of the 18th regiment in the 
southern portion of the State, he proceeded to Anna, and enlisted as 
a private. He rose step by step until June 6, 1865, when he was 



THE TWENTIETH INFANTRY. 141 

commissioned Colonel of the regiment. At the conclusion of the 
war he was brevetted a Brigadier-General for " gallant and merito- 
rious conduct." He is now Adjutant-General of the "Grand Army 
of the Republic." 

TWENTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 20th regiment was organized at Joliet by companies from dif- 
erent counties, as follows : A, from Champaign county ; B, from 
Will; C, McLean; D, Livingston; E, DeWitt; F, Will and Bu- 
reau ; G, Kankakee ; H, Putnam and LaSalle ; I, Iroquois ; K, Ken- 
dall ; and when mustered into the service on June 13, 1861, num- 
bered 924 men. The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, C. Carroll Marsh ; Lieutenant-Colonel, William Erwin ; Major, John W. 
Goodwin ; Adjutant, John E. Thompson ; Quartermaster, John Spicer ; Surgeon, 
Christopher Goodbrake ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Fred. K. Bailey ; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Rolla T. Richards ; Chaplain, Charles Button. 

Co. A — Captain, John S. Wolfe ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel Bradley ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George W. Kennard. 

Co. B — Captain, Fred. A. Bartleson ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Goodwin ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John F. Cleghorn. 

Co. C — Captain, John 0. Pullen ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Champion ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Andrew J. Taylor. 

Co. D — Captain, John A. Hoskins ; 1st Lieutenant, Joshua Whitmore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John A. Fellows. 

Co. E — Captain, Evan Richards ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Pharres ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James M. North. 

Co. F — Captain, William Erwin ; 1st Lieutenant, James E. Shields ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James E. Shields. 

Co. G — Captain, James W. Burgess ; 1st Lieutenant, John Tunison ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Cephas Williams. 

Co. H — Captain, Orton Frisbie ; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Whiting ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John M. Powell. 

Co. I — Captain, George H. Walser; 1st Lieutenant, George E. King ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John C. Tobias. 

Co. K — Captain, Reuben F. Dyer ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Olin ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John R. McKean. 

The first severe battle in which the Twentieth participated was at 
Fredericktown, Mo., October 21, 1861. After this it remained for 
some months encamped at Cape Girardeau, and when again called 
into active service, in the spring of 1862, participated in the follow- 
ing battles: Fort Henry, February 10, 1862; Fort Donelson, Febru- 



14:2 l'ATUIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

ary 13, 14 and 15; Shiloh, April G; siege of Corinth ; Britton's Lane, 
September 1 ; Thompson's Hill, -May 1, 1863; Raymond, May 12 j 
Jackson, May 14; Champion's Hill, May 16; Vicksburg from May 
19 to July 4, during the siege. In this siege it was engaged in the 
celebrated charges on Fort Hill, on May 22d and June 22d. After 
Vicksburg had fallen, it remained on guard in its vicinity until 
Sherman's Meridian raid, on which it took its full share in the bat- 
tles of Clinton and Chunkeys' Station. After the raid it returned 
to Vicksburg, and thence home, on veteran furlough, in the month of 
March, 1864. At this time only one hundred and ninety-seven of 
the old members remained in the regiment. On its return to service, 
it joined Sherman at Big Shanty, and under him was engaged in the 
first charge on Kenesaw Mountain, and the subsequent great battle 
there on June 27, 1864. Subsequently it participated in the great 
battles of July 21st and 22d before Atlanta, and on the last men- 
tioned date the enemy managed to flank it, and captured the entire 
regiment, with the exception of thirteen men and two or three offi- 
cers. When the detailed squad was sent back, its total strength was 
thirty-five men, commanded by Capt. King, all the rest being in An- 
dersonville, Charleston and other Southern prisons. This small rem- 
nant was mounted and employed in scouting service on Sherman's 
"march down to the sea," until it reached Goldsboro, N. C, 
where it received two hundred and fifty recruits, was rejoined there 
and at Alexandria by nearly all the former members of the regi- 
ment who lived, and had, by this time, been exchanged, and once 
more it resumed its character as a regimental organization. It was 
present in the grand review at Washington, and thence returned, via 
Louisville, to Chicago, where it arrived June 19, 1865, for final 
muster and discharge. It brought home twenty-one 'officers and 
three hundred and twenty-two men, of whom only about seventy 
were in the original nine hundred and twenty-four of which the 
regiment was composed in 1861. 

TWENTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In the first volume of this work (p. 307), we have given the origi- 
nal roster of this regiment and a sketch of its career up to the time 
of its marching to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville. It passed 



THE TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 143 

the winter of 1863-'4 among the mountains of East Tennessee. 
Early in the spring it moved to Loudon, Tennessee, thence to Cleve- 
land, marching thence under General Sherman, and was engaged 
in the two days' lighting at Resaca. It was afterward, for eleven 
days and nights, under fire in the trenches at Ackworth, Georgia. 
It left this point on the 10th of June, and was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 7th of July, 1864. 

TWENTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In Vol. I. (p. 367 et seq.), we have given the original roster of this 
regiment and the history of its career until the battle of Winchester, 
West Va., July 25, 1864, when its brave commander, Col. Mulligan, 
was killed. After this battle, the 23d participated in all the 
campaigns of Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and more than 
once avenged the death of its chief, under the respective commands 
of Captains Fitzgerald, Moriarty and Simpson. After the total over- 
throw of Early in the Valley, it was ordered to the Army of the 
James, and, under Captain Ryan, took part in the great last 
movement of Grant. The Yates Phalanx, 39th Illinois, and the 
Chicago Irish Brigade, 23d Illinois, both successfully stormed Fort 
Gregg, the key to Petersburg, taking the fort at the point of the bay- 
onet, and under a most disastrous fire. The 23d shared with the 
old Army of the Potomac the honor of driving the rebel armies 
to the "last ditch" of the defunct rebellion. After the surren- 
der of Lee's army, the regiment was ordered back to Richmond, and 
did duty near that city up to the date of its muster out, in July, 1865, 
when it returned to Chicago. During its entire term of service, up 
to Richmond, it received but about one hundred recruits. Two hun- 
dred men who enlisted for the 23d were sent off down to Sherman's 
army, and the regiment never saw any of them but two, who had 
been captured by the enemy, escaped and rejoined at Richmond the 
command for which they originally enlisted. At Richmond they 
received five companies of recruits. The following are some of the 
principal battles in which this regiment was engaged : Lexington, 
Sept., 1861 (nine days' fighting); Moorfield, W. Va., Jan. 3, 1863; 
Philippi, W. Va., April 26, 1863 ; Petersburg Gap, W. Va., Oct., 
1863; Medley, W. Va., Jan. 30, 1864; Leetown, W. Va., July 3, 



144 PATRIOTISM 07 ILLINOIS. 

1864; Shepherdstown, W. Va., July 3, 1864; Maryland Heights, Md., 
July 6, 1 and 8, 1804 ; Snicker'sGap, July 17, 1864; Winchester, July 
23 and 24, 1864; Martinsburg, July 25, 1864; Cedar Creek, Aug. 
13, 1864; Halltown, Aug. 22 and 23, 1864; Berryville, Sept. 3, 
1864; Opequan Creek (or second Winchester), Sept. 19, 1864 ; Fiser's 
Hill, Sept. 22, 1864; Cedar Creek, Oct. 13, 1864; Hatcher's Run, 
March 31, April 1 and 2, 1865 ; Fort Gregg, April 7, 1865. 

In addition to these, detached companies have had desperate en- 
gagements, as follows : 

Companies B, D and K, South Fork of the Potomac, Nov. 12, 
1862; company K, Fairmount, April, 1863; company I, Rowesburg, 
April, 1863; company I, Wolfsden, Oct., 1863; company C, Wil- 
liamsport, Jan. 3, 1864; companies C, D and K, Moorfield, Jan., 
1865; company D, Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865 ; com- 
pany G, Greenland, April 25, 1863. 

The last named company engagement, by company G, under Cap- 
tain Wallace, was one of the most desperate engagements during 
the war. They were in a church when attacked by the rebels, killed 
more than their own number of the enemy, and then only surrender- 
ed when the building in which they were was set on fire. 

TWENTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 29th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered 
into the service July 27, 1861. The original roster is as follows : 

Colonel, James S. Re ardon; Lieutenant-Colonel, James E. Dunlap ; Major, Mason 
Brayman ; Adjutant, Aaron R. Stout ; Quartermaster, Ebenezer Z. Ryan ; Surgeon, 
Charles C. Guard; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel L. Cheaney ; Chaplain, Zenas S. 
Clifford. 

Co. A — Captain, Charles M. Ferrell ; 1st Lieutenant, David R. Jones ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Lorenzo D. Martin. 

Co. B — Captain, George W. McKenzie ; 1st Lieutenant, John D. Jam'iBon ; 2d 
Lieutenant, George C. Jamison. 1 

Co. C — Captain, John A. Callicott ; 1st Lieutenant John M. Eddy; 2d Lieutenant, 
Alfred DeWitt. 

Co. D— Captain, John S. Whiting ; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Hart ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Eberlee P. H. Stone. 

Co. E— Captain, William H. Parish; 1st Lieutenant, William Choisser; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William W. Burnett 

Co. F— Captain, James Roper ; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Belford ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Richard M. Bozman. 



THE TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 145 

Co. G — Captain, Soloman S. Brill ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Wakefield , 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Theodore Millspaugh. 

Co. H — Captain, Jason B. Sprague ; 1st Lieutenant, Abner Hostetter; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William H. Stewart. 

Co. I — Captain, Augustus 0. Millington ; 1st Lieutenant, Marshall M. Mclntyre ; 
2d Lieutenant, Samuel H. Russell. 

Co. K — Captain, John A. Carmichael ; 1st Lieutenant, Elijah P. Curtis ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William T. Day. 

In September, 1861, the regiment was ordered to Cairo. Here it 
remained, save when engaged in expeditions into Missouri and Ken- 
tucky, until the capture of Fort Henry, in February, 1862, when it 
was the first regiment to enter the rebel works after their evacuation. 
It next participated in the capture of Fort Donelson, where it suffer- 
ed severely. It bore a most honorable part at the battle of Shiloh, 
and was engaged in the subsequent siege of Corinth. On the 6th of 
June, it was removed to Jackson, Tenn. While here, it %ngaged in 
several expeditions to various points in West Tennessee, and formed 
part of the force sent by General Grant to reinforce General Rose- 
crans at the time of the attack on Corinth. It arrived too late to 
take part in the battle, but pursued the retreating rebels, inflicting 
serious damage. On the 18th of December, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kent was sent with two companies to the reinforcement of Jackson, 
and on the 20th, Colonel Murphy, commandant at Holly Springs, 
disgracefully surrendered his command, which included eight com- 
panies of the 29th Illinois. The men were paroled and sent to Ben- 
ton Barracks, St. Louis, where they remained until exchanged in 
July, 1863. The remaining two companies were assigned to duty 
in the Western navy, where they served with honorable distinction 
in the siege of Vicksburg. In October, 1863, the regiment was re- 
enlisted ; and a few days later the 131st Illinois was consolidated 
with it. On the 31st of December, 1863, the regiment was sent to 
Natchez, Mississippi. Here in the succeeding month it re-enlisted 
in the veteran service, and received veteran furloughs at Springfield 
on the 19th of July, 1864. On the 22d of August it left Spring- 
field for Natchez, where it remained until October, when it went to 
the mouth of White River, and from thence to Paducah, Ky. In 
the latter part of November it returned to Memphis. It took part 
in the expedition sent into East Tennessee, and on the 1st of Jan- 
10 



146 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

nary, 1865, went to New Orleans. It then took part in the campaign 
against Mobile, and was actively engaged at the siege of Spanish 
Fort and Fort Blakfily. On the 12th of April, it marched into the 
city of Mobile. On the 20th of June it left for Galveston, Texas, 
and proceeded thence to various points in that State, where it re- 
mained until the 6th of November, 1865, when it was mustered out 
of the service. It arrived at Camp Butler November 25th, and three 
days later was paid off and discharged. 

THIRTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 30th regiment was mustered into the service at Camp Butler, 
August 28, 1861, with an aggregate strength of 992 men. The 
following is the original roster : 
I 

Colonel, Philip B. Fouke ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Elias S. Dennis ; Major, Thomas 
McClarken ; Adjutant, George A. Bacon ; Quartermaster, William Busbyshell.; Sur- 
geon, William A. Gordon; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John J. Turner; Chaplain, 
Williamson F. Boyakin. 

Co. A — Captain, Warren Shedd ; 1st Lieutenant, Nathaniel R. Kirkpatrick ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Francis G. Burnett 

Co. B — Captain, John P. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Goodell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Huffmaster. 

Co. C — Captain, James R. Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander M. Wilson; 2d 
Lieutenant, Alfred Parks. 

Co. D — Captain, Thomas G. Marckley ; 1st Lieutenant, Michael Langton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George L. Gordon. 

. Co. E — Captain, John C. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin H. Kline ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John C. Johnson. 

Co. F — Captain, Cyrus A. "Bradshaw; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander Bielaski; 2d 
Lieutenant, John W. Martin. 

Co. G — Captain, James Burnett; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Calhoun; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Orla C. Richardson. 

Co. H — Captain, William C. Rhoads; 1st Lieutenant, Sidney Hall ; 2d Lieutenant;, 
William M. Gibson. 

Co. I — Captain, Robert Allen; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Kesner; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William H. Taylor. 

Co. K — Captain, Alexander H. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Nichols; 2d 
Lieutenant, James L. 'Dougherty. 

The regiment left for the field on the 1st of September, and was 
stationed at Cairo. While here it made two or three reconnois- 
6ances in the direction of Columbus. On the 7th of November it 



THE THIRTIETH INFANTRY. 147 

was engaged in the battle of Belmont, where it did good service, 
capturing the celebrated Watson's New Orleans battery, and, with 
the 31st Illinois, charging into the enemy's camp and burning it. 
On the 10th of January, 1862, it went to Fort Jefferson, and thence 
proceeded on a heavy reconnoissance through Kentucky, returning 
to Cairo on the 22d. It was at tbe taking of Fort Henry, and took 
part in the siege and capture of Fort Donelson. It was next in the 
advance upon and siege of Corinth. On the 4th and 5th of June, 
it marched from Corinth to Bethel, and on the 8th took possession 
of Jackson, Tennessee. Near Medan Station, Mississippi, on the 
1st of September, it met the rebel cavalry, 6,000 strong, and after 
four hours' hard fighting it drove them off, gaining a brilliant victory. 
After marching to various points, it reached Memphis, January 19, 
1863. February 22d, it left Memphis for Lake Providence, Louisiana. 
It was engaged in the battle of Raymond, May 12th. After the 
battle of Jackson, it participated in the pursuit of the defeated rebels. 
May 16th it took part in the battle of Champion Hills, losing heavily. 
It actively participated in the siege of Vicksburg until June 23d, 
when it moved to Black River and joined General Sherman's army, 
then watching the operations of the rebel General Johnston. It 
assisted in the investment of Jackson, and after the evacuation of 
that place returned to Vicksburg. It was in the engagement at 
Bogachitta Creek in October, returning to Vicksburg the same 
month. On the 1st of January, 1864, it re-enlisted as a veteran 
regiment. On the 3d of February it started with General Sherman 
on the Meridian campaign, participating in several skirmishes on the 
route, arriving at Meridian on the 15th. March 5 th it left Vicksburg 
for Camp Butler, on veteran furlough. On the 18th of April, it again 
left Camp Butler for Cairo. On the 28th it started on the " Tennes- 
see River Expedition," under General Gresham. It marched to 
Clifton, Tennessee, Pulaski, Athens, and Huntsville, Alabama. It 
joined General Sherman's grand army at Ackworth, Georgia, June 
8th. On the 10th it moved to Big Shanty, and commenced skirmish- 
ing with the enemy. On the 27th it moved out on a demonstration 
against the enemy, and lost twenty in killed and wounded. On the 
20th it arrived at Decatur, and was in the battles of July 21st and 
22d, near Atlanta, losing heavily. It was actively engaged in 



148 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

skirmishing until the fall of Atlanta, ami participated in the move- 
ment against Jonesboro. It also took part in Sherman's pursuit of 
Hood in his march northward. On the 15th of November it left 
Atlanta upon the grand march to the sea, and took part in the Caro- 
lina campaign. It was present at the grand review at Washington, 
and was mustered out at Louisville, July 1 7th, arriving at Canip 
Butler, on the 20th, for final payment and discharge. 

THIRTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 31st regiment was organized at Cairo, and was mustered into 
the service on the 18th of September, 1861. The following is the 
original roster : 

Colonel, John A. Logan ; Lieutenant-Colonel, John H. White ; Major, Andrew J. 
Kuykendall ; Adjutant, Charles H. Capehart ; Quartermaster, Lindorf Osburn ; 1st 
Assistant Surgeon, David T. Whitnell. 

Co. A — Captain, John D. Rees; 1st Lieutenant, John Campbell ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Davidson C. Moore. 

Co. B — Captain, Thomas J. Cain ; 1st Lieutenant, Cressa K. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, 
Sterne W. Fogy. 

Co. C— «-Captain, William A. Looney ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel R. Pulley ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John H. White. 

Co. D — Captain, James H. Williamson; 1st Lieutenant, Robert C. Nelson; 2d 
Lieutenant, Levi B. Casey. 

Co. E — Captain, Irvin G. Bataon ; 1st Lieutenant, Josephus C. Gilliland ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert E. Elmore. 

Co. F — Captain, John W. Rigby; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Goddard ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James M. Hale. 

Co. G — Captain, Willis A. Stricklin; 1st Lieutenant, Larkin M. Riley; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Simpson S. Stricklin. 

Co. H — Captain, Orsamus Greenlee; 1st Lieutenant, Horace L. Bowyer; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Jesse Robberds. 

Co. I — Captain, Edwin S. McCook ; 1st Lieutenant, John Mooneyham ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert A. Bowman. 

Co. K — Captain, Alexander S. Summerville ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles H. Capehart, 
2d Lieutenant, Levi E. Morris. 

The 31st was engaged at the battle of Belmont, November, 
1861, where it behaved with conspicuous gallantry. It next partici- 
pated in the reconnoissances into Kentucky, in which the men suf- 
fered greatly from exposure. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, 
and at the siege and capture of Fort Donelson, where it lost 260 



THE THIRTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 149 

men killed and wounded. On the 22d of April, it left the latter 
place for Pittsburg Landing, and participated' in the movement upon 
Corinth until the evacuation of that place, from whence it marched 
to Jackson, Tennessee. Here it remained until November 1st, being 
occasionally sent out on reconnoissances of no great importance — 
except the reinforcement of Rosecrans at Corinth, where it arrived 
only in time to pursue the fleeing rebels, whom it followed as far as 
Ripley, Mississippi, and then returned to Jackson. On the 1st of 
November it marched from Jackson to Lagrange, Tennessee, thence 
on General Grant's " Yockna expedition," returning to Tallahatchie, 
where it remained during the year. Early in January, 1863, it 
moved to Lagrange, thence to Colliersville, thence to Memphis, and 
thence to Lake Providence, Louisiana. On the 1st of April it was 
again on the march, and on the 27th arrived at Milliken's Bend. On 
the 1st of May, it received orders to move immediately to General 
McClernand's assistance, he having, at the time, a severe engage- 
ment with the enemy at Thompson's Hills. At the time of starting 
on this march, the regiment was without rations and had had nothing 
to eat since the night previous. Colonel McCook, then command- 
ing, asked the boys what they would do under the circumstances, 
and the unanimous response, with three cheers, was to go anyway. 
A march of twelve miles was made in three hours, and the regiment 
came up to the enemy, turned their right flank, and thus saved the 
day. On the next morning the regiment crossed the Bayou Pierre, 
and on the 3d came up with the enemy and defeated them again at 
Ingram's Hights. The retreating foe was still pursued with constant 
skirmishing until the 12th, when they again made a stand at Ray- 
mond, but were driven to Jackson, Mississippi, where a severe fight 
ensued in which the enemy was also defeated. On the 16th, the 31st 
again engaged the rebels at Champion Hills, and won the field, after 
which the command was moved to the defenses before Vicksburg, 
at which place it engaged in the entire siege up to the surrender on 
July 4th, and participating in several sharp fights, among them 
the charge on Fort Hill, in which the regiment lost two officers and 
eight men killed and forty wounded. The flag of the command in 
this battle also received one hundred and fifty three shots, and the 
staff was shot in two four times. On the 7th of November, after the 



150 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

surrender of Vieksburg, the regiment moved out to Big Black River, 
at which place it veteraned January 5, 1864. On the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, the command moved with General Sherman on the great raid 
to Meridian, a distance of three hundred miles, returning to the same 
camping ground on March 3d. The 31st also accompanied the gal- 
lant General Sherman in his grand movement through Tennessee, 
Georgia and Alabama. On June 19th it engaged in the battle of 
Bush Mountain, on June 27th in the fight of Kenesaw Mountain, 
and participated in all the battles, skirmishes and marches made by 
the 3d division during the siege of Atlanta, among them the memo- 
rable battles of the 21st and 22d of July and the 31st of August at 
Lovejoy Station. The regiment also accompanied the army in pur- 
suit of General Hood, and in the march to the sea, having no com- 
munication with home for upward of fifty days. On the 24th of 
May, the regiment crossed the Potomac and participated in the grand 
review of Sherman's army, in Washington, on the 20th of July, and 
was mustered out of service and ordered to Springfield, where it 
arrived on the 23d. The 31st regiment at its muster out comprised 
twenty-five commissioned officers and six hundred and seventy-seven 
enlisted men. When organized it numbered 1,130, and recruited, 
after that time, 700 men. There were killed in action, died of 
wounds and disease, and discharged, 1,128 officers and men. The 
following was the final roster of the regiment : 

Colonel, R. N. Pearson ; Lieutenant-Colonel, W. B. Shaw ; Major, James N. San- 
ders ; Adjutant, F. B. Thacker; Quartermaster, J. B. Davis; Surgeon, Gns Suhfrasi 
Chaplain, J. Cole. 

Co. A — Captain, Dul Quillman ; 1st Lieutenant, James R. Tyler ; 2d Lieutenant 
John M. Brown. 

Co. B — Captain, W. W. Sargent; 1st Lieutenant, William Dillard ; 2d Lieutenant, 
J. J. Dunn 

Co. C — Captain, S. C. Mooningham ; 1st Lieutenant, W. S. Morris; 2d Lieutenant, 
A. H. Wilson. 

Co. D — Captain, J. W. Toler; 1st Lieutenant, H. Y. Mangum ; 2d Lieutenant, J. 
M. Bridges. 

Co. E — Captain, J. H. Penegar; 1st Lieutenant, M. L. Coonce ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Thomas Parhamus. 

Co. F — Captain, J. P. Carnes ; 1st Lieutenant, J. H. Hunter ; 2d Lieutenant, L. 
D. Hartwell. 

Co. G — Captain, M. J. Potta ; let Lieutenant, W. S. Blackman ; 2d Lieutenant, 
William Stricklin. 



BKEVET BRIGADIER-GENERAL R. N. PEARSON. 151 

Co. H — Captain, A. M. Jinkins; 1st Lieutenant, S. P. Steel; 2d Lieutenant, W. 
A. York. 

Co. I — Captain, Isaac Wirt; 1st Lieutenant, W. F. Stickney; 2d Lieutenant, 
Daniel Wirt. 

Co. K — Captain, J. W. Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, H. C. Lewis; 2d Lieutenant, M. 
S. Barney. 

The regiment had from its organization four Colonels, five Lieu- 
tenant-Colonels, six Majors and three Surgeons. No company of 
the regiment had less than nine officers, and the only officer in the 
regiment, at its discharge, who held a commission at the time of 
enlisting, was the Chaplain. 

Brevet Brigadier-General Robert N. Pearson was horn in 
Fayetteville, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, on the 9th day of 
January, 1841, where he lived with his father until October, 1859, 
(during which time he learned the trade of bricklayer), when he 
emigrated to Illinois, where he resided until the breaking out of the 
rebellion in 1861. In April, he enlisted as a private under Captain 
(afterwards Major-General) B. M. Prentiss, at Quincy, Illinois, for 
the period of three months. During the three months he was pro- 
moted to corporal and then to second sergeant, in which grade he was 
mustered out at the expiration of service. He returned to his resi- 
dence in Quincy, Illinois, but not feeling satisfied at home, went to 
Cairo, and on the 18th of September, 1861, enlisted as a private in 
Company K, 31st Illinois (John A. Logan's). At the time of enlist- 
ment he did not know a man in the regiment. He served as private 
until the 1st of March, 1862, when he was promoted to commissary 
sergeant. But this being rather dull, he was reduced to the ranks 
at his own request, and again took the musket, and on the 16th day 
of May, 1862, was appointed Adjutant of the regiment for gallant 
and meritorious oonduct at Belmont, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. 
He served in this capacity until the 24th day of February, 1863, 
when he was promoted to Major of the regiment by a unanimous vote 
of the officers, and served as Major until July 1, 1863, when he was 
promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious conduct during the 
battles before and siege of Vicksburg. On the 26th of September, 
1864, he was promoted to Colonel of the regiment, and on the 13th 
day of March, 1865, was brevetted Brigadier- General for brave and 
gallant conduct during the war, and on the 19th of July, 1865, was 



152 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

mustered out of the service with his regiment. With the exception 
of one leave of absence for twenty days, he never was absent from 
his regiment, and was engaged in all the battles in which the regi- 
ment took a part, from the time of muster in until the final muster 
out. He is now employed in the Adjutant-General's office at 
Springfield. 

THIRTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 32d regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and was mus- 
tered into the service on the 31st of December, 1861. Its original 
roster was as follows : 

Colonel, John Logan ; Lieutenant Colonel, John W. Ross ; Major, John S. Bishop ; 
Adjutant, James F. Drish ; Quartermaster, Charles A. Morton; Surgeon, William S. 
Edgar; 1st Assistant Surgeon, George B. Christy; 2d Assistant John J Gilmer; 
Chaplain, Asaph C. Vandewater. * 

Co. A — Captain, Henry Davidson ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph S. Rice ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Berry. 

Co. B — Captain, William J. Pierce ; 1st Lieutenant, James J. Searight ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John H. Allen. 

Co. C — Captain, Thaddeus Phillips ; 1st Lieutenant, Abram D. Keller ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Josiah Burrough. 

Co. D — Captain, George H. English ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel McLennan ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James W. Mitchell. 

Co. E — Captain, Alfred C.Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, Richard W. Babbett ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William H. Edgar. 

Co. F — Captain, George W. Jenks; 1st Lieutenant, Smith Townsend; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John Laboytaux. 

Co. G — Captain, Jonathan Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert H. Stevenson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charles A. Eames. 

Co. H — Captain, John B. Duncan; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Wright ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John York. 

Co. I — Captain, Samuel Cummings; 1st Lieutenant, Josiah Y. Ellas ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William Ulm. 

Co. K — Captain, Samuel B. Crowley; 1st Lieutenant, John J. Rider ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Theodore Schifferstein. 

On the 31st of January, 1862, the regiment left camp for Cairo. 
On the 2d of February it was ordered to Bird's Point, and on the 
8th ordered to join General Grant in the field. It was in the battle 
of Shiloh on the 5th of April, where it lost very heavily. It remained 
in the advance on Corinth, and about the 1st of July made the 
march to Coldwater under the most trying circumstances. It was 



THE THIRTY-SECOND ESTEANTRY. 153 

in the fight near Grand Junction on the 21st of September, where our 
forces, being confronted by a vastly superior force, were compelled 
to retreat to Bolivar. On the 5th of October, being on the march to 
relieve Rosecrans at Corinth, it met the enemy at the battle of the 
Hatchie, where it bore a gallant part, and where the enemy were 
badly defeated, though greatly outnumbering our forces. November 
8th, while on a reconnoissance in force from Lagrange southward, 
our troops surprised and captured 100 rebel cavalry at Lamar, Ten- 
nessee. The infantry took no part in this skirmish, arriving on the 
ground in time only to see the enemy routed. From this date until 
the seiare of Corinth the 32d saw no fighting, but were engaged 
in marching from place to place, remaining but a short time in any 
of them. From the 25th of December until January 8, 1863, it was 
engaged in guard and fatigue duty, subsisting on the country. In 
March, the 32d moved to Memphis, where it remained till May, when 
it was ordered down the river, and on the 11th embarked for Young's 
Point, La. It took part in the movement on Vicksburg, garrisoning 
Young's Point until June 12th, when the post was abandoned, and 
the garrison sent to the intrenchments. On the 27th the regiment 
was ordered to garrison Warrenton. After the fall of Vicksburg it 
was ordered to join the expedition against Jackson, which was very 
trying to the troops, worn out as they were with the fatigues and 
perils of the siege of Vicksburg. On the 5th of December it arrived 
at Natchez. An attack on the place was expected, and General 
Gresham, commanding, made preparations to meet it. The expecta- 
tion proved groundless, and no fight was had at that time. On the 
23d of January, 1864, the 32d left Natchez for Vicksburg, where, on 
the 2d of February, a sufficient number of the men enlisted as vete- 
rans to retain the regimental organization, and were re-mustered. 
On the 4th the regiment started on the Meridian expedition, and on 
its conclusion returned to Vicksburg. On the 16th of March, it was 
ordered home on veteran furlough. On the 28th of April, it again 
left Camp Butler for Bird's Point, Mo., thence for Clifton, Tennessee, 
and joined the main army at Ackworth, June 11th. At the battle of 
Kenesaw Mountain, June 12th, the 32d occupied an exposed position 
in the advance. It was again in the advance in the assault upon the 
enemy at Nickojack Creek, and was the first to plant its colors upon 



15i PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

the enemy's works. The rebels then withdrew to a Btrongly fortified 

position on the Chattahoochie River, whence they were driven back 
to Atlanta. From this time till the grand march to the sea began, 
the regiment saw but little fighting. In October it began the march, 
participating in that and the Carolina campaign. At Bentonville five 
companies of the 32d were engaged and suffered severely. It took 
part in the grand review at "Washington, and then proceeded to 
Louisville, Kentucky, and on the 22d of June, 1805, was sent to 
St. Louis, and thence to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. It was then 
sent to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, and on arriving there returned to 
Fort Leavenworth. Here it was mustered out of the service on the 
16th of September, having up to that time traveled about 11,000 
miles. 

BATTERY C, CHICAGO LIGHT ARTILLERY. 
(busteed's battery) 

In August and September, 1861, Captain Richard J. Busteed re- 
cruited a battery of light artillery, which was known as " Busteed's 
Battery," and was mustered into the service at the Republican Wig- 
wam, in Chicago, on the 28th of September, as Battery C, Chicago 
Light Artillery. The following is the original roster : 

Captain, Richard J. Busteed; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Albert Cudney; Junior 1st 
Lieutenant, Robert J. Parker; Senior 2d Lieutenant, Samuel A. McClellan ; Junior 
2d Lieutenant, Rogers. 

The battery left Chicago for Washington on the 1st of October, 
1861, arriving there, on the 4th. After drilling for a few weeks, or- 
ders were issued from the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, 
disbanding the battery and transferring the men as follows: To Bat- 
tery G, 1st N. Y. Artillery, 2d Lieutenant McClellan and 65 men ; 
to Battery B, 1st N. Y. Artillery, 2d Lieutenant Rogers and 43 
men; to the 4th N. Y. Independent Battery, 8 men; to Captain 
Tidball's (regular) Battery, 3 men ; to Battery E, 1st N. Y. Artil- 
lery, Lieutenant Robert J. Parker. As this battery thus ceased to 
be an Illinois organization, we must leave it here, only remarking 
that the conduct of both officers and men in their new positions, was 
such as to do honor to our Prairie State. 



BATTERY A, FIRST ARTILLERY. 155 

FIRST ARTILLERY REGIMENT. 

The following are the original regimental officers of the 1st artil- 
lery regiment: 

Colonel, Joseph D. Webster ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles H. Adams ; Major, Ezra 
Taylor; Quartermaster, John Dismant, Jr. ; Surgeon, Edmund Andrews; 1st Assist- 
ant-Surgeon, John M. Woodworth ; 2d Assistant-Surgeon, William T. Kirk ; Chap- 
lain, Jeremiah Porter. 

As the various companies of the artillery regiments were seldom 
or never together, we are compelled to give them separately, and 
commence with 

BATTERIES A AND B, FIRST ARTILLERY. 

Battery A was composed of the veterans of old Batteries A and 
B, Chicago Light Artillery, whose histories are necessarily separate 
until their consolidation. The original rosters were as follows : 

Co. A — Captain, Charles M. Willard ; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Francis Morgan ; 
Junior 1st Lieutenant, Peter P. Wood; Senior 2d Lieutenant, Edgar P. Tobey; 
Junior 2d Lieutenant, John W. Rumsey. 

Co. B — Captain, Ezra Taylor; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Samuel E. Barrett: Junior 
1st Lieutenant, Levi W. Hart ; Senior 2d Lieutenant, P. H. White ; Junior 2d Lieu- 
tenant, I. P. Rumsey. 

Old Battery A, Chicago Light Artillery, Captain James Smith, 
was recruited on the 19th of April, 1861, and in the short space of 
three hours was filled to the maximum for a six-gun battery. It left 
Chicago on the 2 1st of April, with other troops, under General Swift, 
for Cairo, arriving at that place on the 22d. It remained in camp 
at Cairo till September, when, under Grant, it was sent to Padncah 
to take possession of and hold that place. From Paducah the bat- 
tery made several marches, and in February, 1862, it formed a part 
of an expedition up the Tennessee River, for the reduction of Forts 
Henry and Hindman. It took possession of and held the latter fort, 
while Commodore Foote captured Fort Henry. On the 13th of Feb- 
ruary it received orders to march to Fort Donelson, which point it 
reached on the 15th, and, under General Lew. Wallace, was thrown 
between the rebels and General Mc demand's troops, while the lat- 
ter were being driven off. It was in all of the two days' fight at 
Shiloh, on the 6th losing one third of its members and one half the 



15G PATRIOTISM Of 11. i QIOI& 

hones, but no guns. It was in the reserve division in the -if_ r '' of 
Corinth, was Ben! serosa the country to Memphis under < leneraJ Lew. 
Wallace, and there beoame permanently attached to tht command 
of (}fn. \V\ T. Sherman, being in the 2d Division, L5th Army Corps. 
It was with thai corps at Chickasaw Bayou, covering the 6th Mis- 
souri regiment in its memorable charge. At Arkansas Post it was 
conspicuous and rendered effective service in the capture of the ene- 
my's works, and also accompanied General Sherman in the "feint" 
ou Haines 1 Bluff It also placed in position and served a battery of 
30-pound Parrots, at Young's Point. On the 10th of May, it was 
conspicuous in the battle of Champion Hills, and on the next day 
the battery had a skirmish at Bridgeport, and from thence advanced 
on Vicksburg. After taking an active part in the famous assaults of 
the 19th and 22d of May, it performed constant and brilliant service 
till the 3d of July, when it fired a few shells as a parting salute 
before the surrender of the city. During the siege of Vicksburg the 
battery was furnished with six 30-pounder Parrot guns, which, 
together with its light field battery, made its whole number of guns 
amount to twelve. This extra duty was performed cheerfully, in 
order that General Sherman might withdraw sufficient light batteries 
to enable him to compete with General Joe Johnston, who threatened 
to cross the Big Black and raise the siege of the city. On the 5th 
of July, the battery was sent on the road towards General Joe 
Johnston, at Jackson, Mississippi, where its position was the front. 
After performing gallant service in the capture of that place, it 
marched back to Camp Sherman, and this closed a campaign of 
eight months. After two months' rest the battery started for Chatta- 
nooga, and had the honor of being the first of Gen. Sherman's ar- 
tillery to cross the Tennessee River and gain a foothold in front of 
Missionary Ridge, participating in the battle at that place, and join- 
ing in the pursuit of the flying enemy. Returning to Chattanooga, 
it marched thence to Larkinsville, Ala., and there spent the winter. 
On the 1st of May, 1864, the battery commenced its last campaign, 
the first fighting of which occurred at Resaca, Ga., on the 12th. It 
afterwards participated in the fighting at Dallas, at Kenesaw ; and 
on the 12th of July, by order from the War Department, the mem- 
bers who enlisted in 1862 were consolidated with the same class of 
men from Battery B. 



BATTERY B, FIRST ARTILLERY. 157 

Old Battery B was organized in April, 1861, and left in June for 
Cairo, where it lay three weeks, and then went to Bird's Point, 
across the river into Missouri. One section went to Fredericktown, 
Mo., and participated in the fight there on the 26th of October. The 
battery then went with Grant to Belmont on the 7th of November, 
going into action with six guns and coming out with eight, completely 
demolishing the rebel battery. Then at Donelson, in "W. H. L. Wal- 
lace's brigade, the battery occupied the extreme right, fighting with 
scarce an intermission for three days. The day before the battle of 
Shiloh it was transferred to Sherman's division and was in that fight; 
it was also with him on the right and at the siege of Corinth, then 
was found at Lagrange, and at Holly Springs, and brought up in 
Memphis, with Sherman, on the 22d of July, 1862. Chickasaw Bay- 
ou, Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg, Champion Hills and Me- 
chanicsburg all attested its valor, and at Richmond, La. , it left its mark. 
Then we find it moving to Memphis, thence to Chattanooga, and 
afterward to Knoxville, to the relief of Burnside, then speeding to 
Tellicoe Plains and again to Chattanooga, sending its guns down the 
river to Bridgeport, and moving to Larkinsville, where it stayed 
through the winter; after which it started out again with Sherman 
on his Atlanta campaign, leaving about the 1st of May. Tho bat- 
tery was all through those fights, doing bravely at Resaca and Dallas, 
being highly complimented by Gen. Logan for its action at the latter 
place. It was afterwards at Kenesaw, and besides took part in 
many other minor engagements. On the 12th of July, 1864, it was 
ordered back to Springfield, that the men might be mustered out of 
service. The battery had 219 men altogether on its muster rolls, and 
lost about sixteen by deaths. At Belmont the loss was five wounded, 
of whom one was permanently disabled and one died. At Donelson 
one killed and five wounded. At Shiloh, two men killed and eight 
wounded. At Chickasaw Bayou, two men wounded. At Vicksburg, 
three men killed and four wounded. At Dallas, two men wounded, 
and at Kenesaw Mountain one. There have been twenty-four pro- 
motions in the battery, two into the artillery of the regular army. 

The consolidated battery was commanded temporarily by Captain 
Samuel S. Smythe, Lieutenant of Battery I, who was taken prisoner 
in front of Atlanta, where Lieut. Robb, assisting him, was killed. 



15S PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Afterward E. P. Wilcox, of Battery B, was appointed Senior First 
Lieutenant, and Henry Roberts, of Battery A, Enoch Colly and 
James Dutch as the other Lieutenants ; Lieut. Wilcox was soon 
after made Captain, and Spencer S. Kimball appointed Junior First 
Lieutenant. The battery participated in the balance of the Atlanta 
campaign and the chase of Hood back toward Nashville ; and when 
Sherman left Atlanta the battery remained with General Thomas, 
taking part in no fight except at Nashville with Hood. It arrived 
in Chicago July 2, 1865, where it was mustered out and discharged. 
General Ezra Taylor, who recruited batteries A and B in April, 
1861, was born in Genesee County, New York, in October, 1819, 
and came to Chicago in September, 1839, where he engaged in the 
provision packing business with G. S. Hubbard, Esq., in 1840, which 
business he followed up to the 18th of April, 1861. He had been 
for many years connected with the local military organization of our 
city, at one time holding the office of Colonel of the 60th regiment 
Illinois militia, which was composed of the various uniformed organi- 
zations of the city ; but being ardently attached to the artillery arm 
of the service, he resigned the Colonelcy of the regiment and 
accepted the Captaincy of the Chicago Light Artillery, which posi- 
tion he occupied in April, 1861. He served a term of ten years in 
the volunteer fire department, and has been dignified as Alderman 
from the 7th ward. After organizing Batteries A and B, he was sent 
to St. Louis to obtain arms for the artillery organization of the state, 
and spent considerable time in perfecting such organizations, after 
which he took command of Battery B at Cairo; after a few days at 
Cairo, was sent to Bird's Point, Missouri, where, in addition to his 
duties with his own battery, he was placed in charge of the field 
works, and was active in mounting the heavy guns at that point. 
He commanded Battery "B" at Belmont, Missouri, November V, 1861, 
where a rebel bullet carried away a button from his cap, near the left 
temple, another struck his saddle, and another his horse, all of which 
did no serious damage. He was in command of his battery at the 
capture of Forts Henry and Donelson. After the fall of Fort Donel- 
eon, by invitation of General Grant, he made one of the party to go 
to Nashville, immediately after it fell into the hands of our troops. 
Landing on the 1st of April, 1862, he turned over the battery to 



GENEKAL TAYLOR. 159 

Captain Samuel E. Barrett, (be Taylor) having been promoted to 
Senior Major of tbe 1st Illinois Volunteer Light Artillery, with orders 
to report to General W. T. Sherman at Shiloh, which he did on the 
4th of April, 1862, whereupon General Sherman gave him the appoint- 
ment of Chief-of-Artillery, and in which capacity he served two 
years, or until April, 1864, participating in all the skirmishes, marches 
and fights of his gallant and noble commander. At Chickasaw 
Bayou he was complimented in orders by General Sherman for his 
efficiency in posting and serving the artillery, and after Sherman had 
decided to withdraw from the frowning hills of Vicksburg, he suc- 
ceeded in bringing off his artillery through an almost impenetrable 
swamp and over the worst kind of corduroy road, during a terrible 
dark night, without the loss of a man, horse, or single implement, 
and without giving the alarm to the enemy's pickets, and had all safe 
on board the transports before daylight in the morning. From thence 
he accompanied the troops to Arkansas Post, thence to Young's 
Point, in front of Vicksburg. During the siege of Vicksburg the 
artillery took no step backward, but advanced its guns at every 
favorable point until the stronghold surrendered. General Taylor 
was always at the front and superintended the posting of every gun 
in person. No sooner had the surrender taken place than he was 
ordered to join General Sherman in the pursuit of Joe Johnston, and 
rode some fifteen miles the same afternoon to the head-quarters of 
General Sherman. After relieving Knoxville, the troops returned to 
Chattanooga, thence to Bridgeport, and were posted along the railroad 
from that point to Huntsville, Alabama, and Colonel Taylor went 
north to Cairo, St. Louis and Chicago for the purpose of hurrying 
up the new guns and equipments for his artillery, and afterward took 
part in the Atlanta campaign. General McPherson took command 
of the Army of the Tennessee with Colonel Taylor as Chief-of-Artil- 
lery. While with McPherson he fought at Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, 
Calhoun and Dallas, where he received a wound through the body 
which was at the time considered mortal, but a naturally strong 
constitution, together with the best surgical aid, after a long time 
enabled him to move about again, but the effects of the wound are 
permanent, and he never expects to be as he was before. In 
March, 1865, he was brevetted Brigadier-General "for gallant and 
meritorious services." 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE MERIDIAN RAID. 

Sherman's Department — Grant's Order — Sherman's Plan — General W. S. Smith's 
Movements — Sherman — McPherson — Hurluut — Champion Hills — Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi — Burnt Bridge — Rebels Evacuate — Where is Smith? — Destruction — 
Kinglake — Prophetic Significance — Backward March — Results — Schofield. 

AFTER the eventful victory of Mission Ridge, and the relief of 
Burnside, General Sherman turned his attention to his own de- 
partment, McPherson in command of the 17th Army Corps at Vicks- 
burg,while part of Hurlbut's 16th, with Smith's and Grierson's cavalry 
divisions were at Memphis. The rebel Bishop-General Polk, in com- 
mand of a large army, was at Meridian, with Forest, Loring and 
other leaders within supporting distance. 

General Grant ordered the army of the Tennessee to keep open 
the Mississippi River, and maintain our control of its east bank. 
"General Sherman decided to do this by occupying prominent points 
in the interior with small corps of observations, threatening a con- 
siderable radius, and to operate against any strong force of the 
enemy seeking to take a position on the river, by a movable column 
menacing its rear. To destroy the enemy's means of approaching 
the River with artillery and trains, he determined to organize a large 
column of infantry and move with it to Meridian, effectually break- 
ing up the Southern Mississippi Railway, while a cavalry force should 
move from Memphis to meet him, and perform the same work with 
respect to the Mobile & Ohio Railway. 

"Brigadier-General William Sovy Smith, chief of cavalry on 
General Grant's staff, was placed in command of all the cavalry of 
the department, and instructed to move with it from Memphis on or 
before the 1st of February, by way of Pontotoc and Okolona and 



ORDER OF MARCH. 161 

Columbus to Meridian, a distance of two hundred and fifty miles, 
so as to reach that place by the 10th. General Smith was specially 
instructed to disregard all small detachments of the enemy and all 
minor operations, and, striking rapidly and effectually any large body 
of the enemy, to be at his destination precisely at the appointed 
time. Simultaneously, the 11th Illinois and a colored regiment under 
Colonel Coates of the former regiment, with five tin-clad gunboats 
under Lieutenant Commander Owen, were sent up the Yazoo, to ascend 
that stream and its tributaries as far as possible, so as to create a diver- 
sion and protect the plantations on the River, and Brigadier-General 
Hawkins was directed to patrol the country in the rear of Vicks- 
burg toward the Big Black, and to collect some fifty skiffs, by means 
of which detachments of two or three hundred men might be moved 
at pleasure through the labyrinth of bayous between the Yazoo and 
the Mississippi, for the purpose of suppressing the depredations of 
the horde of guerrillas then infesting that region." — [Colonel Bow- 
man.] 

Sherman moved from Vicksburg on the 3d of February. With 
him were two divisions of Hurlbut's 16th Army Corps, under that 
gallant commander, two divisions of the 17th under McPherson, and 
a cavalry brigade under Colonel Winslow. Hurlbut's command 
moved by Messenger's, while McPherson's column marched by the 
railroad. Little opposition was experienced until the 5th, when 
Hurlbut met the enemy at Joe. Davis' plantation, and McPherson at 
Champion Hills, and kept up an incessant skirmish for eighteen 
miles, but did not arrest the march, and entered Jackson that even- 
ing, thus preventing a contemplated rebel concentration. At Champion 
Hills, however, the lines deployed for battle, and again when near 
Jackson, but the rebel force withdrew so rapidly as to leave his Pearl 
River pontoons in good condition. 

At Jackson the columns were united, and McPherson in the lead 
crossed Pearl River on the captured pontoon bridge, on the 7 th 
entered Brandon, on the 8th reached Live Creek near Morton, which 
was entei'ed the next day. McPherson's force stopped to "operate" 
on the surrounding railroads, and Hurlbut went forward almost 
without the show of resistance through Hillsboro and Decatur, to 
the Tallahatchie River, twenty -five miles west from Meridian. Here 
11 



1G2 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

* 

the way was obstructed by felled trees. Sherman put a sufficient 
force to guard his trains, and threw hia men over the obstructions, 
ami marched them to the Ocktibbeche River, where he found the 
bridge inflames. Two hours saw a new one, over which he marched 
his gallant Westerners, and at half past three, the same day, en1 ired 
Meridian. French's and Loring's divisions, under Polk in person, had 
removed the locomotives and cars toward Mobile and Selma, and 
had evacuated the town the preceding night and that morning, and 
were retreating, covered by Lee's cavalry. 

Smith was not there with hi"^ cavalry. lie did not move from Mem- 
phis until the 11th, ten days later than he was ordered, and by that 
time the enemy had gathered in his front, and he only advanced to 
West Point, from which he retraced his way on the 22d, returning 
to Memphis. Without cavalry it was evident that the rebels could 
not be overtaken before crossing the Tombigbee, and Sherman 
therefore halted his weary columns and gave them rest on the 15th. 
On the 16th the railways centering there were "inspected." Says 
Colonel Bowman : " The depots, storehouses, arsenals, offices, hos- 
pitals, hotels and cantonments in the town were burned, and during 
the next five days, with axes, sledges, crowbars, clambers and fire, 
Ilurlbut's corps destroyed on the north and east sixty miles of ties 
and iron, one locomotive and eight bridges ; and McPherson's corps, 
on the BOUth and west, fifty-five miles of railway, fifty-three bridges, 
6,075 feet of trestle work, nineteen locomotives, twenty-eight steam 
cars." 

It is said this was a mere raid. It was meant for a grand move- 
ment, by which, while Farragut was hurling shot at Mobile, Sherman 
would have separated Johnston from that city, distracted and demor- 
alized Polk's army and perhaps have reached Mobile itself, but the 
cavalry failed. 

The United States Service Magazine says: "Kinglake, in his his- 
tory of the Crimea, finely describes in general the advantages and 
perils of the ' movable column,' and then proceeds to rank under 
that name the march of the allied armies from Old Fort to Sebasto- 
pol. But that march was so arranged that each night the allies would 
be in communication with their ships. The distance to bo inarched 
was comparatively short. In case of attack it was only necessary to 
secure contact with the fleet, which could protect their flanks and 



RESULTS. 163 

co-operate with its fire. Finally there was no attack and no great dan- 
ger. What, then, should be said of the intrepidity which carried a 
genuine 'movable column,' away from its base, across a distance of one 
hundred and thirty miles, into the very heart of an enemy's country, 
with two powerful hostile armies not far distant, and then deliberately 
returned it intact, over its old track, in three weeks, destroying the 
enemy's property far and wide." 

The raid had a significance not then fully realized. It was true 
the cavalry failed, and the rebel General Polk knew the significance 
of that failure when he said in his congratulatory order, " The con- 
centration of our cavalry on his column of cavalry from West 
Tennessee formed the turning-point of the campaign," but the West- 
ern troops had proved their endurance in a long and hazardous 
march, away from their base of supplies, into the heart of a hostile 
country, and it was seen how they could " subsist" themselves. The 
army had, within a month, marched about 400 miles, driven the 
enemy out of Mississippi, lived upon rebel stores and " country pro- 
duce," and returned in better health than when it started. 

" In such indexes there were seen 
The baby fingers, of the giant mass 
Of things to come at large." 

Already to Sherman something was whispering "On to Atlanta," 
and " From Atlanta to the Sea," and in the depths of his deep-set, 
piercing hazel eyes were gleaming new fires, the reflection of freshly 
kindled purposes. 

The Tombigbee was between him and Polk's main army and Smith 
was not heard from, so on the 20th McPherson headed back over the 
main road, while Sherman accompanied Hurlbut and the handful of 
cavalry northward to look for Smith. At Union he sent Colonel 
Winslow, with three regiments of cavalry, fifty miles on the road by 
which Smith was expected to advance, while the main body moved 
to Hillsboro, where McPherson joined it on the 23d. 

The return was undisturbed. The total loss was 21 killed, 68 
wounded, 81 missing. 

On the 14th of March, General Sherman, then commanding the 
Military Division of the Mississippi, was summoned to proceed to 
Nashville and confer with the Lieuten ant-General, and leaving Mem- 



164 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

phis immediately, he joined his illustrious companion-in-arms on tho 
17th, and accompanied him to Cincinnati. Then', in a room of the 
Burnet House, the conquerors of the rebellion sat down amid their 
maps and charts and planned the final campaigns of tho war for the 
Union. Sherman says modestly in his report: "We had a full and 
complete understanding of the policy and plans for the ensuing cam- 
paign, covering a vast area of country, my part of which extended 
from Chattanooga to Vicksburg." 

The details of that conference may never be entirely known, but 
it was known very shortly that concentration was resolved upon. 
The war would be directed by a commander in the field, and not 
one in a Washington office. Grant was to separate from his West- 
ern troops ; Sherman was to be almost supreme Military Dictator 
in the Valley of the Mississippi, assisted by such subordinates as 
Thomas, McPherson, Schofield, Hooker, Slocum, Howard, Hurlbut, 
Logan and Palmer, and commanding nearly 100,000 men. The object- 
ive points were Richmond and Atlanta. Illinois had a large number 
of her best regiments with Sherman, and naturally his progress 
henceforth engrossed her attention. 

Four of the noted commanders under Sherman went from Illinois, 
two of them we have noticed personally and the third will merit a 
few paragraphs which may be given here : 

John McAllister Schofield was born in Chautauque County, New 
York, September 29, 1831, and has won his laurels while quite a 
young man. At twelve years of his age he was brought to Illinois 
by his father's removal to this State. He graduated from West Point 
at the age of twenty-two. As brevet 2d Lieutenant in the 2d Artil- 
lery he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, and also at 
Cassin, Florida. After two years he was ordered to West Point as 
Instructor in Natural Philosophy, where he remained five years, or 
until 1860. He was promoted 1st Lieutenant, and obtained leave of 
absence to accept the chair of Natural Philosophy in Washington 
University, St. Louis. 

When war came he was appointed as mustering officer for the 
Missouri troops, and was elected Major of the 1st Missouri Volun- 
teers, and also promoted Captain in the Regular Army. He was 
Assistant Adjutant-General and Chief of General Lyon's staff at 
Wilson's Creek, and narrowly escaped the fate of his command er. 



GENERAL SCHOFIELD. 165 

In November, he was commissioned Brigadier-General of Volun- 
teers, and assigned to command of Missouri militia, and made the 
guerrillas who infested that State feel the weight of his iron policy. 
In October he was placed in command of the Army of the Frontier, 
composed of Missouri and Arkansas troops, and defeated Hindman 
near Pea Ridge. While commanding in Missouri his "conservative 
tendencies " were distasteful to many Union men, but in the second 
contest of Mr. Lincoln, he gave him his ardent support. 

In February, 1864, he relieved General Foster at Knoxville, and 
remained in command at that point until Spring, when Sherman 
placed him in command of the Army of the Ohio, numbering 13,559 
men and twenty eight guus. He proved an able leader. At Kene- 
saw he won Sherman's hearty approval. He commanded the field- 
force thrown out by Sherman to arrest Hood, and fought with ability 
the battle of Franklin. In the battle of Nashville he was in com- 
mand of the 23d Army Corps, and, with General Smith, made a 
decisive charge upon Hood's left. General Sherman ordered that 
corps to come to his aid. It was moved in mid-winter to the Poto- 
mac in fourteen days without the loss of man or beast, and was 
transferred to Wilmington and thence to Newbern to assist Sherman 
in his marcn through the Carolinas. Near Kinston he sustained a 
furious assault and repulsed it with heavy loss to the enemy. The 
rebels made a stand against him at Kinston, but were compelled to 
retreat. He moved forward and occupied Goldsboro a short time in 
advance of Sherman. 

He has made a most desirable record as a soldier, and should war 
unhappily come again, is sufficiently young to render the State 
service. 



CHAPTER X. 

SHERMAN'S GRAND MARCH. 

Sherman's Statement of the Plan — Inspects nis Department — Supplies — Letter 
to Grant — March — Rocky Face Ridge — Buzzard's Roost Gap — Flanking — 
Snake Creek Gap— Thomas' Feint— McPiierson's Movement — Camp Creek- 
Position of Tkoofs — Hooker in Action — Johnston Retreats — Resaca Ours — 
Pursuit — Cost — Logan and Palmer — Ninth Squad — One Hundred and Twenty- 
Seventh Color-Bearer — Rome — Adairsville — Lai's Ferry — Sweeney — Sixty- 
Sixth Illinois — Allatoona Pass — Headed for Dallas — Reisel Courier — Fight- 
ing at New Hope Church — At Dallas — Rebel Bravery — Assault on Bull-Dog 
Sweeney — The Pass Secured — Etowa Bridge — Blair with Reinforcements. 

GENERAL SHERMAN says, after mentioning the interview 
between himself and General Grant narrated in the preceding 
chapter : 

"I returned to Nashville, and on the 25th [March, 1864], began a tour of inspection, 
visiting Athens, Decatur, Huntsville and Larkin's Ferry, Alabama; Chattanooga, 
Loudon and Knoxville, Tennessee. During this visit I had interviews with Major- 
General McPherson, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, at Huntsville ; Major- 
General Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, at Chattanooga, and 
Major-General Schofield, commanding the Army of the Ohio, at Knoxville. We 
arranged in general terms the lines of communication to be guarded, the strength 
of the rieveral columns and garrisons, and fixed the 1st day of May as the time when 
all things should be ready. Leaving these officers to complete the details of organ- 
ization and preparation, I returned to Nashville on the lid of April, and gave my 
personal attention to the question of supplies. * * 

"During the month of April, I received from Lieutcnant-General Grant a map with 
a letter of instructions. Subsequently I received notice from him that he would 
move from his camps about Culpepper, Virginia, on the 15th of May, and that he 
wanted me to do the same from Chattanooga. My troops were still dispersed, and 
the cavalry, so necessary to our success, was yet collecting horses at Nicholasville, 
Kentucky, and Columbus, Tennessee. On the 2"7th of April, I put all the troops in 
motion, for Chattanooga, and on the next day went there in person. My aim and 
purpose was to make the army of the Cumberland 50,000 men ; that of the Tennessee 



% 

THE GKAND ARMY. 167 

35,000, and that of the Ohio 15,000. These figures were approximated, but never 
reached, the Army of the Tennessee failing to receive certain divisions that were 
still kept on the Mississippi, resulting from the unfavorable issues of the Red River 
expedition. But on the 1st of May the effective strength of the several armies, for 
offensive purposes, was about as follows : 

"Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas commanding: 

Infantry 54,568 

Artillery 2,377 

Cavalry 3,828 

Total 60,773 

Guns 130 

"Army of the Tennessee, Major-General McPherson commanding: 

Infantry 22,437 

Artillery 1,404 

Cavalry 624 

Total 24,465 

Guns , 96 

"Army of the Ohio, Major-General Schofield commanding: 

Infantry 11,183 

Artillery 679 

Cavalry 1,697 

Total 13,559 

Guns 28 

Grand Aggregate of troops 98,739 

" " " guns 254 

"About these figures have been maintained during the campaign, the number of 
men joining from furlough and hospitals about compensating for the loss in battle 
and from sickness. These armies were grouped on the morning of May 6th as 
follows : That of the Cumberland at and near Ringgold ; that of the Tennessee at 
Gordon's Mill, on the Chickamauga ; and that of the Ohio near Red Clay, on the 
Georgia line, north of Dalton." 

It was one of the grandest armies ever led by gallant chieftain. 

In the army of the Cumberland were the 4th, 14th and 20th Army 
Corps. The 4th Corps, commanded by Major-General Howard, 
comprised the divisions of Brigadier-Generals Stanley, NeAVton and 
Thomas J. Wood; the 14th, under Major-General Palmer, those of 
Jeff". C. Davis, R. W. Johnson and Absalom Baird ; the 20th, under 
Major-General Hooker, the hero of "Lookout," those of A. S. Wil- 
liams. John W. Geary and David Butterfield. 



- 4 

168 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

The army of the Tennessee comprised the 15th with portions of 
the 16thand lVih Army Corps, nnderMajor-Generals John A. Logan, 
George M. Dodge and Frank P. Blair. The remaining divisions of 
the 16th and 17th were with Hurlbut and Slocum at Memphis and 
Vicksburg, or with the Red River expedition. The 15th Corps 
included the divisions of Osterhaus, Morgan L. Smith, John E. 
Smith and Harrow; the 16th, those of Ransom, Corse and Sweeney, 
and tln> 17th, those of C. R. "Woods and Leggett. 

In the cavalry array were McCook's division of the army of the 
Ohio, Kilpatrick's and Garrard's divisions of the army of the Cum- 
berland, and Edward McCook's brigade of the army of the Tennes- 
see. General Sherman says : 

"Should Johnston fall behind Chattahoochee, I would feign to the right, but pass 
on to the left, and act on Atlanta or its eastern communications, according to devel- 
oped facts. This is about as far ahead as I am disposed to look ; but I would ever 
bear in mind that Johnston is at all times to be kept so busy that he cannot, in any 
event, send any part of his command against you or Banks. If Banks can at the 
same time carry Mobile and open up the Alabama River, he will in a measure solve 
a most difficult part of my problem — provisions. But in that I must venture. 
Georgia has a million of inhabitants. If they can live, we should not starve. If 
the enemy interrupt my communications, I will be absolved from all obligations to 
subsist on my own resources, but feel perfectly justified in taking whatever and wherever 
I can find. I will inspire my command, if successful, with my feelings, and that beef 
and salt are all that are absolutely necessary to life ; and parched corn fed General 
Jackson's army once on that very ground." 

The enemy was before our force in numbers, strong in determina- 
tion, commanded by brave and skillful Generals, and able to choose 
their position — at least so they supposed. Between the armies was 
a rugged and apparently inaccessible out-Iyer of the Alleghanies, 
" Rocky-Face Ridge," through which was the defile called " Buz- 
zard's Roost Gap," which was cut by Mill Creek, on the bank of 
which was the railroad connecting Chattanooga and Dalton. This 
pass was strongly defended, flooded by water, and commanded by 
batteries, and then the rebel force expected to sweep our men with 
destruction, but to give them that opportunity was no part of Sher- 
man's plan, yet Dalton must be reached. Southward was Snake 
Creek Gap, opening the way to Resaca, where he could strike the 
rebel railway communication, eighteen miles below Dalton. Thomas 
made a feint, as though he meant to assail the defenses of Buzzard's 
Roost moving from Ringgold on the 7th of May,facinj; the Gap, meet- 



KESACA. 169 

ing but little opposition, carrying the Ridge, "but turning south found 
the crest too narrow and well protected by rock epaulements to enable 
him to reach the gorge." McPherson reached Snake Creek Gap on 
the 8th, surprised a rebel brigade sent to hold it, and, on the 9th, 
came within a mile of Resaca, but found it too strongly defended to 
be carried by his force and retired on the Gap. At all points the 
enemy was pressed, but all points seemed to have been made well- 
nigh impregnable. On the 14th the rebel army was confronted in 
force in a strong position behind Camp Creek, occupying the forts 
at Resaca. A pontoon bridge was thrown by Sherman over the 
Oostanaula at Lay's Ferry toward Calhoun, over which was sent 
Sweeney's Division of the 16th Army Corps, with orders to threaten 
Calhoun ; Garrard's Division of cavalry moved from Villanow, and 
crossed, to break the railway below Calhoun and above Kinston, 
while the main army pressed Resaca on all sides. McPherson got 
across Camp Creek near the mouth, and secured a position near the 
rebel works, on hills commanding, with short range artillery, the 
railway and its trestle bridges, while Thomas pressed close along 
Camp Creek Valley, and enabled Hooker to place his corps across the 
head of the Creek, up to the main Dalton road, and down it close 
upon Resaca. 

Schofield came up in the afternoon amid the thunder of battle, 
close upon Hooker's left. The latter drove the enemy from several 
strong points on hill-crests, captured a four-gun battery and many 
prisoners. That night Johnston retreated south aci'oss the Oostan- 
aula, and the next morning our forces entered the town, saving the 
highway bridge, but not that of the railroad, which was in flames. 
Here another four-gun battery and valuable stores were found. 
Pursuit was the order. Thomas pressed on the heels of Hardee, 
Gen. McPherson marched by Lay's Ferry, while to the left Schofield 
advanced by as many blind roads as were practicable. So Sherman 
had won the first stage of his arduous journey, and had rendered vain 
almost impregnable defenses, yet not without loss. Nearly 5,000 
Union soldiers paid for the victory, killed and wounded, in the 
various struggles closing with the battle of Resaca. 

Illinois troops were under fire in nearly all of these engagements. 
Logan and Palmer, and their associates of the 14th and 15th Army 
Corps would never shrink from peril, and their men would follow 



170 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

where t h- % would lead. A squad of the 9th Illinois Volunteers 
remained after McPherson fell back from R saoa, and coolly am 
themselves in cutting the telegraph and destroying the railway nn1 I 
the oext day when they came Bafely into camp. A correspondent of 
a daily paper narrates the following incident : "As we were failing 
back, Che rebels thinking we were repulsed cheered lustily. This 
Btung the gallant color-bearer of the 127th Illinois, uamed Hess. 
Springing hack to the embrasure he Haunted the colors defiantly at 
the enemy. Brave fellow! his death atoned for his rashness. A 
rebel shot him through the heart. Other hands took up the flag with 
a similar late." 

Our pursuing columns pressed forward with the prestige of victory, 
receiving Resaca as an omen of resistless victory. 

Near Adairsville the rebel force w as again encountered, but it was 
gone at morning. Near Cassville the rebel army wasformed in bat- 
tle array on the 19th, strongly entrenched, but as our troops con- 
verged it again retreated at night, crossing the Etowah and burning 
road and railway bridges near Gartersville. Jeff. C. Davis' Division 
went off to Rome, and seized its forts, guns, mills and founderies, 
and secured two good bridges over the Etowah. 

A few days 1 rest were given while supplies were brought forward. 
In these skirmishes many thrilling incidents occurred. General 
Sweeney made a gallant demonstration at Lay's Ferry. He was con- 
fronted by a strongly posted rebel brigade, and a fire was opened 
across the stream upon Sweeney's men, who had to charge across an 
open field to the shelter of some rail fences, from whence they 
returned the fire. Meantime, pontoon boats were launched in Snake 
Creek, a tributary of the Oostanaula, and six companies of the OGth 
Illinois and 81st Ohio were ordered to cross in them. The boats, 
with about 300 soldiers, pushed down the stream, when a regular 
storm of rebel bullets whistled around them, toppling some into the 
water and more into the boats. On they push, blazing away at \]\e 
enemy in return. The rebel batteries now open, throwing round 
shot and shell among them, plowing up the water around, and in 
some cases, tearing through their crowded masses. 

"At length they gained the land, and with a shout of triumph and 
derision, the brave fellows rushed up the banks, firing as they 



ALLATOONA — DALLAS. 171 

advanced, then charging right on the enemy breaking and routing 
them. Thus did these gallant Western men open a passage across 
the river for Dodge's command." 

General Sherman was well satisfied that the enemy would con- 
front him at Allatoona Pass, and that an attempt to carry it would 
be desperate, and determined to turn it by a circuit to the right, and 
leaving a garrison at Rome and Kingston, and taking twenty days' 
provisions on the 23d, the army was headed for Dallas. General 
Thomas captured a rebel courier and learned that Johnston was 
apprised of their movements and would be prepared to receive them 
in the vicinity of Dallas. 

May 25th Thomas was advancing from Burnt Hickory on Dallas, in 
three columns, Hooker in advance. He found himself before Jack- 
son's Division of rebel cavalry at a creek, which he crossed, barely 
saving the bridge already fired. Marching eastward, he drove the 
infantry some distance, when his advance, under General Geary, 
came in contact with Hood's Corps in line of battle. Three of 
Hooker's divisions were on the other roads and it was sometime 
before he could mass his corps, when under Sherman's orders he 
deployed and drove to secure New Hope Church at the junction of 
three roads, from Marietta, Dallas and Ackworth. He met Stewart's 
division of Hood's corps and a desperate battle followed, lasting two 
hours. Stewart's men were covered by rude earthworks, and Hooker 
failed to drive them from the three roads. Morning came. McPher- 
son moved up to Dallas, Thomas toward New Hope, while Schofield 
swung toward the left to shatter and turn the rebel right. The cav- 
alry under Stoneman supported Schofield, Garrard struck with 
McPherson, while McCook protected the rear. Thus several days 
went on, Sherman designing to work toward the left, and as soon as 
possible push for the railway east of Allatoona. Several short, sharp 
rencounters occurred. As McPherson was preparing on the 28th to 
close his left up on General Thomas, in front of New Hope Church, 
that the rest of the army might sweep more leftward and envelop 
the rebel right, he was suddenly and ferociously assailed by the rebels 
in force at Dallas. 

Our men were not unprepared. Strong earthworks had been 
thrown up, and the enemy was repulsed. The first attack burst 
upon Logan's pickets, and " Black Jack," after a stubborn resistance, 



172 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

was compelled t<> Buffer hie advance to fall back upon the main lines. 
The massed rebel troops charged in heavy columns upon Harrow'a 
division, exposed to a heavy artillery fire. Through that they came 
on in gallanl Btyle, up the hill to Our very works, only to meet and 
break before a fire our troops had withheld until they had point blank 
range. Again they returned and were again repulsed. They next 
tried Osterhaus, and were again repulsed. 

It was thought they were contented, but not so. Many have heard 
of " General Sweeney,'' formerly Colonel of the 52d Illinois, subse- 
quently of Fenian notoriety. He lost his right arm in Mexico. He 
was in command of a division of the lGth Army Corps, and was 
next to receive the shock of the rebel charge. He had met it before, 
when his desperate resistance at Stone River went far to save the 
day from ruin, and whose companions had given him the expressive 
designation of " Bull-dog Sweeney." Sweeney met the twice repulsed 
columns and beat them back in broken disordered masses. 

For twelve days had these battle-skirmishes gone on, and that 
with almost uniform success to us. Again the order was given to 
McPherson to close up on Thomas, occupying Thomas' position 
before New Hope. Thomas and Schofield moved a corresponding 
distance to their left, and swung round occupying the woods leading 
to Allatoona and Ackworth. Stoneman's cavalry advanced into 
Allatoona at the east and General Garrard's at the west end of the 
pass. The infantry closed up, Allatoona pass was turned, Sherman's 
second stage was reached in success, and another long stride taken 
toward the end. 

He ordered rebuilt the Etowah railway bridge, and decided to 
leave Johnston in his strongly entrenched position at New Hope, and 
move upon the railway at Ackworth, when Johnston gave up his 
position and fell back to Lost Mountain. Our army moved to Ack- 
worth, reaching the railway on the 6th. On the 7th the confederate 
right extended past the railway and over the Ackworth and Marietta 
road. Allatoona Pass, the commanding General found admirably 
adapted as a secondary base, and put it in order as such, providing 
for its defense. At Ackworth General Blair came up with two 
divisions of the 17th Army Corps and one brigade of cavalry for 
Garrard's division, these bringing the invading column up to about 
its original strength. 



CHAPTER XI. 

KENESAW AND PEACH TREE CREEK. 

Prospect — Big Shanty — Sherman's Description of Scenery — His Forces — Opera- 
tions to Break Lines — Death of Polk — Railway Rkconnoissance— Lost Mountain 
Occupied — Kulp House — Assault or Kenesaw — Sherman's Statement — Illinois — 
Newspaper Paragraphs — Logan's Corps — Palmer — Twenty-fifth and Twenty- 
seventh — Eighty-ninth — Logan — Fifty-ninth and Seventy-Fourth — Sherman's 
Report — Peach Tree Creek — Cincinnati Commercial's Account — Situation — 
McPherson's Advance — Eighty-fifth Illinois — Logan's Corps — Palmer's Corps 
— Forty-fourth — Hooker in Position and Fighting — Geary — Ward — Face to 
Face — Williams — Bradley — Forty-second — Twenty-seventh — Thomas Command- 
ing an Eclectic Detachment — One Hundredth — Eighty-eighth — Seventy-fourth 
— Coburn — One Hundred and Twenty-ninth and Lieutenant-Colonel Flynn — 
McCook —One Hundred and Fourth in Peril — Defeat of Palmer — One Hundred 
and Fifth — One Hundred and Twenty-ninth — Importance of this Battle — Ken- 
esaw Redeemed — Hood in Command — His Prestige Gone. 

THERE was sharp work ahead. Sherman says in his report, 
" On the 9th of June, our communications in the rear being 
secure and supplies ample, we moved forward to Big Shanty." 
Before him was an army, inferior to his own in numbers, but in posi- 
tions assumed in the Switzerland of the Southwest, among moun- 
tains of rugged grandeur, streams of rapid volume and dense vine- 
tangled woodland, with the ablest Southern captain save Lee at its 
head, assisted by Polk, Hardee, Cleburn the Western Stonewall 
Jackson, Forrest the cavalry brigand, Hood the daring, dashing 
leader, soon to be in command, Wheeler and others. 

The eye of General Sherman took in the grandeur and the difficulty 
of the situation. He says : 

"Kenesaw, the bold and striking twin mountain, lay before us, with a high range of 
chestnut hills, trending off to the Northeast, terminating, to our view, in another 
peak, called Brushy Mountain. To our right was the smaller hill called Pine Moun- 
tain, and beyond it, in the distance, Lost Mountain. All these, though links in a. 



174: PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

continuous chain, present a Bharp, conical appearance, prominent in the vast 

f the hills thai abound in that region Ken- 
t-raw, Pine Mountain and Lost Mountain form a Lriangle, Pine Mountain the apex, and 
Kenesa^ and Lost Mountain the b i g perfectly the town of Marietta and 

the railroad back to the Chattahoochee. <»u each Bide of these peaks the enemy had 
The summits were covered with batteries; the Bpurs were alive 
with men, busy in felling trees, digging pits and preparing for the grand Btruggle 
impending. 

" The Bcene was enchanting, too beautiful to be disturbed by the harsh clamors of 
war, but the Chattahoochee lay beyond, and I had to reach it." 

He thus states the disposition of his forces : 

"On approaching close to the enemy, I found him occupying a line full two miles 
long, more than he could hold with his force. General Mcl'herson was ordered to 
move toward Marietta, his right on the railroad, General Thomas on Kent-saw and 
Pine Mountain, and General Schofield oft' toward Lost cfountain ; General Garrard's 
cavalry on the left, General Stoneman's on the right, and General McCook looking 
to our rear and communications." 

By the 11th of June the Federal forces were up, and Sherman 
commenced operations with a view to break the rebel line between 
Kenesaw and Pine Mountains. McPherson commanded the railroad 
line between Allatoona and Kenesaw. Hooker was on the right, 
General Howard on the left and front of the enemy, and Gen r i 
Palmer between it and the railroad. The 13th and 14th were rainy 
days, rendering anything more than artillery practice impossible. 
On the morning of the 14th the 4th Corps moved forward in the 
center, closing up well on Hooker. 

A correspondent of the New York Herald thus details an impor- 
tant incident occurring on the 14th: 

" Skirmishers were thrown out in order to cover the advance of 
our lines, and a few sections of artillery were placed in position. 
The skirmishing was pretty brisk toward evening, and the batteries 
opened a dropping fire on the rebel position. Sherman rode up to 
a battery and turned his glass toward Pine Mountain. 

"After taking a good view he turned to the officer in command, 
saying 'Captain Simonson, can you send a shell right on the top of 
that knob? I notice a battery there and several General officers 
near it.' 

"Til try, General.' 

" The Captain fired, and the General looked on with his glass. 



LOST MOUNTAIN OCCUPIED. 175 

'"Ah, Captain, a little too high; try again with a shorter fuse;' 
and up went the glass to his eye. Away went the shell, tearing 
through Bishop Polk in its course. 

'"That will do' said Sherman, shutting down his glass. 

" It is said that Johnston and Hardee were on their horses beside 
Polk when he fell, and when the first shell came they said ' it is safer 
to alight.' Polk smiled and still staid surveying our position, and thus 
met his death. We knew that night that he was killed, for our sig- 
nal officers had discovered the system of rebel signals, which enabled 
them to read the dispatches along the enemy's lines." 

Lovell succeeded him in command. 

On the loth Pine Mountain was found to be abandoned. Thomas 
and Schofield advanced to find him entrenched strongly along the 
line of merged hills between Kenesaw and Lost Mountain. Durinsr 
the operations of the 15th and 16th, Sherman desired to ascertain the 
strength of some rebel batteries, known to be posted on their right 
flank commanding the Marietta road, and suspected to be of great 
strength, but no amount of shelling or sharpshooting would induce 
them to uncover. The General ordered out a locomotive, had steam 
raised to full head, attached three cars and ordered it started full 
speed toward Marietta. With a scream it plunged away, screaming 
and snorting as though bound for Atlanta with the latest news. The 
enemy started — they supposed it a desperate attempt to run a body 
of men past them into Marietta to assail their rear, and instantly 
their batteries were ablaze, right and left, throwing shot and shell. 
Sherman smiled grimly, and walked away — he had drawn the fire 
and ascertained the rebel strength, and it was clear an assault could 
not be made. The weather was tempestuous, but our forces pressed 
onward slowly but surely. On the 17th the enemy abandoned 
Lost Mountain with the long line of admirable breast-works con* 
necting it with Kenesaw Mountain. Still the pressure on the rebel 
line continued. We quote again from Sherman's report : 

" We continued to press at all points, skirmishing in dense forests of timber and 
across most difficr.lt ravines, until we found him again strongly posted and entrenched, 
with Kenesaw as his salient, his right wing thrown back to cover Marietta, and his 
left behind Nose's Creek, covering his railroad back to the Chattahoochee. This 
enabled him to contract his lines and strengthen them accordingly. 

" From Kenesaw lie could look down upon our camps and observe every move- 



176 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

ment, and liis batteries thundered away, but did us little harm, on account of the 
extreme bight, the Bhot and shell passing harmlessly over our heads as we lay cloae 
up against his hum. main town. 

" During our opei ai tone aboul Kenesaw , the weather was villainously bad, and the 
rain fell almost continuously for three weeks, rendering our narrow wooded roads 
mere mud galleys, so thai a general movement would have been impossible, but our 
men daily worked closer and closer to their entrenched foe, and kept up an incessant 
picket firing galling to him. Every opportunity was taken to advance oUr general 
linos closer and closer to the enemy. 

" General MePhereon watching the enemy on Kenesaw and working his left for- 
ward, Genera] Thomas, swinging, as it were on a grand left wheel, his left on Kenesaw 
connecting with General McPherson, and General Schofieldall the time working to 
the south and east along the old Sandtown road. On the 22d General Hooker had 
advanced his line, with General Schofield on his right, the enemy, Hood's corps, with 
detachments from the others, suddenly sallied and attacked. The blow fell mostly 
on General William's division of General Hooker's corps, and a brigade of General 
Haseall's division of General Sehofield's army. 

"The ground was comparatively open, and although the enemy drove in the skir- 
mish lines, an advanced regiment of General Schofield, sent out purposely to hold 
him in check until some preparations could be completed for his reception, yet wdien 
he reached our line of battle he received a teirible repulse, leaving his dead, wounded, 
and many prisoners in our hands. This is known as the affair of the 'Kulp House.' 
Although inviting the enemy at all times to commit such mistakes, I could not hope 
for him to repeat them after the examples of Dallas and the 'Kulp House,' and upon 
studying the ground, I had no alternative in my turn but to assault his lines or turn 
his position. Either course had its difficulties and dangers. And I perceived that 
the enemy and our own officers had settled down into a conviction that I would not 
assault fortified lines." 

The severest criticism which assailed the course of General Sher- 
man at any point between Chattanooga to Raleigh has concentrated 
upon the Kenesaw assault. It Avas a failure, frankly so conceded, 
yet had it been a success, it had been lauded, as was the assault on 
Mission Ridge. If it had succeeded the results would have been 
ample repayment. It cost immensely in life, and added to the count- 
less bereavements already sustained. It is better that the gallant 
leader shall say to the people, to the fathers, mothers, sisters and 
wives of those who fell what he has said to the Government. His 
official report says : 

"All looked to me to 'outflank.' An army to be efficient must not settle down 
to one mode of offense, but must be prepared to execute any plan which promises 
success. I waited, therefore, for the moral effect, to make a successful assault 
against the enemy behind his breastworks, and resolved to attempt it at that point 
where success would give the largest fruits of victory. The general point selected 



ASSAULT ON KENESAW. 177 

was the left center ; because, if I could thrust a strong head of column through at 
that point by pushing it boldly and rapidly two and one half miles, it would reach 
the railroad below Marietta, cut off the enemy's right and center from its line of 
retreat, and then, by turning on either part, it could be overwhelmed and destroyed. 
Therefore, on the 24th of June, I ordered that an assault should be made at two 
points south of Kenesaw on the 27th, giving three days' notice for preparation and 
reconnoissauce ; one to be made near Little Kenesaw by General McPherson's 
troops, and the other about a mile further south by General Thomas' troops. The 
hour was fixed, and all the details given in Field Orders No. 28, of June 2L On the 
27th of June the two assaults were made at the time and in the manner prescribed, 
and both failed, costing us many valuable lives, among them those of Generals 
Ilarker and McCook, Colonel Rice and others badly wounded ; our aggregate loss 
being near 3,000, while we inflicted comparatively little loss on the enemy, who lay 
behind his well formed breastworks. Failure as it was, and for which I assume the 
entire responsibility, I yet claim it produced good fruits, as it demonstrated to Gen- 
eral Johnston that I would assault, and that boldly, and we also gained and held 
ground so close to the enemy's parapets that he could not show a head above them. 
" It would not do to rest long under the influence of a mistake or failure, and 
accordingly General Schofield was working strong on the enemy's left ; and on the 
1st of July, I ordered General McPhcrson to be relieved by General Garrard's cav- 
alry in front of Kenesaw, and to rapidly throw his whole army by the right down to 
and threaten Nickojack Creek and Turner's ferry across the Chattahoochee, and I also 
pushed Stoneman's cavalry to the river below Turner's." 

Thus briefly do official reports tell the sad story of repulse and 
slaughter. 

In the skirmishes preceding the sanguinary battle of the 27th, the 
men of Illinois were everywhere that danger was to be confronted, 
and they were worthy peers of those who fought beside them. The 
newspapers have such paragraphs as these : 

" The rebels made a strong attack on McPherson's left, where 
they vainly strove to recover their lost position, but were repulsed by 
Logan's 15th Corps." "Howard and Palmer were thundering at 
their center." 

" The 5th Kentucky, 124th Ohio, Hazen's brigade, 32d Indiana, 
and 25th Illinois of Gibson's brigade were thrown forward as a 
heavy line of skirmishers, by General Wood.. On then- left Wag- 
ner's brigade and the 27th Illinois of Harker's brigade were also 
deployed, and with one gallant, united effort they succeeded in cap- 
turing the enemy's first line of works." Again and again we meet 
this same division. Now we meet an honorable mention of the 89th, 
made incidentally, showing its bravery in the face of appalling 

danger. 

12 



178 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

On the 26th Logan formed his Corps, entrenching in advanced 
position, and on the 27th, at 8 A. M., formed it in battle order, and 
led it against the first Line of rebel works through a terrific fire of 
musketry and artillery and carried it, and again carried the second 
line, and advanced beyond, but the abrupt mountain side and brist- 
ling strength of the defenses compelled him to fall back, losing many 
valuable lives, to the second line. In all the Western divisions 
engaged our State was represented. The 59th was support to the 
skirmishers of Newton's division. The 74th was in Harker's brigade, 
and in the advance of Newton's division. That gallant young hero 
was in the advance, and fell mortally wounded. 

The dead were buried, and the wounded cared for, and again the 
puzzling tactics of Sherman came in play, and we again quote from 
his official report : 

" General McPherson commenced his movement the night of July 2d, and the effect 
was instantaneous. The next morning Kenesaw was abandoned, and with the first 
dawn of day I saw our skirmishers appear on the mountain top. General Thomas' 
whole line was then moved forward to the railroad and turned south in pursuit toward 
the Chattahoochee. In person I entered Marietta at 8£ in the .morning, just as the 
enemy's cavalry vacated the place. General Logan's corps of General MoPherson'a 
army, which had not moved far, was ordered back into Marietta by the main road, 
and General McPherson and General Schofield were instructed to cross Nickojack 
and attack the enemy in flank and rear, and, if possible, to catch him in the con- 
fusion of crossing the Chattahoochee ; but Johnston had foreseen and provided against 
all this, and had covered his movement well. He had entrenched a strong tete du 
vont at the Chattahoochee, with an advanced entrenched line across the road at 
Smyrna camp-meeting ground, five miles from Marietta. 

" Here General Thomas found him, his front covered by a good parapet, and his 
flanks behind the Nickojack and Rottonwood creeks. Ordering a garrison for Mari- 
etta, and General Logan to join his own army near the mouth of Nickojack, I over- 
took General Thomas at Smyrna. On the 4th of July we pushed a strong skirmish 
line down the main road, capturing the entire line of the enemy's pits, and made 
strong demonstrations along Nickojack Creek and about Turner's Ferry. This had the 
desired effect, and the next morning the enemy was gone, and the army moved to the 
Chattahoochee, General Thomas' left flank resting on it near Paices' Ferry, General 
McPherson's right at the mouth of Nickojack, and General Schofield in reserve; 
the enemy lay behind a line of unusual strength, covering the railroad and pontoon 
bridges and beyond the Chattahoochee. Heavy skirmishing along our whole front 
during the 5th demonstrated the strength of the enemy's position, which could alone 
be turned by crossing the main Chattahoochee River, a rapid and deep stream, only 
passable at that stage by means of bridges except at one or two very difficult fords. 

" To accomplish this result I judged it would be more easy of execution before he 
enemy had made more thorough preparation or regained full confidence, and accord- 



CHATTAHOOCHEE. 179 

iugly I ordered General Schofield across from his position on the Sandtown road to 
Smyrna camp-ground, and next to the Chattahoochee, near the mouth of Soap's 
Creek, and effect a lodgment on the east bank. This was most successfully and 
skillfully accomplished on the 7th of July, General Schofield capturing a gun, com- 
pletely surprising the guard, laying a good pontoon bridge and a trestle bridge, and 
effecting a strong lodgment on high and commanding ground, with good roads lead- 
ing to the east. At the same time General Garrard moved rapidly on Roswell and 
destroyed the factories which had supplied the rebel armies with cloth for years. 
C tr one of these, the woolen factory, the nominal owner displayed the French flag, 
' >h was not respected, of course. A neutral surely is no better than one of our 
o... citizens, and we do not permit our own citizens to fabricate cloth for hostile 
uses. 

" General Garrard was then ordered to secure the shallow ford at Roswell and hold 
it until he could be relieved by infantry ; and as I contemplated transferring the 
army of the Tennessee from the extreme right to the left, I ordered General Thomas 
to send a division of his infantry that was nearest up to Roswell to hold the ford 
until General McPherson could send up a corps from the neighborhood of Nickojack. 
General Newton's division was sent and held the ford until the arrival of General 
Dodge's corps, which was soon followed by General McPherson's whole army. About 
the same time General Howard had also built a bridge at Powers' Ferry ; two milea 
below General Schofield had crossed over and taken a position on his right. Thus 
during the 9th we had secured three good and safe points of passage over the Chat- 
tahoochee, above the enemy, with good roads leading to Atlanta, and Johnston 
abandoned his Me du pont, burned his bridges, and left us undisputed masters north 
and west of the Chattahoochee, at daylight of the 10th of July. 

"This was one, if not the chief, object of the campaign, viz.: the advancement of 
our lines from the Tennessee to the Chattahoochee, but Atlanta lay before us only 
eight miles distant, and was too important a place in the hands of an enemy to be 
left undisturbed with its magazines, stores, arsenals, workshops, founderies, &c, and 
more especially its railroads, which converge there from the four great cardinal 
points. But the men had worked hard and needed rest, and we accordingly took a 
short spell. But in anticipation of this contingency I had collected a well appointed 
force of cavalry about 2,000 strong at Decatur, Alabama, with orders, on receiving 
notice by telegraph, to push rapidly south, cross the Coosa at the railroad bridge or 
the Ten Islands, and thence by the most direct route to Opelika. There is but one 
stem of finished railroad connecting the channels of trade and travel between Geor- 
gia and Alabama, and Mississippi, which runs from Montgomery to Opelika, and my 
purpose was to break it up effectually and thereby cut off Johnston's army from that 
source of supply and reinforcement. 

" General Rousseau, commanding the District of Tennessee, asked permission to 
command the expedition and received it. As soon as Johnston was well across the 
Chattahoochee, and as I had begun to maneuver on Atlanta, I gave the requisite 
notice, and General Rosseau started punctually on the 10th of July. He fulfilled his 
orders and instructions to the very letter, whipping the rebel General Canton 
en route; he passed through Talladega, and reached the railroad on the 16th about 
twenty-five miles west of Opelika, and broke it well up to that place. Also three 
miles of the branch toward Columbus and two toward West Point. He then turned 



180 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

north and brought his command Bafelj to Marietta, arriving on the 22d, having sus- 
tained a trifling loss no1 to sxoeed thirty men. 

'• The main armies remained quiet in their campa on the Chattahoochee until the 
lf.tli of July, but the time was employed in collecting Btores at Allatoona, Marietta, 
;.„,! N'iuiiiv' trengthening the railroad guards and garrisons, and improving 

the pier bridges and roads leading across the river. Genera! Stoneman's and McOook'a 
eavalary had Bcouted well down the river to draw attention in that direction, and all 
things being ready for a general advance, I ordered it to commence on the 17th ; 
General Thomas to cross at Power's and Pain's ferrj bridges, and to march by 
Backhead, General Schofield was already across at the mouth of Soap's creek, and 
to march by Cross Keys, and General McPherson to direct his course from Roswell 
straight against the Augusta road, at some point east of Decatur, near Stone Moun- 
tain. General Garrard's eavalary acted with General McPherson, and Generals 
Stoneman and McCook watched the river and roads below the railroad. On the 
17th the whole army advanced from their camps and formed a general line along the 
Old Peach Tree road. 

" Continuing on a general right wheel, General McPherson reached the Augusta 
railroad on the 18th at a point seven miles cast of Decatur, and with General Gar- 
rard's cavalry, and General Morgan L. Smith's infantry division of the 15th Corps, 
broke up a section of about four miles, and General Schofield reached the town of 
Decatur. 

"On the 19th General McPherson turned along the railroad into Decatur, and 
General Schofield followed a road toward Atlanta, leading by Colonel Howard's 
house and the distillery, and General Thomas crossed Peach Tree creek in force by 
numerous bridges in the face of the enemy's intrenched lines. All found the enemy 
in more or less force, and skirmished heavily. 

" On the 20th all the armies had closed in, converging toward Atlanta, but as a gap 
existed between Generals Schofield and Thomas, two divisions of General Howard's 
corps of General Thomas' army were moved to the left to connect with General 
Schofield, leaving General Newton's division of the same corps on the Buckhead 
road. During the afternoon of the 20th, about 4 P. M., the enemy sallied from his 
works in force, and fell in line of battle against our right center, composed of Gen- 
eral Newton's division of General Howard's corps, on the main Buckhead road; of 
General Hooker's corps next South, and General Johnson's division of General 
Palmer's corps. The blow was sudden and somewhat unexpected, but General New- 
ton had hastily covered his front by a line of rail piles, which enabled him to meet 
and repulse the attack on him. General Hooker's whole corps was uncovered and 
had to fight on comparatively open ground, and it, too, after a very severe battle, 
drove the enemy back to his entrenchments, and the action in front of General 
Johnson was comparatively light, that division being well entrenched. The enemy 
left on the field over 500 dead, about 1,000 wounded severely, 7 stands of colors 
and many prisoners. His loss could not have fallen short of 5,000, whereas ours 
was covered by 1,500 killed, wounded and missing; the greater loss fell on General 
Hooker's corps, from its exposed condition. 

"On the 21st we felt the enemy in his entrenched position, which was found to 
(rown the bights overlooking the comparatively open ground of the valley of Peach 
Tree Creek, his right beyond the Augusta road to the east, and his left well toward 



PEACH TREE CEEEK. 181 

Turner's Kerry on the Chattahoochee, at a general distance from Atlanta of four 

miles." 

" The battle of Peach Tree Creek cannot he dismissed without 
further notice. A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial 
described the situation, the problem and the solution, and we con- 
dense his article. 

" A very few words will make the situation clear, even to such of 
your readers as have not had the opportunity of consulting a good 
map of Georgia, since the opening of the campaign. 

" Seven miles from the Chattahoochee, in a straight line (nearly 
eight by rail), lies the city of Atlanta. The river runs generally 
southwest. Our army was advancing along the line of the Atlanta 
and Western railroad, in a southeast direction. A little north of 
east from the city, fifteen miles in a straight line, is Stone Mountain, 
near the base of which rises a stream called Peach Tree Creek, deep 
and difficult to cross. The general direction of this creek is west, 
it entering the Chattahoochee just above the railroad bridge. The 
creek forms nearly a right angle with the river, and within that angle 
lies Atlanta. The city then was defended by the Chattahoochee on 
the west, and by Peach Tree Creek on the north. This peculiar 
conformation of the streams was taken advantage of by the rebel 
leaders, and when they fell back across the Chattahoochee, they 
arranged their lines also along the two sides of this angle. The 
apex of the angle is at the railroad bridge. From that point the 
rebel lines ran southwest along the Atlanta side of the river, and 
directly east and west along Peach Tree Creek. 

" The problem now presented to our commanders was this : Ought 
they to force a passage across the river, in the face of the enemy, at 
some point or points south of the railroad bridge, and advance upon 
Atlanta from the west and south — upon which sides, the river being 
crossed, it was comparatively defenseless ; or should they throw their 
troops over the river north of the bridge, where they were likely to 
meet with little or no opposition, and thence march upon the rebel 
defenses south of Peach Tree Creek ? Taking the first course was 
to perform what is always considered one of the most difficult achieve- 
ments in warfare, namely, to cross a great river in the face of a foe. 
The second case involved another exceedingly dangerous undertak- 



182 PATRIOTISM 0* ILLINOIS. 

ing — the fighting of a great buttle with a river just in the rear. It 
w.is finally concluded, however, to risk the seoond alternative — a 

conclusion which reflects great honor upon our generalship, and was 

fully justified by two considerations : First, our superiority in num- 
bers o\er the enemy made the danger of fighting, with a river in our 
rear, much less than ordinarily, under similar circumstances; and, 
second, a glance at the map will show that by crossing the Chatta- 
hoochee south of the railroad bridge, we exposed our line of communi- 
cations ; whereas, by crossing north of it we kept this line completely 
covered. 

" The last of the army, except such portions as were destined to hold 
our line of communications, went over the river early on the morning 
of the 18th of July. It was a very wise arrangement to throw the 
left wing over first, because the higher up the river the crossing was 
effected the less liable the troops were to any formidable attack from 
the enemy ; and it was a matter of the first importance to have a 
strong force on the other side, to assist, if necessary, the right wing, 
which was compelled to cross much nearer the rebels and near the 
great angle in their lines which I have already described. Besides, 
as we should, after getting over the river, be obliged to face the 
right, in order to march southward upon the rebel works along Peach 
Tree Creek, the left wing would be compelled to move much further 
than the right ; and this was an additional reason for its being first 
thrown across. Operations actually took place in accordance with 
this theory. 

"Before any portion of the army of the Cumberland (except How- 
ard's corps) had reached the southeast side of the Chattahoochee, 
McPherson had made a material advance, moving his extreme left 
along a road which runs from Marietta direct to Stone Mountain, 
over a branch of Peach Tree Creek, named Nancy Creek, through 
the small village of Cross Keys, and forward so as to threaten seri- 
ously the line of the Georgia or Augusta Railroad. Schofield, next 
to McPherson's troops on the right, and Howard, on Schofield's right, 
made corresponding movements. By 10 A. M., on the 19th, Hooker 
and Palmer being then over, all portions of the line advanced, almost 
everywhere encountering the enemy's skirmishers (principally dis- 
mounted cavalry), and everywhere driving them back. Portions of 



PEACH TKEE CREEK. 183 

Stanley's and Wood's divis : ons very handsomely distinguished them- 
selves during this movement and by night of the 19th nearly the 
whole army had crossed to the south side of Peach Tree Creek. On 
the right, the brigade recently commanded by Colonel Daniel McCook, 
(now under the leadership o f Colonel Dilworth, of the 85th Illinois,) 
met with a determined resistance as it passed over late in the after- 
noon, and lost nearly two hundred and fifty of its number, killed, 
wounded and captured. Inspired, however, by the gallant spirit of 
its recent leader, it maintained its ground until Colonel John G. 
Mitchell's brigade had come up to its support, when it drove the 
rebels from its front, and immediately threw up fortifications. The 
men of Kneffler's brigade (Stanley's division, Howard's corps,) swam 
the stream under a fire of artillery, and captured near fifty prisoners 
on the south side. Logan's corps, the 15th, moved over to the left 
of the Army of the Tennessee, and advancing with rapidity and 
energy, its left flank well covered by Garrard's cavalry division, it 
struck the Augusta Railroad at a point two and a half miles west of 
Stone Mountain and immediately commenced tearing up the track. 
This brilliant achievement, in connection with Rosseau's remarkable 
and daring raid upon the Atlanta and "West Point (Mobile) Road, 
must have greatly alarmed the enemy, and probably determined him 
to make, the next day, a desperate effort to drive us out. 

" On Wednesday morning, then, behold our entire army south of 
Peach Tree Creek, on a line running nearly east and west, and con- 
fronting the rebel battalions who occupied strong works just before 
them. Day had scarcely dawned when the left wing of the army was 
in motion. The l'Zth corps (Blair's) passed to the exti-eme left, Avhile 
the 15th (Logan's) marched westward along the Augusta Railroad, 
tearing up the track as it went, until it reached Decatur, eight miles 
from Stone Mountain. Schofield advanced toward Atlanta, connect- 
ing with General Dodge's division of McPherson's army on the left. 
Howard, marching by the left flank, formed a junction with Scho- 
field ; and Hooker, marching by the right flank, filled up the interval 
between Howard and Palmer. By noon of the 20th, the whole army 
was in line of battle, nearly in the following order : 

"The 14th corps, Palmer's, on the extreme right; the 20th, Hook- 
er's, next; the 4th, Howard's, next; the 23d, Schofield's, next; 16th, 



1S4 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Dodge's, next, although partly in reserve; (lie 15th, Logan's next; 
and tlu 1 17th, Blair's, on the extreme left. Garrard's cavalry division 
covered our right flank, while General Ed.McGook's held the ferries 

alonir the river. 

" During die afternoon of the 20th the whole left wing of the army 
advanced, driving the enemy before them in a series of sharp anil 
brilliant skirmishes, which, occurring between small armies, would 
have been called battles. It was in one of these that General Gres- 
ham, commanding the right division of the 17th corps, received a 
severe if not dangerous wound. By nightfall our extreme left had 
advanced nearly ten miles south of the Augusta Railroad, and rested 
at a point which was a little south of east from Atlanta. 

" The line which I spoke of as existing at noon on Wednesday, was 
not everywhere complete. A line of skirmishers (the 121st Ohio, 
Colonel Banning,) connected General Palmer's right with the Chat- 
tahoochee, and only a strong line of skirmishers connected the left 
of General Newton's division with the remainder of the 4th corps — 
a gap of nearly two miles being thus held. The situation was a dan- 
gerous one, and General Thomas, with his accustomed wisdom and 
promptness, immediately commenced a series of movements for the 
purpose of closing it. Subsequent events and the statements of 
rebel prisoners, revealed the fact that the enemy were aware of the 
existence of this gap — were actually hunting for it when they made 
their furious assault upon us in the evening, and most providentially 
failed to find it. 

" Shortly after leaving the south branch of Peach Tree Creek, the 
ground begins to rise. A prolonged stretch of high ground extends 
thus all along the creek to the river, forming a ridge, cut with deep 
ravines, in Howard's front, a sort of broken table land in Hooker's, 
and rising into two considerable hills in Palmer's. On this range of 
bights, but at a considerable distance from the northern edge, was 
the enemy's principal line of works. The ground in front of How- 
ard was densely wooded, as was mostly that in front of Palmer. But 
on a great part of Hooker's front, after ascending to the table land, 
was a considerable space of open fields, on the other side of which 
in the direction of Atlanta, were heavy woods. Behind all three of 
these corps ran Peach Tree Creek, through open ground, with high 



PEACH TREE CEEEK. 185 

ground (also open) still further back, and furnishing splendid posi- 
tions for oui- batteries, of which the experienced and able artillerists 
on Davis, Baird, Johnson, Hooker, Newton and Howard's staffs did 
not fail to avail themselves. 

"It was shortly after 12, noon, when in accordance with General 
Thomas' design of closing up the Gap I have spoken of, General 
Newton's division prepared to advance from the bank of the creek, 
in order to relieve Hazen's brigade of Wood's division, which had 
been thrown over previously, and allow it to move off to the left, as 
well as to take up a position, which, by materially shortening our line, 
would tend still further to close up the interval between Newton and 
Wood. 

" A strong skirmish line was sent out to feel for the enemy, who 
bad rifle pits in advance of their principal works. Colonel Barrett, 
44th Illinois, was put in command of the skirmishers, who comprised 
six regiments, four from Brigadier-General Kimball's brigade and 
two from Colonel Blake's. The latter officer is at present in com- 
mand of General Wagner's brigade. The whole line advancing 
with rapidity and enthusiasm, drove the rebels from their rifle pits, 
and captured several, with the loss of only two men. This brought 
them within 850 yards of the main rebel works. 

" Our line of battle quickly followed up this advance, and Kimball 
and Blake immediately took up a position on the ridge. The men 
had merely halted, as they supposed, for the purpose of eating their 
dinner, but were ordered to commence constructing a line of barri- 
cades. No order is more cheerfully obeyed by our soldiers, when in 
presence of the enemy, than this, and in this instance, as the event 
subsequently proved, saved hundreds of their own lives, and perhaps 
prevented the rout of their division. Colonel Blake, never slow to 
follow any good example, did not hesitate an instant in this case ; 
and the clatter of logs and rails thrown together, with the ringing 
of picks, spades and shovels, resounded all along his front. 

" The enemy made repeated eflbrts, from noon to half past two, 
to ascertain the position of our forces ; and there was heavy skirmish- 
in o- along Wood and Stanley's fronts, as well as along the skirmish 
line, which, stretching across the great gap, connected the left of 
Newton with the right of Wood. Then there was a temporary lull 
alone the whole line. 



lNti rATHlOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

"It was about half past three when the enemy's skirmishers, 

advancing as if to reoonnoiter, gave notice that something was 
impending. Our line had halted longer than was expected, and was 

just uiioii the point of resuming the advance, when this appearance 
of the rebels determined Newton to remain behind his hastily con- 
Strncted works on the hill, and Hooker to march his troops at onco 
from the low ground in front of him, so that he might connect with 
Newton's right. The order to advance was scarcely given, when 
from the high ground north of the stream, all Hooker's batteries, 
and part of Howard's, broke forth in a simultaneous peal of thun- 
der. The rebel legions were pouring forth from the woods beyond 
the open fields at the top of the ridge and, pressing forward, rank 
behind rank, in startling and magnificent array, seemed resolved to 
crush at one blow whatever might oppose them. This spectacle the 
artillerists upon the elevated ground, north of the creek, could plainly 
see, but the infantry, climbing up the hill, on the south, could not. 
A moment later, and a savage yell upon the left, followed by the 
clang and clatter of ten thousand muskets, announced that Newton's 
division had been assailed by the foe. On Newton's front the enemy 
did not wait to push forward a skirmish line, but charged at once in 
lines of battle, two and three deep. Our skirmishers in advance of 
our hastily constructed works, were driven in with the velocity of a 
whirlwind, and as they rushed back in disordered haste, came near 
throwing into confusion the extreme right of Newton, and for a 
moment caused it to give way. 

" Meantime, Brigadier-General Geary's division of Hooker's corps, 
which, was considerably in advance of both Williams' division on 
the right and Ward's (Butterfield's) on the left, was struck by the 
rushing storm, and temporarily shattered. Both his right and his 
center divisions were pushed from their positions, after a short and 
desperate resistance, and hurled down the hill nearly to the banks 
of the creek. General Ward's division was still advancing up the 
hill side, when the wary old Kentuckian saw, as he then supposed, 
both Geary on his right and Newton on his left, overthrown. He 
was about to detach three or four regiments to their assistance, when, 
to his astonishment, the whole scene was changed as if by magic. 
'Newton's line became firm as a rock, and, without another sign of 



WARD AND GEAKY. 187 

wavering, continued to pour into the rebel host a steady, uninter- 
rupted, and deadly fire. At the same time Geary's disordered regi- 
ments reformed, even under a withering fire from the enemy, while 
a couple of his butteries, directing their pieces full at the right flank 
of the lines which had driven us back, tore them in pieces with a tor- 
nado of shot and shell. The indentation in our lines produced by 
the giving way of Geary's two brigades, became a pit of death into 
which hundreds of maddened rebels plunged, only to die or to fall 
wounded and bleeding upon the sod. Not another inch did Geary 
retire, but began slowly to advance, until, when the fight closed, he 
occupied exactly the same ground as when it began. 

" It was just as General Ward became convinced that all was 
going well with Newton and Geary, that his own line reached the 
edge of the kind of table line I have described, only to find itself 
confronted at a distance of thirty paces, with the flower of the rebel 
army ! The fearful tumult that at once burst forth was such that no 
man could tell which portion of it was the roar of musketry, and 
which the fierce, indignant, defiant yell that each host hurled at the 
other. Both were surprised. Our men scarcely knew that the 
enemy had emerged from the opposite woods, when they found them- 
selves full in their presence. The rebels, disappointed elsewhere, 
supposed they had certainly reached their long-looked-for gap, but 
found instead a line of battle and a sheet of vindictive fire ! Both 
lines instantly charged forward, pouring the leaden hail full into each 
other's bosoms. They stood in some places but fifteen feet apart, 
and still hurled death in each other's faces. They charged again, and 
the men intermingled and fought hand to hand ! In places the lines 
crossed each other, and wheeled round only to renew the combat, 
the rebels facing Atlanta, the soldiers of the Union, Peach Tree 
Creek ! 

" When the storm broke upon Geary, General Williams' division 
had advanced upon the extreme right of Hooker's corps, almost as 
far as Geary himself. The gallant old* veteran was struggling 
through a dense forest, and striving to form connection with Geary 
on his left, when suddenly the woods in front of him were filled with 
fierce yells and spurts of fire and whizzing missels, as if each tree 
had held 



188 PATRIOTISM <>!' ILLINOIS. 

■■ 'A - ; , i ,- ■ i prisoned in tta breast, 
Which the first Btroke of coming strife 
Hud Btartled into hideous lifi I ' 

But neither "Williams nor his division are made of the materia] which 

Learns easily to quail. The savage yells of the demons of slavery 
were answered by the loud shouts of freemen, battling for their 
country and their God. A bristling Hue of steel, glittering with fire, 
everywhere mel and checked the rebel advance. A i'vw rude and 
unfinished bulwarks of rails, thrown together by the men when they 
had last halted, furnished but little protection from the pitiless 
showers of bullets Hung from the muskets of the enemy; hut, in 
spite of rebel daring, energy and hate, Williams would not yield a 
foot of ground. 

" Colonel Bradley's brigade of Newton's division (to the command 
of which lie succeeded after the death of the noble Harker), was 
formed in columns of the regiments along the road leading from 
Buckhead to Atlanta, when the fight commenced. Immediately 
after the rebel assault began upon Newton's front, the 64th Ohio and 
42d Illinois were sent to support Colonel Blake, while the 27th Illi- 
nois was dispatched to the assistance of General Kimball. The 
remainder of the brigade was at first also intended to go to the sup- 
port of Blake; but its destination was changed, and ii was formed 
in order of battle along the Atlanta road, where it assisted in repell- 
ing and capturing a column of the enemy which had forced its way 
past Blake's left flank and actually gained our rear. 

"This incident deserves to be further noticed. So intense was the 
interest among our men to repel the rebels in our immediate front, 
that they did not perceive a small column had passed around entirely 
to the left of Blake, and penetrated the right of that long line of 
skirmishers which I have described as alone holding the huge gap 
between Newton and Wood, until they heard the noise of conflict 
immediately in their rear. The rebels had reached the Buckhead 
and Atlanta road. General Thomas was overlooking the progress 
of the fight in the rear of Newton. The moment he perceived the 
body of rebels, he hastily got together a force consisting of the pio- 
neers of Kimball's brigade, some of the straggling skirmishers who 
ha 1 Q ! before the first rebel onset, and a couple of pieces of artil- 



ILLINOIS TEOOPS. 189 

lery. Taking immediate personal command of this novel battalion, 
lie assailed the astonished rebels, and killed and captured the whole 
body. 

"The 57th Indiana and 100th Illinois, of Colonel Blake's brigade, 
which were advanced in the first place as skirmishers, were separated 
for some time from the remainder of the brigade by the rebel column 
above mentioned. 

" The right of Colonel Blake's brigade rested on the Atlanta road, 
the left of General Kimball's upon the same. Four guns of Good- 
speed's Ohio Battery, under command of Lieutenant Scovill, were 
placed upon the Atlanta road, just in rear of these two brigades, and 
during the whole time the fight lasted did terrible execution upon the 
enemy. Once the rebels came up the ravine just to the left of the 
road, in close column, with 'Brigadier-General' Stephens at their 
head, determined, if possible, to capture these four pieces ; but Kim- 
ball's left regiment, 74th Illinois, on the right of the road, and Blake's 
right regiment, the 88th Illinois, on the left of the road, poured into 
the column so terrible a direct »and cross fire, that it reeled, staggered 
and broke in confusion, leaving its leader dead upon the field. 

" The brigade which formed the left of General Ward's division 
is commanded by Colonel Jas. Wood of the 136th New York. But 
two of its regiments were in front line when the conflict commenced, 
the 28th Wisconsin and 20th Connecticut. The 55th Ohio afterward 
took part in the fighting, as did the 73d, which relieved the 26th 
Wisconsin, and the 136th New York, which relieved the 20th Con- 
necticut. The troops immediately opposed to Colonel Wood were 
a Mississippi brigade, under command of a ' Brigadier- General' 
Featherstone, who was killed early in the fight. Colonel Wood did 
all that was required of him. 

"The center of General Ward's division was held by Colonel 
Coburn's brigade. It was pai't of Colonel Coburn's brigade, which, 
in the terrible shock along the front of Ward's division, exchanged 
places with a part of the rebel line, and wheeled about to renew 
the fight with them. 

" The next brigade going toward the left, was General Ward's, 
commanded by Colonel Harrison, of the 70th Indiana. It did its 
full share of this glorious day's work. When the great charge of 



I 



190 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

the rebels and counter-charge by our men were made, the 129th 
Illinois engaged the enemy in a hand-to-hand conflict, in which offi- 
cers as well as men mingled indiscriminately. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Flynn and a rebel Colonel, each with a gun in his hand, fought each 
other for a considerable time, each dodging around a bush repeatedly, 
so as to give or avoid a shot. 

"Colonel Anson G. McCook, of the 2d Ohio, commanded a brigade, 
consisting of old regiments, each of which has a historical name, 
and was until recently under command of Brigadier-General Car- 
lin. The latter being on leave of absence, Colonel McCook assumed 
command. On him was devolved the duty of clipping the left wing 
of the rebel'host which pounced upon us. He was on the extreme 
left wing of Palmer's oorps, and his was the left brigade of General 
Johnson's division. It was formed into two lines, the first com- 
manded by Colonel Taylor, of the 15th Kentucky; the second by 
Colonel Hobart, 21st Wisconsin. The brigade advanced to the top 
of the ridge in front, to keep in line with General Hooker, and had 
time to throw up some slight works before it was assailed. This 
remark applies to the first line only — the second had no works. 

" The 104th Illinois, on the left of the first line was somewhat in 
advance of the other regiments, in consequence of the peculiar nature 
of the grounds, and was therefore the first struck when the rebels 
came thundering upon us. A brave stand was made, and then the 
right of the regiment began to crumble away. Colonel McCook, 
while feeling deeply the heavy responsibility resting upon his should- 
ers, remained cool and self-possessed as a veteran. He knew how ter- 
rible the result might be if this portion of our line was broken. Yet 
the rebel legions had advanced entirely up to our rude works, and a 
rebel color-bearer stuck his detested flag into one of the logs com- 
posing them. He almost instantly paid for his audacity with his life, 
being both shot and bayoneted where he stood. While the rebels 
were pressing with exultant shouts after the retiring 104th, the 15th 
Kentucky, 42d and 88th Indiana, which were in the line further back 
than the 104th, were shifted around in such a way that they were 
enabled to pour into the advancing enemy a destructive flanking and 
cross fire, which at once chilled his ardor and sent him to the right 
about. Again they essayed to charge ; but by this time the gallant 



GENERAL PALMER. 191 

Colonel Hobart had placed the second line in such positions that it 
could assist materially in the conflict, and again the rebel flood was 
rolled back. Thus gloriously did Colonel McCook inaugurate his new 
command, and showed himself a worthy namesake of him whose 
blood bathed the soil of Alabama, and of him who gave his life for 
freedom at Kenesaw. 

"All along the portion of our lines which we have just reviewed, 
the noise of battle continued to resound. At every point the rebel 
battalions seemed to have charged at least three times, and thrice 
the ground was left literally covered with their dead and mangled 
bodies. Against our single unprotected line of battle on Hooker's 
front, they hurled repeatedly two and three ; and although our loss 
was here most terrible, yet that of the rebels so far exceeded it as 
to be almost unexampled in the history of warfare. By nightfall the 
charging squadrons had been everywhere repulsed, and driven in 
confusion and dismay back to their barricades. When this glorious 
consummation became fully evident, there rose all along our battle- 
begrimmed ranks, so loud, so strong, so exultant, so terrible a cheer 
that it must have paled the cheeks of guilty traitors even in the 
streets and houses of Atlanta. 

" Major-General Palmer is one of our leaders whose prudence and 
foresight did much to avert disaster this day, and enable us to win 
victory. He seemed to have an instinctive perception of the impend- 
ing attack, and at midnight of the 19th, sent word to all his division 
commanders to strengthen their works. Had this not been done, the 
storm would probably have burst on him instead of Hooker. As it 
was, it touched only his extreme left, with what result we have already 
seen. I was overcome with emotion when I saw him late on the 
evening of the 20th, standing near a ridge swept by rebel cannon, 
surrounded by Von Schrader, McClurg, Shaw, and one or two other 
members of his excellent staff, and rejoicing with almost boyish 
exultation at the result of the battle, which his own wise precaution 
had contributed so materially to bring about. 

"The 105th Illinois captured two colors, the 129th one." 

It may seem that unusual space has been accorded to this engagement 
in which our total loss in killed and wounded did not reach 3,000, but it 
must be remembered that upon its results depended history. Johnston 



L92 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

had been superseded by order of Jefferson Davis, and Bood was in 
oommand. He knew of the gap between Thomas and Schofield, and 
with desperate promptness attempted to throw his massed strength 
int. i it, and mel Hooker and defeat. Had he succeeded he would 
have struck right and left in detail. Atlanta was virtually won at 
Peach Tree Creek, and the failure of Kenesaw Mountain redeemed, 

and H I's prestige broken with his ftrst.blow. Our troops were in 

the terrible melee as the statement has shown. 





t^ 



^{i tji&<£^v^<^ 



"OLS. 



XPRESSLY FOR CLARKE & CO. PUBLISHERS . 



CHAPTER XII. 

INTO ATLANTA. 

Atlanta — Its Importance — Heart of Confederacy — Must Be Taken — Hood in 
Command — Sherman's Report — The Chattahoochee — Battle of July 22d — 
McPherson Killed — Logan in Command — Blair Assailed by Hardee — Sweeney 
— Dodge — Twelfth Illinois — Sixteenth Corps — Long's Corps — Smith's Division 
— Loss of Guns — The Crisis — Sherman — Order to Logan — Charge — Wood — Vic- 
tory — Guns Retaken — What Sherman Says — The Stoneman Raid — Changes in 
Command — Hooker — Palmer — Howard — Slocum — Davis — Williams — Battle of 
Jonesboro — Victory Decisive — Rebel Retreat — Pursuit — "Atlanta Ours and 
Fairly Won" — Sherman's Promotion — Re-union and Freedom. 



* f A TLANTA," said a rebel newspaper, " is the gate city from. 

J\ the North and West to the Southeast. Its fall would 
open the way for the Federal array to the Gulf on one hand, and 
Charleston on the other, and close up those rich granaries from 
which Lee's army is supplied. It would give them control of our 
net-work of railways and thus paralyze our efforts. 

" The capture of Richmond would prove of greater advantage to 
our enemies in a political point of view than any other sense. With 
our capital in their possession we would find additional influence 
brought against us abroad ; but as a material loss its fall would in 
no manner compare with the disadvantages which would result from 
a defeat of General Johnston, and the occupation of Georgia that 
would follow. To lose the one would be as the loss of a limb ; 
should we be driven from the other, it will be a terrible blow at our 
most vital point." 

Hood had declared " We cannot lose Atlanta. If we do, the 
confederacy is broken. For my part I'll fight while a man stands 
by me, even until the streets of the city run with our blood." 

13 



194 PATRIOTISM OB ILLINOIS. 

lis importance it Been in thai il is the entrepot for the following 
railways : The < reorgia, connecting Atlanta and Augusta, the Macon 
and Western to Macon, the Western and Atlantic-, to Chattanooga, 
and the Lagrange branch road to West Poinl on the Chattahoochee. 
Ji was the heart of the confederacy pumping vitalized blood into the 
arteries extending to the extremities. By these lines it was con- 
n< <■!■ .1 w ith the whole country. It is, by rail, one hundred and Bev- 
enty-one miles from Augusta; one hundred, and one from Macon 1 ; 
two hundred and ninety-two from Savannah, one hundred and thirty- 
eight from Chattanooga. Davis said, " It must not be given up." 
Here were the confederate rolling mills, founderies, machine shops, 
laboratories.; here were great grain store-houses; here were the 
arsenal, oil stores, the pork depots, clothing factories, Aj<\ X<> 
wonder it was to be defended to the extremity; no wonder that 
Grallt and Sherman determined to take it, cost what it might. 

Johnson's p<>]i<y was to compel Sherman to garrison pqst after 
post. As be fell baok, Sherman must weaken the force with whicb 
he followed, and in due time he would strike the daring leader and 
his weakened army and crush him. Davis rejected the policy, and 
gave the command to Hood, brave, :iUo, careless of human life, dis- 
posed to field work, wdio inaugurated his campaign by his assault at 
Peach Tivc ('reek, and was about to repeat the experiment in another 
bold, costly, yet fruitless movement. 

Yet his movements at first were in part deceptive. He, General 
Sherman, says: 

in - 

" On the morning of the 22d, somewhat to my surprise, this whole line was found 

abandoned, and I confess I thought the enemy had resolved to grve us Atlanta with- 
out further contest; Inn General Johnston had been relieved of his command and 
'.•mini JJood substituted. A new policy seemed resolved <»n, of which the bold 
attack on our right was the index. Our advancing ranks swept across the strong 
and well finished parapet of the enemy, and closed in upon Atlanta until we occu- 
pied aline in the form of a general circle of about two miles' radius, when we again 
found him occupying in force a line of finished redoubts, which Had been prepared 
for more than a year, covering all the roads leading into Atlanta; and we Jound him 
also busy in connecting those redoubts with curtains strengthened by rifle trenches, 
abattis and chevaux-de-frise." 

The General arranged his force to meet whatever emergency- might 
arise. He says: 



JULY TWENTY-SECOND. 195 

'■ General MePherson, who had advanced from Decatur, continued to follow sub- 
stantially the railroad, with the 15th Corps, General Logan, the 17th, General Blair 
on its left, and the lfith, General Dodge on its right, but as the general advance of 
all the armies contracted the circle, the 16th Corps, General Dodge, was thrown out 
of line by the 15th connecting on the right with General Schofield near the How- 
ard house. General MePherson, the night before, had gained a high hill to the 
south and east of the railroad, where the. 17th Corps had, after a. severe fight, 
driven the; enemy, and it, gave him a most commanding position within easy view of 
the very heart of the city. He had thrown out working parties to it, and was mak- 
ing preparations to oecupy it in strength with batteries; The 10th Corps, General 
Dodge^ was ordered from right to left to occupy this position and make it a strong 
general left flank. General Dodge was moving by a diagonal path or wagon track 
leading from the Decatur road in the direction of General Blair's left flank. 

" ABbu*TO A. M. I was in person with General Schofield examining' the appear- 
ance of the enemy's lines opposite the distillery^ where we attracted enough of the 
enemy's fire of artillery and musketry to satisfy me the enemy was in Atlanta in 
force, and meant to fight, and had gone to a large dwelling close by, known as the 
Howard house, where General MePherson joined me. He described the condition of 
thingsiom his flank and the disposition o-frhis troops, I explained to him that if we 
met serious resistance in Atlanta, as present appearances indicated, instead of oper- 
ating against it by the left I would extend to the right, and that I did not want him 
to gain much distance to the left. He then described the hill occupied by General 
Leggett's division of General Blair's corps 1 as essential to the occupation of any 
ground to the east and south of the Augusta railroad on, account of its cornmanding 
nature r , I. therefore ratified his disposition of troops, and modified a, previous order 
I had sent him in writing to use General Dodge's corps, thrown somewhat in reserve 
by the closing ifp of our Kne, to break up the railroad, and I sanctioned its going, as 
already ordered by General MePherson, to ins left, to hold and fortify that position. 
The General remained with me till near noon, when some reports reaching us that 
indicated a movement of the enemy on that flank, he mounted and rode away with 
his staff. I "must here also state that the day before I had detached General Gar- 
rard's cavalry to go to Covington, on the Augusta road, forty-two miles east off 
Atlanta, and from that point to send detachments to break the two important bridges 
across the.XeJlow and Ulcofauhatchee rivers, tributaries of Ocmulgee,.and General 
MePherson had also left his wagon train at Decatur, under a guard of three regi- 
ments commanded by Colonel, now General Sprague. Soon after General MePher- 
son left me at the Howard house, as before'described, I heard the sounds of musketry 
to our left rear, at first mere pattering shots, but soon they grew in volume, accom- 
panied, with artillery, and about the same time the sound of guns was heard in the 
direction of Decatur. Xo doubt could longer be entertained of the enemy's plan of 
action, which Was to throw a superior force On our left flank, while he held us with 
his forts in front, theonly question being as to the amount of force he could employ 
at that point. I hastily transmitted orders to all points. of our center and right to 
press forward and give full employment to all. the enemy in his lines, and for Gene- 
ral Schofield to hold as large a force in reserve as possible, awaiting developments, 
Not more than half an hour after General McPRersori had left me, viz., about 12^ M. 
of the 22d, his Adjutant-General, Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, rode up and reporter 



19G PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

that General McPherson was either dead or a prisoner ; that he had ridden from mo 
'a column, movii i scribed, and had > ■ ■ r 1 1 <>tr nearly 

all his Btaff and orderliea on various errands, and himself had passed into a narrow 
path or road that led to the left and rear of General Gilee \ - rision, which 

leneral Blair's extreme left ; that a few minutes after he had entered the woods 
a sharp volley was heard in that direction, and his horse had come out riderless, 
having two wounds. The suddenness of this terrible calamity would have over- 
whelmed me with grief, but the living demanded my whole thoughts. I instantly 
dispatched a staff officer to (leneral John A. Logan, commanding the 15th I 
to tell him what had happened ; that he must assume command of the army of the 
Tennessee, and hold stubbornly the ground already chosen, more especially the hill 
gained by General Leggelt the night before." 

So opened a brittle bloodier than had yet marked the great march. 
The death of McPherson was a terrible calamity, for few of the gal- 
lant subordinates of Sherman equaled him in ability or popularity. 
His death was for a time concealed from the men, but when known 
caused the most intense sorrow. Logan quietly assumed command, 
and developed anew the soldierly qualities which had already given 
him so prominent a place among civilian generals. 

At high noon the sun looked down on a desperate struggle, liar- 
dee assailed Blair's left flank, overlapped it, and swung around until 
he came in contact with Dodge's corps in motion. In front of the 
17th Army Corps there was bloody work. Sweeney formed his 
division, and placed Rice's brigade facing the rear, Mersey's (9th 
Illinois) southward, with Morrill's on his right. Dodge's right was 
about to be turned when he ordered the 81st Ohio and 12th Illinois 
under Von Sellar to charge the rebel flank. They crossed a valley, 
swept around the point of a ridge and burst upon the foe like a thun- 
derbolt, strewing the ground with dead and wounded, capturing seve- 
ral prisoners and two stands of colors. "Bull-dog Sweeney" stood 
like a rock before Hardee, staying his advance, holding his ground 
against fearful odds until the troops could take position. The assault 
on our 17th Corps was terrible. The 10th Corps was involved by 
rebel masses, and lost several guns. Giles Smith's and Leggett's 
divisions fought against a swarm of troops — the old entrenchments 
was their battle-ground, and they fought on either side. Logan's 
corps at the center fought for victory and for life. Morgan Smith's 
division was so cut up it was compelled to retire. Our artillery was 
in part captured, including the celebrated Parrot 20-pounders, and 
Murray's regular artillery. 



*' RETAKE THOSE GDNS." 197 

Sherman saw the crisis. On a hill near Colonel Howard's house 
he placed a hattery of the 15th Corps and one of the 23d, where 
they commanded a converging and enfilading fire upon the lines of 
gray, and sent to Logan the simple order " You must retake those 
guns." Logan rode along his columns inspiriting them by stern, burn- 
ing words, and prepared to obey the order. Wood's division was 
to lead the charge. Wood swung his men so as to envelop the rebel 
rear, and supported by a portion of Schofield's command the charge 
was made. The 15th met the rebel column — the batteries near 
Colonel Howard's house opened upon the enemy — too near for artil- 
lery, a cheer rang along our lines, a low deadly fire sent death and 
wounds into the rebel column, it staggered, paused — down to their 
level came the cold bayonets of our army, and forward ! The rebels* 
until now flushed with success, broke and fled ! A wild shout — a 
charge along the whole line, a seizure of all our lost artillery, except 
two guns, a pursuit and a victory. Hood had been a second time 
foiled. Sherman's official account is. the following: 

" Already the whole line was engaged in battle. Hardee's corps had sallied from 
Atlanta, and by a wide circuit to the east had struck General Blair's left flank, envel- 
oped it, and his right had swung around until it hit General Dodge in motion. Gene- 
ral Blair's line was substantially along the old line of the rebel trench, but it was 
fashioned to fight outward. A space of wooded ground of near half a mile, inter- 
vened between the head of General Dodge's column and General Blair's line, through 
which the enemy had poured, but the last order ever given by General McPherson 
was to hurry a brigade (Colonel Wangelin'6) of the 15th Corps across from the rail- 
road to occupy this gap. It came across on the double quick and checked the 
enemy. While Hardee attacked in flank, Stewart's corps was to attack in front 
directly out from the main works, but fortunately their attacks were not simultaneous. 
.The enemy swept across the hill which our men were then fortifying, and captured 
the pioneer company, its tools, and almost the entire working party, and bore down 
on our left until he encountered General Giles A. Smith's division of the 17th Corps, 
who was somewhat 'in air,' and forced to fight first from one side of the old rifle 
parapet and then from the other, gradually withdrawing, regiment by regiment, so 
as to form a flank to General Leggett's division which held the apex of the hill, 
which was the only part that was deemed essential to our future plans. General 
Dodge had caught and held well in check the enemy's right, and punished him 
severely, capturing many prisoners. Smith (General Giles A.) had gradually given 
up the extremity of his line and formed a new one whose right connected with Gene- 
ral Leggett, and his left refused, facing southeast. On this ground and in this order 
the men fought well and desperately for near four hours, checking and repulsing f>!l 
the enemy's attacks. The execution on the enemy's ranks at the angle was terrible, 
and great credit is due both Generals Leggett and Giles A. Smith and their men for 



108 v.\ i ftiotisii 6t n 1 1- 

their ti.ir.l .ui'i stubborn fighting. The enemj Made bo further ■nvgrwti on that 

flank, and by 1 1'. M. Iiail ahnu-t givfn i-p tin- ai tempt. I n the meantime W !,•• 

cavalfj unopposed (for, General Garrard (ran absent at Covington bj mj order) had 
reached D< catur and attempt* a to capture tlie wagon train-, but Colonel, ho* I 
ral 9p rfed them with greal skill and siicoes*, sending them" ♦*» ih<> rear of 

Generals Seboflfcld and Tbtfttiu, and d*( drawing hack from Decatur till every « 

.'.- <-\..-|'L I li!«-<- which the te.mi-ters had left, earning off the mules. On our 
extreme left the enemy had taken ° complete battery of bis guns, with its horses 
(Murray's), of the Regular Army, as it was moving along unsupported and unappre- 
hensive of danger, in a rarrow, wooded road, in that unguarded iptttfl between the 
head of OeneraJ Dodge's column and toe Bn§ of bottle op the ridge above, but most 
of tlio nen escaped to tic busies. He also goJ two other gups on tin- extreme left 
tiank, that were left on the ground as General Giles A. Smith drew on his men \z 
the manner heretofore described. About 1 P. M., there was quite a lull, during 
whfch th'e enemy feM forward on the railroad and main Decatur road, and suddenly 
assailed ■ regiment which, with a section of gUOS, had beep thrown forward as a kind 
of picket, and captured the two guns; he then advanced rapidly and broke through 
our lines at that point which had been materially weakened by the withdrawal of 
Colonel Martin's brigade, sent by General Logan's order to the extreme, left The 
Other brigade, General I.ighthurn, which hold this part of the line, fell back in some 
disorder about four hundred yards, to a position held by it the night before, leaving 
the enemy for a time in possession of two batteries, one of which, a 20-pounder Par- 
rott battery of 4 <_'uns, was most valuable to us, and separating General Wood'- and 
General Harrow's divisions of the 15th Corps, that were on the right and left of the 
railroad, l'x-ing in person close by the spot, and appreciating the vast importance 
of the comieetion at that point, I ordered certain batteries of General Sehotield to 
be moved to a position somewhat commanding, by a left Hank tire, and ordered an 
incessant (ire of shells- on the enemy within sight, and the woods be-ropd, to prevent 
his reinforcim:. I also sent orders to-General Logan, which he had already antici- 
pated, to make the 15th Corps regain its lost ground at any cost,- and instne sti d 
General Wood8, supported by General Schofield, to use his division and sweep the 
parapet down from where he held it until he saved tin- batteries and recovered the 
lost ground. The whole was executed in superb style, at times our men asd the 
enemy fighting across the narrow parapet, but at last the enemy gave way asd the 
10th Corps regained its position and all the guns except the two advanced ones 
which were out of view and had been removed by the enemy wiihin his main work. 
With this terminated the battle of the 12 :M, which cost us 3,72? killed, wounded and 
prisoners. 

"But anions the dead was Major-Oeieral MePherson, whose body was recovered and 
brought to me in the heat of the battle, and I had sent it in charge of his personal 
staff back to Marietta on its way to his Northern home. He was a noble youth, of 
striking personal appearance, of the highest professional capacity, and with a heart 
abounding in kindness that drew to him the affections of all men. His sudden death 
devolved the command of the army on the no less brave and gallant General Logan, 
who nobly sustained his reputation and that of his veteian army, and avenged the 
death of his comrade and commander. The enemy left on the field his dead and 
wounded, and about a thousand well prisoners. His dead alone are computed by General 



STONEMAN. 199 

Logan at 3,240, of which number 2,200 were from actual count, and of these he 
delivered to the enemy, under a flag of truce, sent in by him {the enemy) 800 bodies. 
I entertain no doubt that in the battle of July 22d the enemy sustained an aggregate 
loss of full 8,000 men." 

General Garrard had been sent with a division of cavalry to > break 
up the Augusta railway, and returned on the 24th, reporting success, 
having made the roads useless, and -destroyed the bridges over the 
branches of the'Ocmuloree. 

Sherman now desired to destroy the Macon road, on which Hood's 
army must depend for supplies. He thas reports the partially unsuc- 
cessful attempts of 'McCook and Stoneman. The 14th Illinois under 
Colonel Capron, and perhaps other regiments, accompanied Stone- 
mau '■ 

'■ '"Generals Schofield and Thomas had closed well up, holding the enemy behind 
his inner intrenchments. I first ordered the army of the Tennessee to prepare to 
vdcate its line and to shift by the right below Proctor's Creek, and General Schofield 
to extend up to the Augusta' road. About the same time General Rosseau had arrived 
from his expedition to Opelika, bringing me about 2,000 good cavalry, but of course 
fatigued with its long and rapid march, and ordering it to relieve General Stoneman 
at the river about Sandtown, I shifted General StonCfnan to our left flank and ordered 
all my cavalry to prepare 1 for' a blow at the Matron road, Simultaneous with the move- 
ment of the army of the Tennessee toward^ East Point. ' To accomplish this, I gave 
General Stoneman the command of his own and General Garrard's cavalry, making 
an effective force of full 5,000 men, and to General McCook I gave his own and the 
new cavalry brought by General Rosseau, which was Commanded by Colonel Harri- 
son, of the 8th Indiana -cavalry, in the aggregate about 4,000. ■ These 'two well 
appointed bodies were to move in concert, the former by the left around Atlanta to 
McDonough, and the latter by the right on Fayetteville, and on a certain night; 1 viz., 
July 28th, they were to meet oh the Macon road near Lovejoy's,' and destroy it 
in the most effectual manner. I estimated this joint cavalry could whip all 
Wheeler's cavalry, and could otherwise fully accomplish its task, and I think 
so still. I had ! the officers in command to meet me, and explained the move- 
men* perfectly, and they entertained not a doubt of perfect success. At the" very 
moment almost of starting, 1 General Stoneman addressed me a note asking permission 
after fulfilling his orders arid breaking the road, to be allowed, with his command 
proper, to proceed to Macon and Anderson, and release our prisoners of war confined 
at those points.' There was something most captivating in the idea, and the execu- 
tion was within the bounds of probability of success. 1 I consented that after the 
defeat of Wheeler's cavalry, Which 1 was embraced in h-is orders, and breaking the 
road, he might attempt it with his cavalry proper, sending that of General Garrard 
back to its proper flank of the army 7 . Both cavalry expeditions started at the time 
appointed. I have as yet no rCport from General Stoneman, who is a prisoner of 
war at Macon, but I know that he dispatched General Garrard's cavalry to Flat Rock, 
for the purpose of covering his own movement to McDonough, but for some reason. 



200 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

unknown to me he irent off towards Covington and did not again communicate with 
General Garrard at Flat Bock. General Garrard remained there until the 29th, skir- 
mishing heavilj with a part of Wheeler's cavalry, and occupying their attention, but 
hearing nothing from Genera] Stoneman, he moved back to Conyer'a, where, learn- 
ing thai General Stoneman had gone to Covington and south on the east side of the 
Ocmulgee, he returned and resumed his position on our left. It is known that Gcn- 
eral Stoneman kept to the east of the Ocmulgee to Clinton, sending detachments off 
to the cast which did a large amount of damage to the railroad, burning the bridges 
of Walnut Creek and Oconee, and destroying a large number of cars and locomo- 
tives, and with his main force appeared before Macon. He did not succeed in cross- 
ing the Ocmulgee at Macon, or in approaching Andersonville, but retired in the 
direction whence he came, followed by various detachments of mounted men under 
• pal Iverson. He seems to have become hemmed in, and gave consent to two 
thirds of his force to escape hack whilst he held the enemy in check with the remain- 
der, about 700 men, and a section of light guns. One brigade, Colonel Adams, came 
in almost intact. Another, commanded by Colonel Capron, was surprised on the way 
back and scattered ; many were captured and killed, and the balance got in mostly 
unarmed and afoot, and the General himself surrendered his small command, and is 
now a prisoner at Macon. His mistake was in not making the first concentration with 
Generals McCook and Garrard near Lovejoy's, according to his orders, which is vet 
unexplained. 

"General McCook, in the execution of his part, went down the west bank of tho 
Chattahoochee to near Rivertown, where he laid a pontoon bridge with which he was 
provided, crossed his command and moved rapidly on Palmeto Station of the West 
Point road, where he tore up a section of track, leaving a regiment to create a diver- 
sion towards Campbelltown, which regiment fulfilled its duty and returned to camp 
by way of and escorting back the pontoon bridge train. General McCook then rap- 
idly moved to Fayetteville, where he found a large number of the wagons belonging 
to the rebel army in Atlanta. These he burned to the number of 500, killing 800 
mules, and carrying along others, and taking 250 prisoners, mostly quartermasters 
and men belonging to the trains. He then pushed for the railroad, reaching it at 
Lovejoy's station at the time appointed. He burned the depot, tore up a section of 
the road, and continued to work until forced to leave off to defend himself egainst 
an accumulating force of the enemy. He could hear nothing of General Stoneman, 
and finding his progress east too strongly opposed, he moved south and west, and 
reached Newman on the West Point road, where he encountered an infantry force 
coming from Mississippi to Atlanta, which had been stopped by the break he had 
made at Palmetto. This force, with the pursuing cavalry, hemmed him in and 
forced him to fight. He was compelled to drop his prisoners and captures and cut 
his way out, losing some 500 officers and men. Among them a most valuable officer, 
Colonel Harrison, who, when fighting his men, as skirmishers on foot, was overcome 
and made prisoner and is now at Macon. He cut his way out, reached the Chatta- 
hoochee, crossed and got to Marietta without further loss. 

" General McCook is entitled to much credit for thus saving his command, which 
was endangered by the failure of General Stoneman to reach Lovejoy's. But on the 
whole the cavalry raid is not deemed a success, for the real purpose was to break 
the enemy's communications, which, though done, was on so limited a scale that I 
knew the damages would soon be repaired." 



JONESBOKO. 201 

On the 26th, Major-General Howard assumed command of the 
Army of the Tennessee, by order of the President. General Hooker 
was offended at this promotion of a junior, and asked to be, and was, 
relieved, and Slocum was appointed to command the 29th Corps, 
but as he was at Vicksburg, it was placed under General H. S. Wil- 
liams. General Palmer also resigned the command of the 14th 
Corps, and was succeeded by Jeff. C. Davis, while General Stanley 
succe*- ^' FL-war'j b command of the 4th Corps. 

Hood made another of his desperate attempts to cut our force in 
twain. In obedience to orders, the Army of the Tennessee had 
drawn out of its lines on the night of July 26th, and on the 27th 
moved behind the rest of the army to Proctor's Creek, the extreme 
right beyond it to prolong the line due south, facing eastward. Lee 
and Hardee fell on Howard, on the 29th of September, coming out 
of their works at Jonesboro. A stubborn contest of two hours fol- 
lowed, when the baffled rebels withdrew, leaving their dead and 
wounded. This victory was decisive. Sherman had seen that 
Atlanta was not to be taken by assault, hence, after arranging his 
forces carefully he made the retrograde movement heralded through 
the South as a retreat, as the abandonment of the campaign, but 
which was one of the most masterly movements of the great tacti- 
cian. Hood came out of his defenses, as Sherman anticipated. The 
assault began on Hazen's division of the 15th Corps, and was man- 
fully resisted. The 15th took possession of a hill commanding 
Jonesboro, and rested for the night, the 16th on their right, the 17th 
on their left, in front of them the dead and wounded. 

Sherman was attempting to thrust the left- center of his army 
between Stewart's Corps, holding Atlanta, and Hardee and Lee in 
the field. General Schofield had succeeded in reaching the railroad 
near Rough and Ready, and was destroying it ; General Stanley had 
reached it south of Schofield, and General Baird within four miles 
of Jonesboro, all tearing it up. 

The rebel forces were divided, and full attention turned to the 
wing at Jonesboro. Garrard and Kilpatrick hung with the cavalry 
upon the rebel flanks. Davis assaulted the enemy's lines and car- 
ried them, capturing a portion of Gowan's brigade and two batteries, 
one of which was Loomas', taken from us at Chickamauga. Stanley 



202 PATRIOTim OF Il.l.l.\"is. 

and Srlioti. M weiv ordered bO hurry forward, })\\\ could not get into 

position until night rendered further asties impossibly Tli .t night 
explosion after explosion wan beard, supposed ts he either fVom the 
dismantling of send w<>rks at Atlanta 91 his magazines. 

Morning showed that Led and Hardee had abandoned tin ii- works, 
and retreated. I'tirsuit was ordered south, and the enemy was over- 
taken at LoYrjny's Station, which was a-saulled. General Sherman 
saw thai this stand was made to secure communication with, the 
McDottOUgh and Fayelteville road, and immediately new \s came that 
Atlanta was abandoned on the night of the 1st, ami was ocqupied by 
Slocum; that Hood had blown up his ammunition trains, and that 
Stewart was retreating to MeDonough. lie could not prevent, the 
junction of the rebel forces, and he paused. Hood was in retreat. 
Atlanta was occupied by Slocum. 

The army moved back to Atlanta by easy stages, and paused for 
it sadly needed rest. 

The march had been made to Atlanta, and tin; mountainous center 
between the Ocean and Gulf slopes secured — the granary of the rebel- 
lion was ours. I>y carefuj forethought, and man clous executive 
energy our long line of communications had hem preserved, and by 
Western patriotism the army had been kept from reduction. Sher- 
man had been promoted to Major-General of the regnlar army,, and 
through the country. rang the shout, accompanied by ringing bells 
and booming artillery, Atlanta is ours, won by our Western troops ! 

Another "• Ehcnezer" was set up on the path of the Union army 
toward a restored Union and universal freedom. 

- 













1 




fj ,) 


1 








II 










CHAPTER XIII. 

HOOD TURNS NORTH. 

THE SITUATION"— <-WhAT WILL HoOD Do WHAT HE MlGHT HAVE DONE HlS CHOSEN 

Policy— Athens Surrenders— Rosseau— -Forrest in the Toils — Marietta — 
Smyrna — Allatoona — Illinois NiNeti'-third — Lieutenant-Colonel Tourtellottk 
— Corse Comes — " Effusion of Blood" — Desperate Defense — Seventh Illinois — 
J Colonel Rowell— Corse's Report— Sherman's Signals— Twelfth and" Fiftieth 
Illinois — Victory^-Our Losses-^Raum at Resaca — Various Movements— Troops 
sent Thomas — Thomas' Army. — Ransom Dies— Armies. Separated — Hood orosses 
the River— Battle of Franklin — Back to Nashville— Hood's Position — Fed- 
eral TRoors — Delay — Preparations — Moment — Order of Battle— Battle of 
Nashville — Smith and Schofield — Night— Second Day — Wood's Corps— Steed- 
man— Assault — Victory— Rebel Retreat) — The Eighty-eighth— The Seventy- 
second — Brydge's Battery— tThe Seventy-fourth. 

WHEN Sherman sat clown to give his weary men time to 
breathe, Grant was holding Lee at Petersburg, Sheridan was 
closing up the passes of the Shenandoah, while in the Carolinas 
little was being accomplished— the angry contestants were confront- 
ing each other in lowering inaction. ' Oh and' west of the Mississippi 
there were no movements of any magnitude, and all eyes were turned 
on the two great armies j of the Union. '' 

Sherman evidently meant' to advance. If he should head his 
column southeastwardly he j might reach the sea-coast and effect a 
junction with Grant. "What will Hood ; do?" If he should do 
what Johnston would iiave done, abandon the Chattahoochee and the 
country west, and place his disciplined force west of Atlanta, con- 
fronting Sherman boldly if he moved down the Atlantic slope, or 
hang With Vengeful opportunity upon his flanks if he turned toward 
the Gulf, at the same time sending his cavalry against the Federal 



L'n}- r\ i OF u iiN-ors. 

communications, then it was apparenl thai the difficulty of the Great 
March wax ye( to overcome, for between Sherman and Lee would l>e 
Hood; the rebels would have the interior lines; the concentration of 
their two armies would be possible, and with it the attacking of our 
force in detail. 

Another policy was adopted. Hood was to move northward. 
"Win n this was detected, Major-General Thomas was scut, with an 
army to Nashville, to defend the rear, and, as it subsequently proved, 
to break Hood's army into pieces. 

S ptember 23d General Forrest appeared before Athens, and on 
the 24th summoned Colonel Campbell to surrender, which he did, 
only to sec in half an hour, the approach of reinforcements, which in 
turn were driven after a sharp engagement. Forrest advanced, 
breaking the railway until the 27th, when he encountered General 
Rosseau, who, with a hastily collected garrison, successfully resisted 
him. Forrest moved round to the Nashville and Chattanooga Rail- 
road and began to break it up, but Rosseau advanced upon him 
before the main body of the rebel cavalry came up, and General 
Steedman crossed the Tennessee the same day with 5,000 men, and 
the butcher of Fort Pillow fell back through Fayetteville, and the 
railroad was repaired within twenty-four hours. Forrest sent one 
portion of his command under Buford against Athens, where it was 
repulsed and fell back across the Tennessee. Forrest threatened 
Columbia, and finding the toils enclosing him, turned and succeeded, 
October 6th, in getting south of the Tennessee at Bainbridge. But 
for unforeseen difficulties, the plans of General Thomas must inevit- 
ably have accomplished the capture or entire destruction of his 
command. On the 1st of October Hood moved northward. His cav- 
alry was sent to strike our communication at Marietta, while he 
threw his three corps of infantry over the Chattahoochee and 
marched by Dallas. Slocum was left to hold Atlanta and the railway 
bridge of the Chattahoochee, and, on the 4th, Sherman marched 
his army to Smyrna camp-ground, and the next day to a strong posi- 
tion at Kenesaw Mountain. 

The rebel cavalry and a division of infantry struck the railroad at 
Big Shanty and destroyed it and the telegraph, and advanced rapidly 
on Allat ona Pass where were a million of our rations n charge 



ALLATOONA PASS. 205 

of Lieutenant- Colonel Tourtellotte, with the 93d regiment, Illi- 
nois Volunteers. If it was surrendered, Sherman's army was in 
peril, »but the ninety-third could not be expected to hold it against a 
whole division. The telegraph was cut. From the mountain hights 
the siernal flas sent word to General Corse at Rome to take his brigade 
and speed to the help of Tourtellotte, and hold Allatoona till Sher- 
man could come up. 

Corse took picked men, among them the 1th Illinois, and hur- 
rying by rail, reached Allatoona at 1 A. M. on the 5th, and sent 
back the train for additional forces, but an accident prevented their 
arrival in time. In an hour French was before the works with his rebel 
division. Corse was within with one thousand nine hundred and 
forty-four men. The enemy opened fire and continued it until 8:30 
A. M., when French sent in a note, summoning a surrender within 
five minutes, announcing that he had surrounded our defenses and 
wished to avoid the " needless effusion of blood." There was some- 
thing of the comico-martial in Corse's prompt, curt answer : 

" Head-quarters Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, | 
Allatoona, Ga., 8:30 A. M., October 5, 1864. f 

" Major- General 8. G. French, G. S. Army, etc.: 

" Your communication demanding surrender of my command I acknowledge the 
receipt of, and respectfully reply that we are prepared for the 'needless effusion of 
blood ' whenever it is agreeable to you. 

" I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"John M. Corse." 

The storm burst, striking the 39th Iowa and 7th Illinois, commanded 
by Colonel Rowell. General Corse thus tells the story : 

"Young's brigade of Texans, 1,900 strong, had gained the west end of the ridge 
and moved with great impetuosity along its crest till they struck Rowell's command, 
when they received a severe check, but they came again and again ; Rowell, rein- 
forced by the ninety-third Illinois, and aided by the gallant Redfield, encouraged mc 
to hope we were safe here, when I observed a brigade of the enemy, under General 
Seais, moving from the north, its left extending across the railroad. I rushed the 
two companies of the 93d Illinois, which were on the brink of the cut turning 
north from the redoubt and parallel with the railroad, they having been rein- 
forced by the retreating pickets, and urged them to hold on to the spur; but it was 
of no avail. The enemy's line of battle swept us like so much chaff, and struck the 
89th Iowa in flank, threatening to engulf our little band without further ado. For- 
tunately for us, Colonel Tourtellol.te's fire caught Sears in flank and broke him so 



206 PATRIOTISM "i ILLINOIS. 

badlv as to enable me t<> get a stall' officer over the cut with orders to bring the 
1 5th Illinois over to reinforce Rowell. who fiaa lost very heavily. However,! 

the reirinii'ii! benl Pot iarSd arrive Sears' ami IfouVig both rallied ,iml tint&e 
their u-sauhs in front ami on ihe Hank with SO mark rigor ami in HUeh forte, as to 
break UowellV line, ami had not tin: :'.'.'th lov.a fought with the desperation it did, I 
never would have been able to get a man hack into the redoubt. As it waa. tlx'ir 
haml-to-hand-eonlliet and stubborn stand broke the enemj to that extent h» 
stop and reform before undertaking fflie assault on the fort. Tinder cover of tin- 
blow they gave the enemy, the 7th and 989 Illinois and what remained of the :>'.'t!i 
Iowa fell back into the fort. 

"The fighting up to this time was of a most extraordinary character. Attacked 
from the north, from the west and from the south, those! three regiments, '89th Iowa 
7th and 93d Illinois, held Young's and a portion erf Sears' and Cocker. d's brigades at 
bay for nearly two houis and a half. The gallant f obmel Kcdlield fell shot in four 
places, and tho extraordinary valor of the men and officers of this regiment, and the 
7th Illinois, saved us Allatoona. So completely disorganized was the enemy thai do 
regular assault could be made on the fort tin I had the trenches: all filled and the 
parapets lined with men. 

"The 12th and lioth Illinois arcivingTrom the east hill enabled us to occupy every 
foot of trench and keep up a line of fire, that, as long as our ammunition lasted, 
would render our little fort impregnable." 
i 

The band of Leonidas scarcely excelled that of Corse, and for 

heroic Resistance Allatoona nmy well lie mentioned with Thermopylae. 
Sherman arrived at Kenesaw at 10 A. M., and flew signals telling 
them to holdout till help came. When he saw that Corse was were, 
the excited Commander-in-chief said: "If Corse is there, he will 
holdout. I know the man." He could not forget the narrow path 
at Mission Ridge; Less than 2,000 brave men confronted over- 
whelming odds, and wrought a work not to be over-estimated in its 
results upon our cause. Corse was wounded in the face, but continued 
in command. Rowell and TourtelloUe distinguished themselves 
and both were wounded. Seven hundred men and seven officers, 
killed and wounded, weir the price of our victory. The arrival of 
the 4th and 14th Army Corps at Tine Mountain, and the movement 
of the 23d Corps on Dallas hastened French's withdrawal. Corse 
captured 800 muskets, three stands of colors, 411 prisoners, and 
buried 231 rebel dead. 

Hood hurried toward thenorthwest, aimingfor the railway at Resaca, 
but his movement was discovered by Sherman's cavalry, and the loyal 
troops were put in motion On the 10th, through Allatoona Pass on Kings- 
ton, which was reached by our three armies on the 11th after a forced 



THOMAS TO NASHVILLE. 207 

march of thirty-eight miles. Various movements resulted in the 
conviction that Hood's movement on Rome had been a mere feint, 
and that he was over the Coosa, making full speed for Resaca and 
Dal ton. Steps were .taken to check-mate him. General Raum was in 
Resaca with a small command, and coolly received Hood's summons 
to surrender, and the latter, remembering Allaloona, contented him- 
self with skirmishing,, destroying the railway, and breaking up the 
little garrisons, at Dalton and Tilton. 

Various movements took place preparatory to Sherman's facing 
toward the;Sea. He saw that Hood, wanted to movetoward Nash- 
ville, and told his subordinates 'that he would, give him rations if he 
would.. General Thomas was to take care of him.: Satisfied that 
Hood had moved westward from Gadsden across Sand Mountain, 
Sherman dis_patched^ on the 26th, the 4th Corps under Stanley, and 
on the 30th the 23d tinder Sehofield, directing them to report to 
Thomas at Nashville. The latter was fully apprized of the plan for 
the campaign and entrusted with the supreme command of all Sher- 
man's army except the four corps with which he determined to move 
through Georgia. This gave him the two divisions of General A. J. 
Smithy loth Army Corps, .which had been in Missouri, but were en 
route for Tennessee, a force; of cavalry to >be commanded by General 
"Wilson, with garrisons and supplying, as Thomas ; believed;, a force, 
which, -with such reinforcements as could be sent from the North, 
would enable him to defend the railroads and whip Hood if 
he crossed the Tennessee to the North, or pursue him if he turned 
to follow Sherman. 

Thomas had an effective force of about 22,000 infantry, 7,700 
cavalry, exclusive of garrisons, &c, confronting Hood's army, o 

On the 29th of October the gallant General Ransom died at Rome, 
a serious loss to the army and the country. 

General Thomas desired to await the arrival of Smith before 
assuming the offensive against Hood with his three divisions of Lee, 
Stewart and Cheatham, estimated at 30,000 with Forest's cavalry, 
7,000 more. Hood had repaired the Mobile and Ohio Railway, and 
occupied Corinth, bringing supplies by rail. On the 12th of Novem- 
ber, Thomas received his last telegram from Sherman and communi- 
cation between them ceased. On the 17th Cheatham crossed the 



# 



208 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Tennessee at Florence, and on the 10th Hood began his march from 
Florence towards Waynesboro. 

Genera] Schofield, commanding Union forces al Pulaski, fell back 
toward Columbia, which he reached on the 24th. As rapidly as 
possible our strength was concentrated. General Schofield was 
oompelled to fall bark upon Franklin, where with all the force he 
could muster, a stand was made. The enemy made a furious assault 
which, at one time, threatened to become successful, but Schofield 
had chosen position wisely, with the river covering both Hanks, and 
held his ground, repulsing each advance. Some of the Illinois troops 
suffered severely in this engagement. Major-General Stanley was 
badly wounded while rallying a portion of his command, which 
had been for the time being borne back by the furious rebel assault. 
The number of Federal killed was not large, but the aggregate loss 
of killed, wounded and missing was 2,326. Hood lost 1,750 killed, 
3,800 wounded, 102 prisoners, an aggregate loss of 6,252, among 
whom were six general officers killed, six wounded, and one taken 
prisoner. 

Schofield fell back seven miles, and efFected a junction with A. J. 
Smith. The enemy crowded upon him, and Smith fell back into the 
outer defenses of Nashville. General Thomas put his army in line 
of battle three miles north of Nashville, and the enemy advanced to 
a point five miles distant, and for some time the intervening space 
was the scene of constant skirmishing. Reinforcements were rapidly 
sent to General Thomas, and he determined at once to dislodge Hood 
from his position, which he was rapidly strengthening, and this 
brought on the battle of Nashville. 

As soon as Hood perceived General Thomas' indications he fell 
back out of the range of the latter's forts about Nashville to a much 
stronger position, withdrew both his wings from the river, and occu- 
pied some strong entrenchments on a range of hills, known as Granny 
White's. General Thomas leisurely concentrated troops, made his 
arrangements, gathered cavalry as rapidly as possible, and waited 
until the country became impatient, and even Grant telegraphed to 
know the cause of the delay. The events of the battle justified his 
judgment as the magnanimous Lieutenant-General says in his report. 

On the 15th our forces moved out to attack the new position. 



BATTLE OF NASHVILLE. 209 

Steadman held the extreme left, Wood's 4th Corps the left center, 
A. J. Smith's 16th Corps the right center, and Wilson's cavalry corps 
the extreme right, Schofield's 23d Corps being at first held in reserve. 
Steadman first moved his column on his left, driving in the enemy's 
skirmishers, but after a gallant and protracted effort was repulsed 
with heavy loss. This movement on the ^ft, however, was only a 
feint, or cover for the main attack from the center and right. In 
order to turn the rebel left, the 4th and 16th Corps got into motion 
early in the morning, the two corps forming into line splendidly 
under a heavy cannonade. The whole forenoon was devoted to get- 
ting positions, and at three o'clock the whole line, infantry, cavalry 
and artillery, pressed forward. Wood and Steadman met with stub- 
born resistance, but Smith and Schofield carried all before them, 
and sweeping down on the rebel left and flank, turned it. Nothing 
could exceed the enthusiasm of our troops. The infantry heroically 
charged the intrenchments, the cavalry dismounted and swept the 
enemy from the river, and even the gunboats played their part by 
fighting the enemy's battery fourteen miles down the river. Sixteen 
guns were captured on right, left and center, and several battle 
flags were taken, and about 1,000 prisoners fell into our hands. The 
enemy was driven about eight miles when night closed in. 

During the night dispositions were made on both sides for a renewal 
of the battle, and at eight o'clock the next morning the roar of our 
batteries announced that it had commenced. Our line was about the 
same as on the day previous. Wilson's cavalry covered the right, 
Schofield came next, then A. J. Smith, on Smith's left, Wood, and 
finally, Steadman on the extreme left. The whole line took the 
initiative by moving forward, Schofield and Smith against the rebel 
left flank. The fire that greeted Wood's corps, which was already 
engaged, was so terrible our men fell back, and the line was broken, 
but relief soon came from Schofield and Smith, who once more 
hurled themselves against the rebel left, and swept him from his 
works, completely turning his flank. Wood and Steadman followed 
it up with repeated assaults upon the rebel right. It held out for a 
long time, but again and again the assault was tried under tremen- 
dous storms of canister and shell, and it was finally successful. 
The enemy retreated in confusion, and victory rested upon the Union 

14 



210 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

banners. Treason received its death-blow, and dure was nothing 
more left to fight behind Sherman, who pressed triumphantly for- 
ward in his grand march to the sea, while Grant administered the 
blow of grace which ended the rebellion, and brought peace. 

The 88th Illinois bore a splendid part in the battles about Nash- 
ville. Its brigade held the advance, the 88th composing the rear of 
the column. Before reaching Spring Hill news came that Forrest 
was advancing upon the town: without halting or unslinging knap- 
sacks they were, moved out of column by the right flank, and 
deployed as skirmishers in Forrest's front. Slowly and surely the 
regiment pushed the rebels back, and came to a halt for the night, 
The next morning, the 30th, the regiment was placed in position as 
skirmishers for the rear of the army. After some severe skirmish- 
ing with Hood's cavalry Franklin was reached, which Cox's division 
of the 23d Corps had already intrenched. At half-past three o'clock 
the second and third brigades of their division being flanked retired 
upon the main line in great haste and confusion, the rebels following 
closely. Almost instantly their brigade was on the charge, the con- 
solidated 88th leading and clearing the; way. Colonel Smith, Major 
Iloldeu and Adjutant Realf, one of the bravest of the brave, were 
on horseback, not having had time to dismount. Colonel Smith, 
cap in hand, moved at the head of his regiment encouraging the gal- 
lant and shaming the cowards. It was a desperate hand-to-hand 
fight. Captain Barnard shot two rebels with his revolver. Corpo- 
ral Neuman, of Company G, nearly severed a rebel captain's head 
with an ax, and somebody actually pinned a rebel soldier to the 
breast works by a stroke of a pick ax. The rebel tide was stayed, 
but again and again, with the desperation of frenzy, Hood charged 
the unyielding Union lines. The slaughter was horrible on either 
side, but the rebels were repulsed. At midnight, when our troops 
withdrew to Nashville, the 88th was left to cover the movements of 
the brigade, and for an hour and a half opposed their skirmish line 
to the solid rebel columns. When the regiment arrived at Nashville, 
General Wood, accompanied by Generals Wagner and Thomas, 
paid it a visit. General Wood sought out Colonel. Smith, and 
addressed him thus : " Colonel, I desire to repeat to you, in the pres- 
ence of General Thomas and of your regiment, that which General 



ILLINOIS TROOPS. 211 

Stanley said to me respecting yourself and the troops you command, 
that with the exception only of Colonel Opdyke, commanding your 
brigade, with whom you share the honor, to your special gallantry 
and special exertions, more than to those of any other man, is owing 
the repulse of the rebel column, the safety of the army and the vic- 
tory of the day. In his name, and in mine, I thank you." The 
casualties of the regiment were two killed, seven wounded and six 
missing. 

The 72d Illinois reached Franklin on the morning of the 30th, and 
proceeded at once to fortify the place. In the battle the regiment 
was placed at the center of the lines surrounding the city, and upon 
a slope, at the bottom of which was a grove of young trees. The 
men were not in the best condition for an engagement, but neverthe- 
less, took position in the pits with alacrity, willingly and eagerly. 
The rebels rushed upon them, and when they came in range, the cry 
went up " Open on them, boys ; give it to them," and for two long 
hours the firing was kept up. The enemy, however, vastly outnum- 
bered them, and forcing the line on their left, opened a cross fire, 
which caused them to fall back to the second line. The first line 
was again taken by desperate fighting, and held till after dark, Avhen 
the rebels coming up in superior numbers compelled them to leave 
it. The noble valor of the men was equaled by the coolness and 
determination of the officers. The gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Stock- 
ton and Major James being wounded, the command devolved upon 
Captain James A. Sexton, whose exertions were constantly marked 
with valor and skill. 

Brydges' Battery gained enviable distinction also in the battles 
around Nashville. At Columbia and Spring Hill it was constantly 
engaged in skirmishing, and at Franklin was warmly employed. 
After the battle of Franklin it marched with the artillery brigade 
to Nashville, and was placed in several positions for the defense of 
that place, always preserving its reputation for valor, and doing 
soldiers' duty wherever situated. The battery was under command 
of Lieutenant White during the Nashville campaigns, Captain 
Brydges being Chief-of- Artillery, and commanding all the artillery 
of the corps. 

The gallant 74th regiment shared with the 88th the honor of sav- 



212 r.vrnioTisM OF Illinois. 

ing the day at Franklin. In the tremendous rebel charge the 
two regiments mel it side by side. The men of the 74th fought 
hand to hand with the enemy. The intrenching tools which they 

had been using on the breastworks were directed against the rebel 
hordes. Hundreds of them reached the works with their battle- 
tings only to be cut down by the rain of musketry and artillery that 
greeted them. The men of the 74th defied the rebels to come into 
the works. Again and again did Hood essay to break through the 
solid line opposed to him, but only to meet with disaster upon disas- 
ter. The works and the ground in front were literally covered with 
dead and wounded. They called out, "You men in the works, for 
God's sake, bring us some water !" It w r as one of the most gallant 
and desperate defenses of the Avar. The losses of the 74th were : 
killed, none ; wounded, Cyrus II. Scott, Co. A ; Sergeant John G. 
Waldie, Co. G; Charles Ericcson, Co. F; Allen M. Furguson, Co. 
D ; William E. Lowe, Co. B. The same meed of praise which was 
awarded the 88th was given to the 74th. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Thirteenth Veterans — Consolidated with the Fifty-sixth — The Thirty- 
third — The Students and Teachers as Soldiers- — The Thirty-fourth — The 
Thirty-ninth (Yates Phalanx) — The Charge on Fort Gregg — The Forty-first 
— Its Marches and Battles — The Forty-fourth — Re-enlistment When the Ink 
Froze Upon the Muster Rolls — The Forty-fifth (Lead Mine Regiment) — The 
Forty-sixth — The Battle of the Hatchie — The Forty-seventh — The Battle of 
Iuka — The Forty-eighth — Conclusion of its Record — The Forty-ninth — Re- 
enlistment as Veterans — The Fiftieth — The Fifty-first. 

THIRTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

IN the first volume of this work [p. 296 ], we have given the orig- 
inal roster of the 13th regiment, and its history to the time of 
its re-enlistment in the veteran service. The veterans and recruits 
having accompanied the regiment as far as Springfield, Illinois, an 
order from Lieutenant-Colonel Oakes was received, detailing 1st Lieu- 
tenant Mark M. Evans, Company A, to proceed with the detachment 
to Huntsville, Alabama, and there to report to Brigadier- General 
John E. Smith, commanding 3d Division, 15th Army Corps, for 
orders. The whole number of veterans was 44, seven of whom, at 
this time, were prisoners of war. The number of recruits was 27 ; 
making the whole number for duty 64. 

It is due to the men of the 13th to say that many of the members 
of the old organization enlisted in other regiments, having intimate 
friends in them; hence the list of veterans does not give a correct 
idea of the number who re-enlisted. On the 5th or 6th of June, 
1864, Lieutenant Evans proceeded with his detachment to Huntsville, 
and on the 11th received an order assigning his detachment to duty 



214: PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

irith the 56th Illinois infantry. There being bu1 nine compani 
this regiment, the detachmenl was assigned to duty as a company 

organization, lni( retained its original designation. On the 1st of 
July the regiment was ordered to Adairsville, Georgia, to guard 
that portion of the railroad from rebel raiding parties, who continu- 
ally attempted to destroy this line of communication with the front. 
The force being small, and the rebels exceedingly zealous in their 
attempts to accomplish their end, the duties of the regiment were 
of the most arduous kind. While at Adairsville the detachment was 
consolidated into one company, and transferred to the 56th Illinois, 
as Company I, by special field order No. 63. An election of offi- 
cers was then held, resulting in the unanimous choice of Lieutenant 
Mark M. Evans as Captain, Lyman M. Cole as 1st Lieutenant, and 
Joseph L. Tennant as 2d Lieutenant. 

The history of the veterans of the 13th now becomes merged with 
that of the 56th. 

THIRTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY 

The 33d regiment, known as the "Normal Regiment," being com- 
posed largely of teachers and students — its first Colonel being the 
Principal of the State Normal School — was organized at Camp But- 
ler, and was mustered into the service on the 15th of August, 1861, 
1,006 strong. The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Charles E. Hovey; Lieutenant-Colonel, William R. Lockwood ; Major, 
Edward R. Roe; Adjutant, Frederick M. Crandall ; Quartermaster, Simeon Wright; 
Surgeon, George P. Rex ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Nathan W. Abbott ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Henry T. Antes; Chaplain, Herman A. Eddy. 

Co. A — Captain, Leander H. Potter; 1st Lieutenant, J. Howard Burnham ; 2d 
Lieutenant, G. Hyde Norton. 

Co. B — Captain, Moses J. Morgan ; 1st Lieutenant, C. Judson Gill ; 2d Lieutenant, 
E. Aaron Gove. 

Co. C — Captain, Daniel B. Robinson; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Kellogg; .d 
Lieutenant, George H. Fifer. 

Co. D — Captain, nenry H. Pope ; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Mason; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Franklin J. Duncklee. 

Co. E — Captain, Isaac H. Elliott ; 1st Lieutenant, Clarendon A. Stone ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Julian E. Bryant. 

Co. F — Captain, Dermont C. Roberts ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry D. Winsh'p ; 2d 
Lieutenant, David A. -Chumley. 



THE TIIIRTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 215 

Co. G — Captain, Ira Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, George P. Ela ; 2d Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Elbert. 

Co. H — Captain, James A. McKenzie ; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Smith ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert P. Williams. 

Co. I — Captain, William W. H. Lawton ; 1st Lieutenant, William T.Lyon; 2d 
Lieutenant, Edward A. F. Allen. 

Co. K — Captain, Charles E. Lippincott; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Nixon; 2d 
Lieutenant, William H. Weaver. 

The 33d left camp for Ironton, Missouri, September 20, 1861, 
receiving arms from the St. Louis arsenal. It remained at Ironton 
during the winter, going frequently on scouting expeditions. On one 
of these expeditions was fought the battle of Fredericktown. In 
March, 1862, it started for the South, under General Steele. It 
marched overland from Pilot Knob to Batesville, where it joined 
General Curtis' army, and then marched back to Jacksonport, and 
thence to Helena, Arkansas. During this march it fought in the 
"Battle of the Cache" and in many skirmishes, and suffered severely 
from fatigue and exposure. On arriving at Helena, it camped about 
twenty miles below the town, where it remained during the months 
of July and August, and then moved up to Sulphur Springs, and 
thence to Pilot Knob, when its effective strength had dwindled to 
200 men. Four weeks later it was sent to Van Buren, Missouri. 
From this time till March 1, 1863, it was engaged in campaigning 
through Southeast Missouri. In the latter month it was sent to Milli- 
ken's Bend, and participated in the engagements at Port Gibson, 
Champion Hills, Siege of Vicksburg and Siege of Jackson. In 
August it was sent to New Orleans, and took pait in the Bayou 
Teche campaign, fighting no battles, and returning to New Orleans 
in November. It then went to Arkansas Pass, St. Joseph, Matagorda 
Island and Saluria, participating in the capture of Fort Esperanza. 
It then went to Indianola and Port Lavaca, Texas. On the 1st of 
January, 1864, it re-enlisted as a veteran regiment, and on March 
14th received veteran furloughs at Bloomingcon, Illinois. On the 
18th of April it left Springfield for St. Louis and New Orleans. 
From May 1st to July 28th it was stationed at Brashear City. Soon 
after it was distributed by companies along the railroad from New 
Orleans to Brashear, where it remained till the spring of 1865. The 
non-veterans of the regiment were sent to New York in charge of a 



21G PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

bod "8, September 17, 1864, and were mustered out 

at Camp Butler, about the nth of October. When the Mobile 
expedition was organized, in the spring of 1SC5, the 3:M was added 
to the IGLh Army Corps, and began to make preparations for leav- 
ing. On the 2d of March, as it was proceeding by railroad to New 
Orleans, and had nearly reached Butle Station, where the last com- 
pany, II, was awaiting it, the train was thrown from the track by 
running over a horse, and was completely wrecked. Nine soldiers 
were killed and about seventy wounded, two of whom afterward died 
from the injuries received. On the 18th of March, the regiment 
embarked for Fish River, Alabama, and with General Canby's army 
marched up the east side of .Mobile Bay. It participated actively in 
tiie siege of Spanish Fort from March 27th to April 8th, when the 
fort was surrendered to the Federal forces. On the 13th it marched to 
Montgomery, and while there received the news of the surrender of 
the rebel armies in the East. May 10th it left for Selma, and thence 
went to Meridian, Mississippi, remaining there till the middle of 
August. Here it was strengthened to more than the legal maximum, 
by the transfer of a large number of men from the 72d, 117th, 122d 
and 1 24th Illinois regiments, then serving in Alabama and about to 
be mustered out. On the 17th of August it reached Vicksburg, 
where it remained till its muster out on the 24th of November, 1865. 
On the 29th it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged. 

THIRTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

On page 3S6 of our first volume we have given the original roster 
of the 34th regiment, and its history up to the 10th of October, 1863, 
with personal sketches of some of its officers. From that date until 
November 8th it was at Battle Creek and Anderson Cross Roads, a 
portion of the time engaged in repairing roads, when it went to Har- 
rison Landing, on the Tennessee River. November 15th, it arrived 
at Chattanooga, and on the 25th went out on the battle-field. At 
one o'clock the next morning it marched via Chickamauga Station 
to Graysville, where the enemy gave battle. The regiment was under 
fire for half an hour, but met with no loss. The next day it returned 
to Chattanooga, and was sent to Loudon, East Tennessee, where it 



THE THIRTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. 217 

took possession of a grist mill, and for several days was detailed in 
grinding corn for the division. On the 19th of December it reached 
Chattanooga, and on the 22d re-enlisted as veterans. On the 8th of 
January, 180-1, it started for Springfield on veteran furlough, and 
from there proceeded to Dixon, Lee county, for recruiting and re-or- 
ganization. On the 29th of February it left Dixon for Chattanooga, 
arriving there on the 7th of March. It immediately proceeded to 
Rossville, Georgia. IL-re it remained until the movement upon 
Atlanta commenced, in which it took an active part until the surren- 
der of the place. It accompanied General Sherman in his march to 
the sea, and through the Carolina campaign, and was at the grand 
review at Washington. It then went to Louisville, Kentucky, where 
it was mustered out on the 12th of July, 1865. On the 16th it 
arrived at Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged. 

THIRTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In Vol. I. of this work [p. 579], we have given the original 
roster of the "Yates Phalanx," and its history to the close of 1864. 
During the winter of '64-65 it had frequent skirmishes with the 
enemy, but no regular engagements. During the month of March, 
1865, it received ahout 100 recruits, and on the 27th of the same month 
it took part in the movements which finally resulted in the downfall 
of Petersburg and Richmond. It crossed to the left of the Army 
of the Potomac, and on the 2d of April took part in the charge on 
Fort Gregg, the key to the works about Petersburg and Richmond. 
The 39th displayed extraordinary gallantry in this charge, and was 
the first to plant its colors upon the works. The charge was made 
across an open field, with a heavy fire from the front and a raking 
cross fire from each side. Just before reaching the fort, the regiment 
was compelled to cross a ditch twelve feet wide and six feet deep, 
with very steep sides. It was very easy to get inside this ditch, but 
to get out the officers and men were obliged to dig footholds in the 
banks with their bayonets and swords, when they ascended with a 
cheer, and triumphantly placed their flag upon the fort. As a testi- 
monial, a magnificent brazen eagle, cast for the purpose, was presented 
to the regiment by Major-General Gibbons, and placed upon the regi- 



218 PATRIOTISM Or ii.i.i.-.uis. 

mental color staff; the color sergeant, Henry M. Day, who was 
severely wounded while planting the colors upon the fort, was pre- 
sented with a medal of honor by the War Department, and Colonel 
T. O. Osborn was brevetted Brigadier-General The 30th was after- 
ward in the advance of the Army of the James in the pursuit of Lee, 
and had the satisfaction of witnessing the surrender of Lee and his 
Army of Northern Virginia. It was retained for a few days as ;v 
guard over the camps and baggage of the conquered army, and then 
pent to Richmond, where it remained till August. It was then sent 
to Norfolk, where it remained till December 5, 1865, when it was 
ordered to be mustered out, which was accomplished on the follow- 
ing day, and on the 7th it started for Springfield, Ulini is, for final 
muster and discharge, arriving at Camp Butler on the 12th. On the 
morning previous to receiving final payment, the regiment assembled 
at the chapel, and delivered its battle-torn flags to the State, and 
they were received in appropriate terms by Brigadier-General I. N. 
Ilaynie, Adjutant-General of the State. Here the career of the old 
39th ended. 

FORTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 41st regiment was organized at Camp Pugh, Decatur, and 
mustered into the service on the 5th of August, 1861. The follow- 
ing is the original roster: 

Colonel, Isaac G. Pugh ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Ansel Tupper; Major, John War- 
ner; Adjutant, Bartley G. Pugh; Quartermaster, Henry C. Bradsby; Surgeon, 
William M. Gray; 1st Assistant Surgeon, George W. Short; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
John W. Coleman; Chaplain, Henry C. McCook. 

Co. A — Captain, John H. Nale ; 1st Lieutenant, Michael F. Kanan ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George R. Steele. 

Co. B — Captain, Alsey B. Lee ; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, 
Jackson II. Aldrich. 

Co. C — Captain, John Conklin ; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Campbell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Michael Danison. 

Co. D Captain, Edmund W. True ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert n. McFadden ; 2d 

Lieutenant, Francis A. Norvell. 

Co. E— Captain, John L. Armstrong; 1st Lieutenant, Willis S. Oglesby ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant; Robert Warwick. 

Co. F Captain, David P. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. McCook; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John 0. Lewis. 

1 Co. G— Captain, Francis M. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel K. Hall; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John C. Cox. 



THE FORTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 219 

Co. H — Captain, Hiram Blackstone ; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Steene ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William P. Turney. 

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin B. Bacon ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin R. Parish ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Francis M. Green. 

Co. K — Captain, Alexander Kelly ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Woodward ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Davis. 

The 41st left Decatur on the 8th of August, 1861, for St. Louis, 
and proceeded on the 29th to Bird's Point, Missouri. It was at the 
taking of Fort Henry, and bore an active part in the three days' 
fight at Fort Donelson. It soon after went to Pittsburg Landing, 
and on the 6th of April participated in the fight at Shiloh, being 
beld as a reserve on the 7th. It then took part in the siege and cap- 
ture of Corinth, after which it marched to Memphis, where it arrived 
on the 21st of July. It left Memphis on the 5th of September, 
arriving at Bolivar on the 14th. On the 19th it went on a reconnois- 
sanoe to Grand Junction, returning on the 4th of October, when it 
marched to the Hatchie River, where, on the 5th, it acted as a reserve 
and train guard, and opened communication between General Rose- 
crans and General Hurlbut. On the following day it returned to 
Bolivar, and from thence, on the 3d of November, it marched to 
Lagrange, arriving there on the 6th. Here it was sent out on recon- 
noissances to several points, and on the 28th started upon the " Yocna 
expedition," returning to the Tallahatchie River. On the 2d of 
January, 1863, it was sent to escort a supply train to Tullahoma, 
returning in five days. On the 10th it was stationed at Moscow, 
Tennessee, where it remained till the 5th of March, when it went to 
Memphis and camped till April 12th. It was then sent out on an 
expedition toward the Noncomo. At Coldwater, on the 13th, it met 
the enemy under Chalmers, and was under fire for seven hours. It 
returned to Memphis on the 15th, and on the 12th of May set out for 
Vicksburg, arriving at Young's Point, Louisiana, on the 19th, and 
joined the besieging force on the 24th. It remained there till Vicks- 
burg surrendered, and on the succeeding day (July 5th) took up 
its line of march for Jackson, and participated in the battle of Jack- 
son, July 12th, losing 162 in killed and wounded. It then marched 
to Vicksburg, and thence proceeded to Natchez. On the 28th of 
November it returned to Vicksburg, and immediately marched to 
the Big Black River, and went into winter quarters. In the spring 



220 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

of 1864, it joined Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, participating 
in its various engagements until the fall of that place. In Novem- 
ber it took up its line of march for the sea, and on arriving at Savan- 
nah was consolidated with the 58d Illinois, January 5, 1865, with 
whose subsequent history it was identified. 

FORTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 44th regiment was organized at Camp Ellsworth, Chicago, 
and mustered into the service September 13, 1861. The following 
is the original roster: 

Colonel, Charles Knobelsdorf; Lieutenant-Colonel, William J. Stephenson; Major, 
Thomas J. Hobart ; Adjutant, Charles T. Dake ; Quartermaster, William II, Gale ; 
Surgeon, Ferdinand Weitzc ; 2d Assistant-Surgeon, William D. Carter ; Chaplain, 
George Erwitu 

Co. A — Captain, George Zelle ; 1st Lieutenant, Nicholas Davis; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles J. Hulbig. 

C _ B — Captain, Wallace W. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Lemon G. Hine ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel N. Andrews. 

Co. C — Captain, John Russell ; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Stoner; 2d Lieutenant, 
Eli R. Manley. 

Co. D — Captain, Edwin L. Hays; 1st Lieutenant, David 0. Livermore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Jacob C. Hoffmire. 

Co. E — Captain, Lothar Lippert; 1st Lieutenant, John A Commercll ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William H. Gale. 

Co. F — Captain. Andrew J. Hosmer; 1st Lieutenant, William Hicks; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James M. Stephenson. 

Co. G — Captain, Luther M. Sabine; 1st Lieutenant, Randolph D. Hobart; 2d 
Lieutenant, Robert Penman. 

Co. H — Captain, James H. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Charles T. Dake; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James S. Ransom. 

Co. I — Captain, Jasper Partridge; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas B. Lacy; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jesse C. Bliss. 

Co. K — Captain, Hermann Stach; 1st Lieutenant, Martin Reininger; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William Gebhardt. 

September 14th, the regiment left Chicago for St. Louis, and after 
receiving arms was sent to Jefferson City, arriving there on the 
29th. It next went to Sedalia, where it was assigned to Sigel's com- 
mand. October 13th, it left for Springfield, Missouri, arriving on 
the 27th, a few hours after Zagonyi's famous charge upon the rebels. 
November 8th it was sent to Wilson's Creek, but soon returned to 



THE FORTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. 221 

Spi-ingfield, and on the 13th followed the main army to Rolla, remain- 
ing there during the winter, suffering severely from sickness. Feb- 
ruary 2, 1862, it again started for Springfield, to attack Price, who 
ingloriously fled on the approach of our forces. From the 13th to 
the 20th the enemy were actively pursued, the 44th being continually 
in the advance. On the 6th of March it moved to Sugar Creek Val- 
ley, and on the same day was began the battle of Pea Ridge [Vol. 
I., p. 222], which was concluded on the 7th, to the terrible discom- 
fiture of the rebels, whose chieftains were slain. The 44th assisted 
in the pursuit of the rebels for three days, when it was abandoned. 
The regiment remained in this vicinity till April 5th, when it marched 
to Forsyth, Missouri, and Batesville, Arkansas, where the army was 
reorganized. On the 8th of May the 44th left Batesville in the direc- 
tion of Little Rock, but the order was soon countermanded, and the 
regiment sent to Cape Girardeau, and thence to Pittsburg Landing, 
joining the main army two days previous to the evacuation of 
Corinth. It followed in pursuit of the rebels, but soon returned to 
Rienzi, Mississippi, remaining there till August 26th. It was then 
sent to Cincinnati and Covington, where it remained till September 
17th, when it joined General Buell's army at Louisville, and started 
in pursuit of Bragg. It was at the battle of Perry ville, October 
8th, and followed in the subsequent pursuit of the enemy as far as 
Crab Orchard. On the 20th it marched to Bowling Green, where 
General Rosecrans assumed command. November 4th it left for 
Nashville, and participated in the Murfreesboro campaign. At Stone 
River it took a prominent part, losing more than half its number in 
killed and wounded. It remained with the army at Murfreesboro 
till June 28, 1863, and again went out to meet the enemy, engaging 
them at Hoover's Gap, Shelbyville and Tullahoma, arriving at Cowan 
Station July 2d. After a few days' rest, it moved to Stevenson, Ala- 
bama, driving the rear of the rebel army across the Tennessee at 
Bridgeport, Alabama, returning to Stevenson. On the 21st of August 
began the movement against Chattanooga. The 44th — which was 
in the 20th Corps — crossed Sand Mountains, and was moving 
toward Rome when the rebels attacked our forces at Chickamauga. 
It was immediately ordered back, and after three days' forced march- 
ing arrived on the field in time to take part in the battles of the 19th 



222 P \ i EtIOTIBM 01 ILLINOIS. 

and 20th of September. Palling back to Chattanooga, it remained 
there, living on quarter rations, till the latter part of November. 
On the -'"'tli of this month it was foremost in the bloody charge upon 
Mission Ridge, General Sheridan giving it the credit of being one 
of the first to place a flag on the rebel works. It then followed the 
retreating rebels, capturing many* prisoners and several pieces of 
artillery. On the 27th it was ordered back to Chattanooga to pre- 
pare for a forced march to Knoxville to relieve Burnside. It arrived 
there three days after the siege had been raised. It then marched 
to Seaverville, back again to Knoxville, and thence to Strawberry 
Plains, where it was reported the enemy had made a stand. It then 
■went into camp at Blaine's Cross Roads, where for a time it was on 
the point of starvation, having several times, for days to subsist on 
corn in the ear, and but a limited supply of that. If anything were 
necessary to prove tbe devotion and patriotism of the gallant 44th, 
it may be said that while here, suffering intensely from hunger and 
cold, over three fourths of the men voluntarily re-enlisted as veterans, 
though the ink would freeze to the pen as they signed the roll. About 
the 12th of January, 1864, the regiment marched to Dandridge, 
Tennessee, and on the 16th and 17th was attacked by a superior 
force of the rebels, and forced back to Knoxville. From there it 
marched to Kingston, and on the 30th to Chattanooga, where, Feb- 
ruary 3d, it received full rations from the Government for the first 
time in four months. On the 1st of March it reached Chicago, where 
it received veteran furlough. On the 14th of April it reached Nash- 
ville on its return to the field, and immediately moved for the front. 
May 1st it left Chattanooga, and jointd the main army in the move- 
ment upon Atlanta, participating in the battles of Buzzard's Roost, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochee River, Peach Tree 
Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro. From Atlanta, September 28th, it 
marched to Chattanooga, and on the 18th of October was sent out 
on a reconnoitering expedition to Alpine Valley. It then joined in 
the pursuit of Hood through Tennessee, participating in the battle 
of Franklin, where it showed great gallantry. At the battle of 
Nashville it bore a prominent part, and followed in pursuit of the 
broken columns of the rebels. It remained at Bull's Gap and Blue 



THE FORTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 223 

Spring till April 19, 1865, when it was ordered to Nashville, leaving 
there on the 19th of June for New Orleans, where it remained till 
July 16th, when it was ordered to Texas. It remained in this State 
till September 25, 1865, when it was mustered out at Camp Union, 
and ordered home. It arrived at Springfield on the 15th of October, 
and was paid off and discharged. 

FORTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 45th infantry — the well-known "Lead Mine Regiment" — was 
organized in Galena and Chicago, six companies being recruited 
from the lead mines in the vicinity of the former city. It was mus- 
tered into the service December 26, 1861, with the following list of 
officers : 

Colonel, John Eugene Smith ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Jasper A. Maltby ; Major, 
Melancthon Smith ; Adjutant, William T. Frohock ; Quartermaster, John Pvatt ; 
Surgeon, Edward D. Kittoe ; 1st Assistant-Surgeon, Francis Weaver; 2d Assistant- 
Surgeon, William Lyman ; Chaplain, George W. Woodward. 

Co. A — Captain Abraham Polsgrove ; 1st Lieutenant, William T. Frohock; 2d 
Lieutenant, George Moore. 

Co. B — Captain, Luther H. Cowen ; 1st Lieutenant, Nesbit Banger ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Samuel H. Townseud. 

Co. C — Captain, Thomas Burns; 1st Lieutenant, James Rouse; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Byrne. 

Co. D — Captain, Thomas D. Connor; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Rowley; 2d 
Lieutenant, John 0. Duer. 

Co. E — Captain, Leander B. Fisk ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles D. Overstreet ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John M. Adair. 

Co. F — Captain, Melancthon Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Robert P. Seely ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Dennis W. Griffin. 

Co. G — Captain, Robert P. Seeley ; 1st Lieutenant, Dennis W. Griffin ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Syrice M. Budlong. 

Co. H — Captain, John B. Hawley ; 1st Lieutenant, William B. Seymour ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas C. Morris. 

Co. I — Captain, Oliver A. Bridgford; 1st Lieutenant, James Balfour ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Henry H. Boyce. 

Co. K — Captain, Benjamin F. Holcomb ; 1st Lieutenant, John Gray ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Luther B. Hunt. 

The 45th left Chicago for Cairo on the 12th of January, 1862, and 
on arriving at the latter point was immediately dispatched to aid 
Grant in his capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, at which engage- 



221: PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

ments, although entirely new to the service, " the boys' 1 highly dis- 
tinguished themselves by their gallantry. From here the regiment 
was ordered to Pittsburg Landing, and was soon aft< rward employed 
in the memorable battle of Shiloh, and the investmenl an I 
Corinth. After the fall of Corinth ii was sent on Grant's famous 
Mississippi campaign. In this it had several skirmishes and fights. 
On the 25th of April, 1863, it was ordered back from Milliken's 
P. ill, Louisiana, where it had been for sonic time encamped, to join 
in the siege of Vicksburg. On the 1st of May it was in the engage- 
ment at Thompson's Hill, in which, as at Bayou Pierre on the 3d, 
Raymond on the 12th, Jackson on the 1 Ith and Champion Hill on 
the 15th, it proudly sustained the honor of the Union arms. On 
the 1 9th of May it went into the works at Vicksburg, and bore its 
full share of the toils of that arduous siege until the fall of that rebel 
stronghold. It was this regiment which mined and blew up Fort 
Hill,' aided in the desperate assault upon it on the 25th of June, 
and not only took, but held it, against every effort of the enemy, who 
raw inevitable ruin in its loss; and the battle flag of the 45th was 
the first to float over the Court House of Vicksburg. [Vol. I., p. 
471.] It remained here doing provost duty until October 14th, 
when it was ordered out on the Canton raid, which was uneventful 
beyond a sharp skirmish at Boguechitto Creek, on the 17th. It 
returned from it to Vicksburg, went to Black River, Mississippi, on 
November 7th, and from there was sent to join Sherman on the cele- 
brated Meridian raid. Beyond skirmishing and destroying rebel 
property, railroads, bridges, etc., the only event of this raid was a 
fight at Chunky Station, on the 14th, where the 45th whipped and 
drove off five times its number of rebels. Before going on this raid 
the regiment had re-enlisted for three years, at Black River, January 
5, 1864, and after its completion it was sent home on veteran fur- 
lough. On May 1, 18G4, it returned to Cairo, its furlough having 
expired, and on the 14th arrived at Clifton, Tennessee, whence it 
performed a march of 310 miles to Big Shanty, Georgia, where it 
joined Sherman on June 9th. Its share in the great march " down 
to the sea" was about the same as that of all the other regiments 
participating in that grand pedestrian feat, with the exception that 
it was sent by water from Savannah to Beaufort, and had a severe 



THE FORTY- SIXTH INFANTRY. 225 

but victorious engagement with the enemy at Pocotaligo on January 
14, 1865. It then rejoined the army of Sherman, and went with it 
to Washington, thence to Louisville, where it was mustered out, 
and then returned home, reaching Chicago on the 15th of July, ] 865. 
This regiment won a gallant reputation, but at the expense of great 
losses. When first mustered into the service it numbered, rank and 
file, 960, and on its return on veteran furlough, disease and battle 
had reduced it down to 231. Again it was filled up to 705, and 
brought back but 393 men and 17 officers. The first Colonel of the 
45th, John E. Smith, was promoted to the rank of Major-General. 
The first Lieutenant-Colonel, J. A. Maltby, became a Brigadier-Gene- 
ral. The first Major, J. A. Rawlins, became a Major-General, and 
Chief of General Grant's staff. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith (succeed- 
ing Maltby ) was killed at Fort Hill, on June 25, 1863, and in the 
same engagement Major L. H. Cowan (succeeding Rawlins) was 
also killed. Captain R. P. Seeley, of Company G, then became 
Lieutenant- Colonel in command, and Captain J. O. Duer, Major, 
and on the expiration of Lieutenant-Colonel Seeley's term of ser- 
vice, Duer was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, which rank he held 
at the muster-out of the regiment. 

FORTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 46th regiment was raised as follows: Companies A, B, C, G 
and K, in Stephenson County ; Company F, Richland County ; Com- 
panies D, E, H and I, in Lee, Ogle and Whiteside counties. It was 
organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the service on the 28th 
of December, 1861. The following is the original roster: 

Colonel, John A. Davi.g ; Lieutenant-Colonel, William 0. Jones ; Major, Frederick 
A. Starring; Adjutant, Benjamin Dornblaser ; Quartermaster, Frank Fuller; Sur- 
geon, Elias C. DuPuy ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles Carle; Chaplain, D. Teed. 

Co. A — Captain, John Musser ; 1st Lieutenant, William 0. Saxton ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Isaac A. Arnold. 

Co. B — Captain, Rollin V. Ankeny; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Roush ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas J. Hathaway. 

Co. C — Captain, Frederick Khrumme ; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Arno ; 2d Lieuten- 
cnt, Addo Borchers. 

Co. D — Captain, William F. Wilder; l3t Lieutenant, Joel L. Coe; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry H. Woodbury. 

15 



226 PATRIOTISM OF ILI.INMS. 

Co. K — Captain, Jolm M. Marble; lat Lieutenant, William Lane; 2d Lieutenant, 
William Plants. 

Co. K — Captain, Thomas Wakefield; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Barr; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, W infield S. Ingraham. 

Co. C — Captain, William Young; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Ilood ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Ifoaea 11. Thompson. 

Co. II — Captain, John Stevens; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Hughes; 2d Lieutenant, 
Frederick W. Pike. 

Co. I — Captain, Clunks P. Stinson ; 1st Lieutenant, James Ballard ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William II. Howell. 

Co. K — Captain, John McCracken ; 1st Lieutenant, William Stewart; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Beverley W. Whitney. 

On the 11th of February, 18G2, the regiment left Springfield for 
Cairo, and at once reported to General Grant, before Fort Donelson, 
on the 14th. On the loth it was ordered to the support of a battery 
on our right, where it was partially exposed to a brisk fire from the 
enemy, and had three men wounded, one mortally. After the surren- 
der it was put on guard duty, and on the 17th ordered to Fort Henry. 
March 6th it left for Savannah, Tennessee, and arrived at Pittsburg 
Landing on the 18th. It bore a heroic part in the battle of Shiloh, 
where Colonel Davis had two horses shot under him, and was him- 
self very badly wounded. It participated in the movement upon 
Corinth until the evacuation of the place. On the 10th of June it 
marched to the Ilatchie River, and rebuilt a bridge which had been 
destroyed by the rebels. It then went to Grand Junction, Lagrange, 
etc., making a reconnoissance in force. On the 17th of July it started 
for Memphis, arriving on the 21st, and going into camp. August 
27th it went out on the Pigeon Roost road, returning on the 31st. 
September 6th it started for Bolivar, remaining till October 4th, 
when the troops were ordered to make a diversion in the direction 
of Corinth. On the 5th, at Metamora, the battle of the Ilatchie was 
fought, the 46th distinguishing itself for gallantry, and fully sustain- 
ing the glorious reputation won at Shiloh. Colonel Davis, who had 
returned to his regiment while still suffering from his wounds, fell at 
the head of his regiment, and died on the 10th, at the regimental 
camp at Bolivar. November 3d the regiment returned to its old 
camp at Lagrange, remaining there till the 28th, when it marched to 
Holly Springs, Mississippi, and took part in the Vicksburg campaign 
of 1862, during a part of which it was compelled to subsist entirely 



RE-ENLISTMENT AS VETERANS. 227 

upon what could be obtained from the surrounding country, all sup- 
plies having been cut off. On the 12th of March, 1863, the 46th 
arrived at Memphis. On the 21st of April it marched to Hernando, 
Mississippi, to reinforce Colonel Bryant, who was in command of a 
brigade near Coldwater, and returned to Memphis on the 24th. 
May 13th the regiment left for Vicksburg, landing at Young's Point 
ou the 15th. A portion of the regiment was captured on the night 
of the 25th of May, while on picket duty. The balance of it partici- 
pated in the siege until the surrender. It next went to Jackson, 
Mississippi, and took part in the siege and capture of that place, 
returning to Vicksburg on the 23d of July. On the 11th of August 
it left for Natchez, where it remained till November 10th, and then 
returned to Vicksburg. January 4, 1864, the regiment was mustered 
into the veteran service, and on the 12th left for home on veteran 
furlough, arriving at Freeport, Illinois, on the 23d. From that date 
until the 1st of March the time was occupied in recruiting up to 
the maximum standard. On the 2d of the latter month, the regi- 
ment left Freeport, 987 strong, and proceeded to Vicksburg. On 
the 4th of May it embarked on an expedition under General McAr- 
thur to Benton and Yazoo City, returning to Vicksburg on the 21st. 
On the 1st of July it started upon the Jackson expedition under 
Major-General Slocum. While on this expedition, the regiment met 
the enemy on the 5th and 6th, near Clinton and Jackson, where it 
well maintained its reputation. Its loss was 3 killed, 36 wounded, 
1 captured, 3 missing ; total, 45. On the 29th of July it embarked 
for Morganzia, Louisiana. While lying here, on the night of August 
8th, Lieutenant-Colonel Jones and 200 men of the regiment, while 
out on a scout, captured twelve rebels, who had fallen asleep, not 
dreaming of the near proximity of the boys in blue. On the 24th 
of August the 46th arrived at Port Hudson, and after a brief expe- 
dition to Clinton, returned to Morganzia. September 4th it proceeded 
to the mouth of the White River, where it went into camp, and 
where, on the 13th, the non-veterans of Companies A, B and C left 
it for home. On the 9lhof October it arrived atDuvalFs Bluff, Ar- 
kansas, and thence, November 27th, proceeded to Memphis. Decem- 
ber 21st it joined in an expedition in the direction of Lagrange, 
returning on the 31st. On the 2d of January, 1865, it embarked for 



228 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Louisiana, and on the 8th and 9th of February, wont into oamp at 
Dauphin [sland, Alabama. During the investment of Spanish Fort, 
the 40th guarded the rear. During the siege of Fori Blakely, it 
alternated with other regiments in doing duty in the rear and in the 
trenches, taking part in the final capture. On the 12th of April 
Mobile was surrendered to our forces, wh<> immediately occupied it. 
On the 27th of May the 46th embarked lor New Orleans, which place 
it soon after left for Shrcveport. It was stationed here and at Grand 
Ecore till December 27th, when it received orders for muster out 
and discharge, which were given at Baton Rouge on the 20th of 
January, I860, when it embarked for Camp Butler, Illinois. Here 
it received final discharge on the 1st of February, having been in 
the service nearly four years and a half. 

FORTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 47th regiment was organized at Peoria, and was mustered 
into the service on the 16th of August, 1861. The following is the 
original roster : 

Colonel, John Bryner ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel L. Miles; Major, William A. 
Thrush; Adjutant, Rush \V. Chambers; Quartermaster, William Stewart; Surgeon, 
George L. Lucas; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Timothy Babb ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Luther M. Andrews; Chaplain, Jeremiah Hazen. 

Co. A — Captain, John N. Cromwell; 1st Lieutenant, Converse Southard; 2d 
Lieutenant, Jolin W. Dodds. 

Co. B — Captain, Joseph B. Miles; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Biser; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George Kinnear. 

Co. C — Captain, John D. McLure ; 1st Lieutenant, Silas Chappie ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George Broad. 

Co. D — Captain, John C. Townsend ; 1st Lieutenant, Orlando Fountain ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James P. Warrell. 

Co. E — Captain, Samuel R. Baker; 1st Lieutenant, George Puterbaugh; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William W. Pierce. 

Co. F — Captain, Lyman W. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore M. Lowe; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Moullon. 

Co. G — Captain, Harmon Andrews; 1st Lieutenant, William Armmtrout ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Abel Bradley. 

Co. H — Captain, Thompson Gordon; 1st Lieutenant, George A. Wilkins ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James Brassfield. 

Co I — Captain, Samuel S. Jackman; 1st Lieutenant, James Tisdale ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Chester Andrews. 

Co. K — Captain, Jacob Jemison ; 1st Lieutenant, David De Wolf; 2d Lieutenant, 
Amos Tucker. 



THE FOETY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 229 

On the 23d of September the regiment left Peoria for St. Louis, 
where it remained till October 9th, obtaining equipments and drill- 
ing. It then went to Jefferson City, and was engaged in post duties 
in Missouri till February 18, 1862, when it went to St. Louis. It 
then joined General Pope's command in the movement upon New 
Madrid and Island No. 10, and participated in it till those points 
were captured. April 22d it arrived at Hamburg Landing, to join 
in the Corinth campaign. May 9th it took part in the battle of 
Farmington, where Lieutenant-Colonel Miles was killed, and in the 
movement upon Corinth till its evacuation, when it joined in the 
pursuit of the rebels. July 3d it marched to Rienzi, Mississippi, and 
thence, August 18th, to Tuscumbia. It was at the battle of Iuka 
September 19th, and after one day's pursuit of the enemy returned 
to Corinth, arriving in time to participate in the battles of October 
3d and 4th. Here it lost 30 killed, and over one hundred wounded. 
Among the former were Colonel William A. Thrush and Captain 
David DeWolf. It engaged in the pursuit of the enemy as far as 
Ripley, Mississippi, returning to Corinth on the 14th. November 
3d it started with General Grant on the Yocna expedition, arriving 
at Grand Junction January 1, 1863, and Corinth January 14th. 
From January 26th to March 12th it was guarding the railroad at 
Ridgeway Station, Tennessee. It then joined the grand army mov- 
ing upon Vicksburg, participating in nearly all its operations. 
May 14th it took part in the capture of Jackson, Mississippi. While 
leaving the city as rear guard, Colonel John N. Cromwell became 
momentarily detached from the regiment, and, being surrounded by 
the rebels, was summoned to surrender, but refused, and was killed 
in the attempt to escape. The regiment immediately returned to 
Vicksburg, and took part in the assault upon the enemy's works on 
the 22d of May. June 4th it took part in an engagement at 
Mechanicsville, and on the 14th at Richmond, in both of which the 
enemy were defeated. After the fall of Vicksburg, it encamped at 
Bear Creek, engaging in an occasional scout till the middle of 
November, when it moved to Memphis, and from there to Lagrange, 
where it guarded the railroad, occasionally making a scout against 
Forrest's guerrillas. On the 26th of January it returned to Mem- 
phis, and on the 1st of February to Vicksburg, going into camp at 



230 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

the Black River Bridge. March 10th it left Vicksburg on the Red 
River expedition under General A. J. Smith, and was present at the 
capture of Fort De Russey, March L4th; participated in the night 
surprise and capture of a rebel regiment and battery at Henderson 
Hill, on the 22d ; took part in the battle of Pleasant Hill, April !Jth, 
and during the expedition was under lire several times, besides endur- 
ing very severe hardships. May 22d it arrived at Vicksburg, having 
been for three months engaged in a very tedious campaign. June 
5th it left for Memphis, disembarking at Lake Chicot, marching 
inland a short distance, and "pitched into" and whipped a strong 
force of the enemy under Marmaduke. It then proceeded to Mem- 
phis, where the non-veterans joined General Smith's Tupelo expedi- 
tion, and with it took part in the battle of Tupelo. The re-enlisted 
veterans, 107 in number, were sent north on thirty days' furlough, 
rejoining the regiment on the 8th of August, and the entire regiment 
accompanied General Smith's Oxford expedition. On its return it 
engaged the enemy at Abbeville, August 23d, and reached Memphis 
on the 27th. The original term of service of the regiment having 
expired, the non-veterans were ordered home to Springfield, where 
they were mustered out and discharged, October 11, 18G4. The vete- 
rans and recruits, under Lieutenants Edward Bonham and Royal 
Olmsted, accompanied General Mower's expedition up White River 
to Brownsville, Arkansas, and thence into Missouri, in pursuit ol 
General Price. After campaigning for some time in Missouri, the 
detachment arrived in St. Louis November 4th, and proceeded to 
Chicago to assist in quelling any disturbance which might arise on 
the day of election. It was next ordered to Springfield, where two 
hundred drafted men and four full companies were assigned to it. 
Lieutenant Edward Bonham was commissioned Major, and the bat- 
talion ordered to St. Louis, December 3d. Its destination was then 
changed to Louisville, whence it was sent to Bowling Green. Janu- 
ary 27, 1865, it moved via Nashville to its old command at Eastport, 
Mississippi. It went to New Orleans, and joined the expedition to 
Mobile Bay, taking part in the reduction of Spanish Fort. While 
lying in front of Spanish Fort, it received six additional companies 
from Springfield, making it once more a full regiment. After the 
fall of Mobile it marched to Montgomery, Alabama, arriving April 






THE FOKTY-EIGHTH AND FOKTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 231 

25th. During the summer it was on duty at Selma, Cahawba and 
Demopolis, and was mustered out at Selma, January 21, 1866, and 
finally paid and discharged at Springfield on the 5th of February. 

FORTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In the first volume of this work [p. 326] we have given the origi- 
nal roster of this regiment, with its history to the time of its re-en- 
listment as a veteran regiment, in January, 1864. March 10th, at 
the expiration of its veteran furlough, it left Centralia for Nashville, 
thence to Chattanooga, where it joined Sherman's army in the Atlanta 
campaign, and participated in the engagements at Resaca, Dallas, 
New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Sand Town, Decatur, before 
Atlanta, siege of Atlanta, and at Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. 
It next joined in the march to the sea and the Carolina campaign, 
with credit to itself and the State. After the grand review at 
Washington, in which it had a part, it went to Louisville, leaving 
that city for Little Rock, June 25, 1865. Here, on the 16th of 
August, it was mustered out and sent to Camp Butler, where it 
arrived on the 21st, and was paid off and discharged. 

FORTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 49th was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the 
service on the 31st of December, 1861. The following is the origi- 
nal roster : 

Colonel, William R. Morrison ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas G. Allen ; Major, John 
B. Hay ; Adjutant, James Morrison ; Quartermaster, James W. Davis ; Surgeon, 
William II. Medcalfe ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Andrew Beatty ; Chaplain, James B. 
Corrigan. 

Co. A — Captain, Thomas W. Morgan; 1st Lieutenant, Nicholas C. Chester; 2d 
Lieutenant, William H. Rogers. 

Co. B — Captain, William P. Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, James P. Burns; 2d Lieuten- 
jvnt, William Wesley. 

Co. C — Captain, Louis Kinghoff; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Doll; 2d Lieutenant, 
Simeon Spiia. 

Co. D — Captain, John W- Brokaw ; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Cheney; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Emery B. Harlan. 

Co. E — Captain, John G. Berrey ; 1st Lieutenant, James M. Mcguire ; 2d Lieuten 
ant, Henry W. Kerr. 






232 PATRIOTISM OK ILLINOIS. 



Co. F — Captain, Benjamin W. .Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Hansom 0. Hagerman; 2d 
Lieutenant, William T. Preeland. 

Co. Q Captain, Lewis W. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Bliss; 2d Licu- 
tenant, William M. Whaling. 

Co. II — Captain, Jacob E. Gauen; 1st Lieutenant, Service Sunday ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jacob Fischer. 

Co. I — Captain, Archibald W. Thompson; 1st Lieutenant, James L. MeClurken ; 
•j.l Lieutenant, George L. Watts. 

Co. K — Captain, Benjamin T. Wood ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Laur; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James G. Gilbert. 

February 3, 1862, the regiment left Springfield for Cairo. On the 
9th it reported to General Grant at Fort Henry, and was sent to 
Fort Donelson, and bore a gallant part in the siege and capture of 
that stronghold. It was next at the battle of Shiloh, where it lost 
17 killed and 9!) wounded. It took part in the siege of Corinth till 
its evacuation. June 6th it was stationed at Bethel, Tennessee, 
guarding the railroad, remaining there till March 10, 1863. It then 
went to White Station, guarding the railroad, until August 10th. It 
then joined the White River expedition against Little Rock. Be- 
tween 2 and 3 o'clock A. M., August 30th, while en route to White 
River, the steamer Courier, on which it was proceeding, collided 
with the Des Arc and was sunk. No lives were lost, but a number 
of mules and horses and a quantity of ammunition and equipage and 
the company records sank with the steamer. It was the advance 
regiment in the capture of Little Rock, September 10th, and encamped 
there till November loth, when it was sent to Memphis. Here, on 
the 15th of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran 
service. On the 27th it went to Vicksburg, and joined in General 
Sherman's Meridian campaign. Returning to Vicksburg, March 3d, 
il participated in the Red River expedition, and was at the capture 
of Fort De Russey, March 14th, and the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
Georgia, April 9th, and numerous skirmishes. It returned to Mem- 
phis, June 10th, and on the 24th was sent home on veteran furlough. 
The non-veterans remained, under Captain John A. Logan, and 
took part in the Tupelo expedition, engaging the enemy at Tupelo, 
July 14th and 15th. The veterans rendezvoused at Centralia, and 
on the 4th of August left for Cairo, Nashville and Holly Springs, 
where the regiment was re-united. It participated in the Oxford 
expedition, and returned to Memphis on the 30th of August. It was 



THE FIFTIETH INFANTRY. 233 

then ordered to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. When the boat was 
about three miles above Cape Girardeau, it struck a snag and was 
sunk, but by the exertions of the regiment the leak was stopped and 
the boat bailed out and raised. September 30th the regiment left 
St. Louis for Franklin, Missouri, where, October 1st, it met the enemy 
and drove them out and occupied the town. It then accompanied 
the army in pursuit of Price. It returned to St. Louis November 
18th, and on the 24th embarked for Nashville, and participated in 
the battles of December 15th and 16th. On the 24th it was ordered 
to Paducah, Kentucky, where the non-veterans were mustered out. 
The veteran organization remained here on garrison duty till it was 
mustered out, September 9, 1865. On the 15th it arrived at Spring- 
field, where it was paid off and discharged. 

FIFTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 50th regiment was organized at Quincy, and mustered into 
the service August 20, 1861. The original roster was as follows : 

Colonel, Moses M. Bane; Lieutenant-Colonel, William Swarthout ; Major, Geoigc 
W. Randall; Adjutant, Thomas J. Brown; Quartermaster, William Keal ; Surgeon, 
Henry W. Kendall; 1st. Assistant Surgeon, Garner H. Banc. 

Co. A — Captain, Edgar Pickett; 1st Lieutenant, Henry P. W. Cramer; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Sergeant Moody. 

Co. B — Captain, John W. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Henry E. Horn ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William H. Harbison. 

Co. C — Captain, William M. Gooding; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore W. Letton ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Horace L. Burnham. 

Co. D — Captain, Thomas W. Gaines ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Cusick ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William K. Hazlewood. 

Co. E — Captain, William Hanna ; 1st Lieutenant, Albert Pickett; 2d Lieutenant, 
William W. Birchard. 

Co. F — Captain, William B. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. May; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles M. Harris. 

Co. G — Captain, George W. Brown ; 1st Lieutenant, Selah W. King ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Edward P. Barrett. 

Co. H — Captain, Samuel R. Glenn ; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Ishmel ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John Cooper. 

Co. I — Captain, Joseph' D. Wolf ; 1st Lieutenant, Horace L. Dunlap ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Elliott. 

Co. K — Captain, Timothy D. McGillicuddy ; 1st Lieutenant, Jefferson White ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William A. Shane. 

On the 9th of October, the regiment left for Hannibal, Missouri, 



23-i PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

and remained campaigning in that State 'ill January 27, 1862, when 
it reported to General Grant :tt Cairo. It was at the taking of Fort 
Ili'iirx by Commodore Foote, and took an active part in the siege 
and capture of Fort Donelson. February 23d it went to Clarksville, 
Tennessee, and occupied the town, where it discovered set era! pieces 
of artilli sry which had been secreted by the rebels. On the 27th it 
was ordered to Nashville, but immediately returned to Clarksville. 
On the 30th of March it arrived at Pittsburg Landing, and took an 
active part in the battle of Shiloh and the subsequent movement 
upon Corinth. When the town was evacuated, the 50th joined in 
the pursuit of tin- rebels as far as Booneville, Mississippi, returning 
to Corinth, June 11th. On the 3d and 4th of October it was engaged 
in the repulse of the attack of the rebels upon Corinth, and did 
excellent service. The enemy was repulsed, and the .50th took 
part in pursuit of them to Ruckersville, Mississippi, returning to 
Corinth on the 12th. Here it remained until December 4. 8th, when 
it went out on a scout to Lexington, Tennessee, returning on the 23d. 
April 15, 18G3, it was sent to Tuscumbia, skirmishing, while on the 
way, at Bear Creek, Cherokee and Newsom's Farm. On the 27th 
it met the enemy at Courtland, and fought them on the following 
day. On the 3d of .May it again arrived at Corinth. November 6th 
it started for Eastport, Mississippi, and on the 12th went into camp 
at Lynnville, twelve miles north of Pulaski. On the 17th the regi- 
ment w r as ordered to be mounted for scouting duty. It remained 
here on such duty until it was mustered into tin veteran service, 
January 16, 1864, when it started for home. February 28th, the 
veteran furlough having expired, the regiment left Quincy for Lynn- 
ville, Tennessee, to rejoin its command, arriving there March 5th, 
with over 200 recruits. It soon took part in the Atlanta campaign, 
doing garrison duty at Rome most of the time. At the battle ot 
Allatoona, which soon followed, it bore an honorable part. It then 
joined Sherman in his grand march to the sen, and participated in 
the Carolina campaign. On the 24th of May, 1865, it took part in 
the grand review at Washington, and on the 3d of June started for 
Louisville. It was mustered out here on the 13th of July, and on 
the following day arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and 
'discharged. 



THE FIFTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 235 

FIFTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 51st regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and 
mustered into the service on the 24th of December, 1861. The fol- 
lowing is the original roster : 

Colonel, Gilbert W. Gumming ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Luther P. Bradley ; Major, 
Samuel B. Raymond ; Adjutant, Charles W. Davis ; Quartermaster, Henry Rowland ; 
Surgeon, William C. Hunt ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John S. Pashley ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Thomas L. Magee. 

Co. A — Captain, Henry F. Wescott ; 1st Lieutenant, James E. Montandon; 2d 
Lieutenant, Antonio DeAnguera. 

Co. B — Captain, Isaac K. Gardner; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. Hall; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George J. Waterman. 

Co. C — Captain, Nathaniel B. Petts ; 1st Lieutenant, Albert M. Tilton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Albert Eads. 

Co. D — Captain, Ezra L. Brainard ; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore F. Brown; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James S. Boyd. 

Co. E — Captain, John C. McWilliams; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas T. Lester ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Augustus B. Sweeney. 

Co. F — Captain, George L. Bellows ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Houston ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Andrew H. Frasier. 

Co. G — Captain, George H. Wentz ; 1st Lieutenant, Merritt B. Atwater ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Orin S. Johnson. 

Co. H — Captain, John T. Whitson ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Greenwood ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charles B. Whitson. 

Co. K — Captain, Rufus Rose ; 1st Lieutenant, Otis Moody ; 2d Lieutenant, Albert 
L. Coe. 

The regiment left Chicago for Cairo February 14, 1862, and was 
engaged there in guarding the prisoners from Fort Donelson, and 
sending them north. On the 27th it crossed the river and camped 
on the Kentucky shore. March 4th it went to Bertrand, Missouri, 
where General Pope was collecting troops for a movement down the 
river. On the 9th of April it went to the vicinity of New Madrid, 
and took part in the movements which resulted in the capture of 
that place. It then joined in the movement upon Island No. 10, and 
actively participated in the capture of the rebels who fled from that 
post. It next went down the river to Osceola, and on the 27th was 
ordered to Hamburg, and took part in the battle of Farmington and 
other movements upon Corinth. After the evacuation of the town, 
the 51st took part in the pursuit of the retreating enemy. Return- 
ing to Corinth, it was detailed for guard duty on the Memphis and 



236 PATRIOTISM 01 ll.!.i.\'"is. 

Charleston Railroad. On the 15th of September it reached Nash- 
ville, bo join Buell in hia pursuit of Bragg. On the flth of Novem- 
ber ;i rebel attack <»n Nashville was made, but without success. After 

doing post duty for some time at Nashville, the 51st joined in the 
movement against Bragg, and was in the thickest of the fight at 
River. The three brigade commanders of the division were 
hilled, and early in the day the command of the brigade fell upon 
Colonel Bradley, of the 51st. On the 6th of January, 18G3, the 
regiment marched three miles south of Murfrcesboro and encampi d. 
On the 4th of March it marched to Eagleville, and two days later 
stinted for Franklin, to aid in the pursuit of Van Dorn, who was fol- 
lowed to Duck River, when the pursuit was abandoned. On the 
24th of June it joined in the Tullahoma campaign, which resulted 
in driving Bragg out of Tennessee. On the 30th of July it camped 
at Bridgeport, Alabama, the rebel army being on the other side of 
the river. September 2d it crossed the Tennessee and marched to 
Alpine, Georgia, and took part in the various movements of the 
Chickamauga campaign. At Chickamauga, on the first day of the 
battle, it did gallant service, losing nearly one third its number in a 
single half hour. On the second day, the whole division to which 
it belonged became involved in confusion, but was skillfully extricated 
by General Sheridan. At the battles of Mission Ridge and Look- 
out Mountain the 51st was in the reserve. On the 28th of October 
it marched to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, reaching there 
December 9th. On the 26th of January, 1864, the regiment reached 
Chattanooga, where it re-enlisted in the veteran service, and was 
sent home on furlough, reaching Chicago on the 17th of February. 
On the 28th of March the regiment left Chicago for Nashville, and 
marched thence to Chattanooga. It then joined in the Atlanta 
campaign, taking part in the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jones- 
boro. It afterward took part in the campaign which ended with the 
battles of Franklin and Nashville, in both of which it did good ser- 
vice. It then followed the retreating rebels till the pursuit was 
abandoned, when it marched toward Huntsville, Alabama, and was 
placed on "outpost'" duty at Decatur till March 31, 1865, suffering 
great hardships. It then went to Greenville, East Tennessee, and 



FIFTY-FIRST INFANTRY- 237 

on the 15th of April to Nashville, where it remained till June 15th. 
During this time the men whose term of service expired prior to 
October 1, 1865, were mustered out and sent home. The remainder 
of the regiment then left for New Orleans. July 28th it embarked 
for Texas, camping, August 1st, at Placidor. On the 25th of Sep 
tember, 1865, it was mustered out at Camp Irwin, Texas, and was 
sent home for final payment and discharge, arriving at Camp Butler 
on the 15th of October 



CHAPTER XV. 

REGIMENTAL AND PERSONAL. 

The Thirty-seventh — Its Missouri Campaign — The Fifty-second — Its Various Com- 
manders — General Sweeney — The Fifty-third — " Coshman'8 Brigade " — Tub 
Fifty-Fourth — Re-enlistment as Veterans — The Fifty-seventh — At Shiloh and 
Corinth — The Fifty-eighth — Capture at Shiloh — General W. F. Lynch — The 
Fifty-ninth — A Missouri Regiment — Change of Designation — The Sixtieth — 
Conclusion of Its Record — The Sixty-third — A Veteran Regiment — The Sixty- 
fourth — "Yates Sharpshooters" — Brigadier-General Joseph S.Reynolds — 
Major Fred. W Matteson — The Sixty-fifth — The " ScotchRegiment" — TnE 
Three Months' Regiments of 1862 — The Sixty-seventh — The Sixty-eighth — Thjb 
Sixty-ninth — The Seventieth — The Seventy-first. 

TnE TniRTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY 

WAS organized in the fall of 1861, and took the name of 
" Fremont Rifles," in honor of General J. C. Fremont, 
then a favorite among the radical Union men of the West. Com- 
panies A and H were enlisted at Rock Island; C and F, at Wauke- 
gan, Lake County; Company D, in part in Michigan, and the bal- 
ance in Chicago; Company K, at Danville; Company E, at Men- 
dota, LaSalle County; Companies G and I, in and about Chicago; 
Company B, in Stark County. On the 18th of September, 1861, 
the regiment was mustered into the United States service at Chicago, 
with the following roster : 

Colonel, Julius White ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Myron S. Barnes ; Major, Jolin Charles 
Black ; Adjutant, A. Neiman ; Quartermaster, John II. Peck ; Surgeon, L. F. 
Humeston ; Assistant Surgeon, E. A. Clark ; Chaplain, Edward Anderson. 

Co. A — Captain, J. A. Jordan; 1st Lieutenant, Ilervey Curtis, Jr.; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles W. Hawes ; Orderly Sergeant, L. B. Morey. 

Co. B — Captain, Charles V. Dickinson; 1st Lieutenant, Cassimer P. Jackson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Fracis A. Jones ; Orderly Sergeant, W. B. Todd. 



THE THIRTY -SEVENTH INFANTRY. 239 

Co. C — Captain, Eugene B. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, Judson J. Huntley; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Chauncey C. Morse ; Orderly Sergeant, Arthur Whitney. 

Co. D — Captain, John W. Laimbeer ; 1st Lieutenant, Wells H. Blodgett; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Win. 0. Mazell; Orderly Sergeant, Wm. M. Johnson. 

Co. E — Captain, Fhineas B. Rust; 1st Lieutenant, Orville R. Powers ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles W. Day; Orderly Sergeant, W. II. Smith. 

Co. F — Captain, Erwin B. Messer ; 1st Lieutenant, Andreas Greve; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Gallis Faiiman; Orderly Sergeant, W. W. Doty. 

Co. G — Captain, Henry N. Frisbee ; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Bell; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Manning F. Atkinson ; Orderly Sergeant, D. McCarty. 

Co. H — Captain, J. B. Frick ; 1st Lieutenant, Herman Wolferd; 2d Lieutenant, 
Joseph Eaton ; Orderly Sergeant, Hinckley. 

Co. I — Captain, Ransom Kennicott ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac C. Dodge ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Frederick J. Abbey ; Orderly Sergeant, George Kennicott. 

Co. K — Captain, Wm. P. Black ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Pithian ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Wm. M. Bandy ; Orderly Sergeant, N. B. Hicks. 

On the 19th of September, the regiment, then 1,035 strong, 
received from the Chicago Board of Trade two: magnificent silk 
banners — one a national ensign and the other their battle flag — and 
on the same day embarked for St. Louis, which city it reached on 
the 21st. On the 30th, the regiment was sent to Booneville, Mo., 
where it joined General Pope's expedition to Springfield. From 
the latter place, eight companies proceeded to Ottersville, where 
they remained during the winter. 

On the 25th of January, 1862, the " Grand Army of the West," 
under Major-General Curtis, took up its line of march for Southwest 
Missouri, in search of General Price and his crew. On this memor- 
able march the 37th took part in the battle of Pea Ridge [vide Vol. 
I., p. 222], in which its loss was 153 officers and men. It was 
next stationed at Cassville, a small town in Southern Missouri, 
where it did garrison duty until the fall of 1862, when it was trans- 
ferred to General Schofield's command, under whom but little 
active service was experienced. The regiment next joined General 
Herron at Prairie Grove, where it participated in the battle which 
bears that name, and under him again entered Arkansas. Again 
it was ordered back into Missouri, being stationed for a brief 
period at Raleigh. It afterward took part in the battle of Chalk 
Bluffs, near Cape Girardeau. It again returned to St. Louis, 
whence it embarked for Vicksburg, to join the forces under General 
Grant. After the capture of that city it went to New Orleans, 



240 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

and thence to Brazos Santiago, Texas, forming a part of the 
expedition ap the Uio Grande. At Brownsville, Texas, on the 
10th of February, 1864, the men re-enlisted as veterans. At this 
date they numbered only about 327 men out of the 1,035 who left 
Chicago, in September, 1861. 

In March, L 86 4, the regiment returned to Chicago on veteran 
furlough, where it delivered its battle-torn flags to the donors, the 
Bo id of Trade, and received in return therefor a new stand of 
colors. On the 26th of April, it again started for the front, 
reaching Memphis on the 29th. After taking part in a raid in search 
of Forrest, it proceeded to join the army of General Canby in 
Louisiana. The regiment was stationed at Simsport when General 
Banks made his disastrous retreat from Grand Ecore. It remained 
in General Canby's department, traveling from place to place, until 
the middle of February, 1865, when it was sent to Pensaoola, Florida. 
A few weeks later it started for Mobile, where it arrived on the 2d 
of April, and immediately invested Fort Blakeley. In the memorable 
charge upon this fort, the 37th Illinois marched side by side with the 
20th Iowa over 900 yards of open space, under a galling fire, and 
charged directly upon the enemy's works, which were captured. 
The 37th remained at or near Mobile until June 28th, when it was 
sent to Texas, arriving at Galveston July 2d. It was stationed at 
Galveston, Sabine City, Beaumont, Columbus and Houston, Texas, 
until May 15, 1866, when it was mustered out and ordered to Spring- 
field for final payment and discharge. 

FIFTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 52d regiment was organized at Geneva during October and 
November, 1861, under the superintendence of Colonel I. G. Wilson, 
and named the " Lincoln Regiment," and was composed of six com- 
panies from Kane County, one from Winnebago County, one from 
Bureau County, one from DeKalb County, and one from Whiteside 
County, in all 940 men. The original roster was as follows : 

Colonel, Isaac G. Wilson ; Lieutenant-Colonel, John S. Wilcox ; Major, Henry 
Stark; Adjutant, Ethan J. Alien; Quartermaster, Charles B. Wells; Surgeon, 
Lcland II. Angel; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Phineas K. Guild; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
George W. Rhor ; Chaplain, Benjamin Thomas. 



THE FIFTY-SECOND INFANTKY. 241 

Co. A — Captain, Smith G. Ward ; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Young ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles R. White. 

Co. B — Captain, Edwin A. Bowen ; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon L. Roth; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Graves. 

Co. C — Captain, John S. Brown ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward M. Knapp ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Erskin M. Hoyt. 

Co. D — Captain, Jacob Grimes; 1st Lieutenant, D. Carlos Newton; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lewis H. Everts. 

Co. E — Captain, Wesley Boyd ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Brainard ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry C. Barker. 

Co. F — Captain, Nathan P. Herrington ; 1st Lieutenant, Slocura S. Dunn ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John Dyer. 

Co. G — Captain, Francis H. Bowman ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Wilcox ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William H. Earl. 

Co. II — Captain, Alvah P. Maffatt ; 1st Lieutenant, Luther C. Lee ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Morris J. McGrath. 

Co. I — Captain, Joseph T. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph E. Ewell ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Henry G. Wilmarth. 

Co. K — Captain, Alphonso Barto ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward S. Wilcox; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Henry S. Doty. 

During the months of December, 1861, and January, 1862, the 
regiment was occupied in guarding the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad in Missouri. In the latter part of January, 1862, it was 
ordered to Smithland, Kentucky, where it remained until the attack 
on Fort Donelson, when it was ordered to reinforce the army oper- 
ating there, and arrived just in time to be assigned the unpleasant 
duty of taking charge of several boat loads of prisoners, who were 
delivered at Springfield and Chicago, after which the regiment ren- 
dezvoused at St. Louis. It was then ordered to join the Army of the 
Tennessee. It arrived at Pittsburg Landing and debarked on the 
19th day of March, 1862, and was assigned to the 2d Division. It 
was engaged in the bloody battle of Shiloh, April 6th and 7th, and 
lost in killed, wounded and missing over one third of the number 
engaged, distinguishing itself on several occasions. Participating 
in the siege of Corinth, and the battles of Iuka and Corinth, it 
remained as a part of the garrison of the latter town until the sum- 
mer of 1863, being engaged much of the time in severe marches 
after the rebel Generals Roddy, Chalmers and Forrest. During the 
autumn of 1863, the regiment, as part of General Dodge's command, 
marched across to Pulaski, Tennessee, from whence, on the 9th day 
of June, 1864, it started for Illinois on veteran furlough, more than 
16 



212 rationed of illinozs. 

three fourths of the regiment having re-enlisted. Soon after its 
return to Pulaski, the division was ordered to Chattanooga, Tennes- 
see, and the regiment entered upon the campaign against Atlanta, 
participating in the battles of Snake Creek Gap, Resaea, Lay's Ferry, 
Koine Cioss Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickojack Creek 
Decatur, 22d and 28th of July, before Atlanta, and Jonesboro. 
After the evacuation of Atlanta, the 2d Division of the 10th Corps, 
to which the regiment had been attached for two and a half j 
was transferred to the 15th Corps, as the 4th Division, and was 
ordered to Rome, Georgia, the last of September, and on the 5th day 
of October it fought the bloody battle of Allatoona. On the 11th 
day of May, 1865, the regiment, as a part of General Sherman's 
grand army, started on his ever memorable " march to the sea." 
On the termination of that grand march, at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
the regiment went with the rest of the army on the pilgrimage to 
Richmond, and thence to the grand review at Washington. It was 
then ordered to Louisville, where it was mustered out of the 
service on July 6, 1865, and thence was ordered to Chicago for 
discharge. 

The 52d originally numbered 940 men, and afterward received 
about 400 recruits. "When mustered out, it numbered but 517 officers 
and men. 

During its existence as an organization, the 52d had no less than 
six different commandants. The first was Colonel I. G.Wilson, 
under whom it was raised. He resigned in December, 1861, very 
soon after being mustered into the service, and was succeeded by 
Captain T. W. Sweeney, of the 2d Infantry, United States Army 
(Regulars). He was only in command about two months, when he 
was promoted to the rank of Major in the regular army, and 
made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. He has since made 
himself more prominent by his connection with the Fenian Brother- 
hood and its designs in behalf of Ireland. Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. 
Wilcox was promoted to the rank of Colonel, and took command 
upon Lieutenant-Colonel Sweeney's promotion in April, 1863. Colo- 
nel Wilcox resigned while the regiment was home on veteran fur- 
lough, and was succeeded in command by Lieutenant-Colonel E. A. 
Bowen, who was mustered out on October 24, 1864, his term of ser- 



THE FIFTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 2-43 

vice having expired. Major Wesley Boyd next took command, until 
December 18th, when his term of service also expired. At that 
time, Lieutenant J. D. Davis, who had been promoted from the ranks 
to a 2d Lieutenant, for meritorious conduct at Shiloh, and for other 
gallant services had been raised to the rank of 1st Lieutenant, was 
again promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, as which he was in command 
at the time the regiment was mustered out. 

FIFTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 53d regiment was organized at Ottawa, and mustered into 
the service in March, 1862. It originally consisted of ten companies 
of infantry, one of artillery and one of cavalry, and was known as 
" Cushmaifs Brigade." * The original roster was as follows : 

Colonel, Wm. H. "W. Cushman; Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel F. Hitt; Major, 
Theodore C. Gibson ; Adjutant, Seth W. Hardin ; Quartermaster, Philo Lindley ; 
Surgeon, William W. Welsh ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James 0. Harris; Chaplain, 
Festus P. Cleveland. 

Co. A — Captain, Josiah B. Wright; 1st Lieutenant, William Armstrong; 2d 
Lieutenant, Daniel Slattery. 

Co. B — Captain, Roland H. Allison ; 1st Lieutenant, Seldon B. Griswold ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Jarvis B. Smith. 

Co. C — Captain, Joseph E. Skinner; 1st Lieutenant, William F. Dewey ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Carser R. May. 

Co. D — Captain, James E. Hudson; 1st Lieutenant, Warren H. Norton; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Albert S. Kinsloe. 

Co. E — Captain, Charles M. Vaughn ; 1st Lieutenant, Alonzo W. Buell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Mark C. Wheeler. 

Co. F — Captain, Daniel L. Houston; 1st Lieutenant, William G. Earl; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John Potter. 

Co. G — Captain, Morgan L. Payne ; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Lodge ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John H Elwood. 

Co. H — Captain, John W. McClenahan; 1st Lieutenant, Timothy W. Atwood ; 
2d Lieutenant, Simeon Rathbun. 

Co. K — Captain, Michael Leahey ; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Buckley ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert V. Simpson. 

The regiment left Ottawa in March, 1862, for Camp Douglas, 
Chicago, where it for a few days assisted in guarding the rebel 
prisoners from Fort Donelson. It left Camp Douglas on the 23d, 

*The company of artillery was detached from the regiment while at Chicago, 
and was afterward known as " Coggswell's Battery." The cavalry company was 
detached at St. Louis, and became Company I, 15th Illinois Cavalry. 



244 PATRIOTISM OF H.LINOI8. 

and proceeded to Savannah, Tennessee, and arrived on ih«' buttle 
field of Shllofa on the 7th of April, after the enemy had been driven 
from the field. It participated in the movement upon Corinth, which 
place it entered on the 30th of May. It marched thence to Grand 
Junction, where it was left alone for a few days, It entered Lagrange, 
Tennessee, June 2Gth, and moved from thence to Holly Springe, 
Memphis and Bolivar, arriving at the latter place September 1 3th. 
On the 20th it made a reconnoissance, returning to Bolivar the next 
day, having met the enemy in force near Grand Junction. On the 
5th of October, while crossing "Davis' Bridge, , ' on the Hatchie 
River, it met four times its number of rebels, retreating in disorder 
from Corinth, and defeated them. It returned to Bolivar October 
8th, and marched to Lagrange November 4th. While here it made 
two reconnoissances toward Coldwater. On the 28th it went with 
General Grant on the " Yocna expedition," returning northward, to 
the vicinity of Waterford, Mississippi, in the latter part of December. 
January 11, 18G3, it arrived at Moscow, Tennessee, where it remained 
during the winter, on guard and picket duty. March 11th it reached 
Memphis, and remained there till May 17th, when it was sent to 
Young's Point, Louisiana. On the 20th it went to Haines' Bluff, 
and thence to Snyder's Bluff, where it remained till June 24th, and 
then joined the main army in front of Vicksburg. It participated 
in the siege and capture of that place, and suffered severely in killed 
and wounded. It then took part in the siege and capture of Jack- 
son, where it behaved with distinguished gallantry. Here Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Earl was killed, and a number of staff and line officers 
were killed and wounded, Avhile the entire regiment suffered severely, 
losing 134 men out of the 200 engaged. A few days afterward, 
the regiment returned to Vicksburg, and on the 18th of August 
moved by transports to Natchez, Mississippi, where it remained until 
November 30th, when it embarked again for Vicksburg, camping at 
Milldale, eight miles from the city. While here the regiment re-en- 
listed in the veteran service. February 3, 18G4, it started upon the 
Meridian campaign, returning to Hebron on the 29th. On the 13th 
of March it was sent home on veteran furlough, arriving at Ottawa 
on the 22d. At the expiration of the furlough, the regiment rejoined 
its command, and in May proceeded to Clifton, whence it marched 



THE FIFTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. 245 

across the country to join Sherman's army, then engaged in the 
Atlanta campaign. It bore its share of the toils and perils of the 
campaign, taking a prominent part in the desperate charges and 
assaults of the 20th, 21st and 22d of July, losing in the three days' 
fights 101 men. After a few days' rest at Eastport, it marched in 
pursuit of Hood northward, returning to Marietta November 6th. 
On the 16th it started on the march to the sea, and participated in 
that and the Carolina campaign which succeeded it. While at Savan- 
nah, the 41st Illinois, consisting of two companies and about 222 
officers and men, was consolidated with the 53d, and became com- 
panies G and K. The 53d was at the grand review at Washington 
on the 24th of May, and from there proceeded to Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, where it was mustered out of the service on the 22d of July. 
It was then sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago, where it was paid off 
and discharged on the 28th. The 53d was in the service nearly 
four years, and traveled a distance of 7,023 miles. 

FIFTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 54th infantry was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna, and 
was mustered into the service on the 18th of February, 1862. The 
following is the original roster: 

Colonel, Thomas W. Harris ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Greenville M. Mitchell ; Major, 
Augustus H. Chapman ; Adjutant, John W. True ; Quartermaster, George Monroe ; 
Surgeon, Shubal York ; 1st Assistant-Surgeon, Thomas Wilkins ; Chaplain, Sidney 
L. Harkey. 

Co. A — Captain, Charles P. Woodruff; 1st Lieutenant, Russell W. Williams ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William W. Purinton. 

Co. B — Captain, Samuel B. Logan ; 1st Lieutenant, Johnson White ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alexander M. Houston. 

Co. C — Captain, Bird Monroe; 1st Lieutenant, Moses W. Robbins; 2d Lieutenant, 
Joseph Ledbetter. 

Co. D — Captain, Presley B. O'Dear; 1st Lieutenant, Merit B. Redding ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John F. Barkley. 

Co. E — Captain, Neil Fisher ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas R. Miller ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Chapman Sutton. 

Co. F — Captain, John B. Hanah ; 1st Lieutenant, James Chapman ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Stephen L. Latimer. 

Co. G — Captain, Richard W. Belknap; 1st Lieutenant, Newton J. Blankenbaker ; 
2d Lieutenant, Jacob M. Ryan. 

Co. H — Captain, Edward Roessler ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Johnson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Hiram M. Scarborough. 



24G PATHIOTISM OF 1LLINOI8. 

Co. I — Captain, Jeremiah W. Boatman; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph T. Barkley ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Besin W. Ajhbrook. 

Ca K — Captain, Theodore 0. Rodrig; 1st Lieutenant, John II. Bailey ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles T. Kimble. 

The regiment Left Camp Dubois for Cairo on the 24th of February, 
and went thence to Columbus on the 14th of March. Here it 
remained on fatigue duly, repairing fortifications, &0., until June 
29th. Three companies were stationed at Humboldt, Tennessee, 
during the fall. On the 18th of December the regiment was ordered 
to Jackson, which was threatened by the rebels. Company 15 and 
all the sick were left at "State Line," Tennessee, and the regiment 
finally reached Jackson on the 28th. The men left behind were 
captured by Forrest, who destroyed nearly all the records of the 
regiment, which had been left along the railroad. The regiment 
remained at Jackson till March, 1863. In April it marched to Cor- 
inth, returning to Jackson within a week. On the 30th of May it 
left Jackson, and arrived at Haines' Bluff on the 2d of June. Here 
it remained as a part of General Sherman's army, confronting Gen- 
eral Joe Johnston. It left for Helena, Arkansas, July 24th, and on 
the 18th of August set out on the Little Rock expedition. It arrived 
at Little Rock on the 18th of September, and swam the Arkansas during 
the attack, being the only infantry regiment to cross the river that 
day. October 15th it left for Benton and Rockport, returning on 
the 23d. Here the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran service, and 
on the 9th of February, 1864, was sent to Mattoon to receive fur- 
loughs. The furloughs expired March 28th, and on that day a few 
unarmed men from the regiment, who were en route to join it, 
were attacked at Charleston, Illinois, by a party of Copperheads, 
killing Major Shubal York, Surgeon of the regiment, and four pri- 
vates, and wounding Colonel Mitchell. An hour later the regiment 
arrived from Mattoon, and a number of the ringleaders of the attack 
were captured. They were forwarded to Springfield, and thence 
sent to Fort Delaware, but were afterward returned to the civil 
authorities for trial. The regiment left Mattoon on the 12th of 
April, and arrived at Little Rock on the 30th. On the 18th of May, 
it left Little Rock and marched northward in pursuit of the rebel 
General Shelby, and returned on the 30th. On the 26th of June, it 
met Shelby's forces near Clarendon, Arkansas, pursued them across 



THE FIFTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 247 

the Cache River, and returned to Duvall's Bluff on the 20th. August 
5th it relieved the 11th Missouri from guarding hay contractors on 
the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad, having five stations, with two 
companies at each. On the 24th it was attacked by General Shelby, 
with 4,000 men and four pieces of artillery. Colonel Mitchell suc- 
ceeded in concentrating six companies at one station, and they fought 
till 3 o'clock P. M., when their hay works were set on fire by the 
enemy's shell, and they were driven out and captured in detail. They 
were paroled at Jacksonport, Arkansas, September 1st, and robbed 
of their clothing and all their valuables, with General Shelby's 
knowledge and consent. They were then sent to Benton Barracks, and 
on the 5th of December were exchanged. On the 18th of January, 
1865, the regiment arrived at Hickory Station, and was immediately 
placad at its former station on the railroad, remaining there till June 
5th. It was then sent to Pine Bluff, and thence to Fort Smith, 
arriving on the 30th of August. October 4th, it returned to Little 
Rock, where it was mustered out on the 15th. On the 26th of Octo- 
ber it arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged. 
The regiment, from its original entry into the service till its dis- 
charge, mustered in 1,342 men and VI commissioned officers. 

FIFTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 57th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and 
was mustered into the service December 26, 1861, numbering 975 
officers and men. The following is the original roster: 

Colonel, Silas D. Baldwin ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frederick J. Hurlbut ; Major, Nor- 
man B. Page ; Adjutant, Norman E. Eahn ; Quartermaster, Edward Hamilton ; Sur- 
geon, James Zearing ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Henry S. Blood. 

Co. A — Captain, John Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, John N. Schilling; 2d Lieutenant, 
William F. Conkey. 

Co. B — Captain, Alfred H. Manzer; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan Linton; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John R. Larkin. 

Co. C — Captain, William S. Swan; 1st Lieutenant, Robert B. Morse; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Moses S. Lord. 

Co. D — Captain, Eric Forsee ; 1st Lieutenant, Eric Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Eric 
Berglend. 

Co. E — Captain, Robert D. Adams ; 1st Lieutenant, Bradley D. Salter ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Albert L. 0ti3. 



84-8 patriotism of Illinois. 

Co. F — Captain, Frederick A. Battey j 1st Lieutenant, Joseph W. Hanis; 2d 
Lieutenant, Joseph T. Cook. 

Co. G — Captain, Hustav A. Bussc ; 1st Lieutenant, Fritz Bussc ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles W. Rosenthal. 

Co. II — Captain, Josiab Bobbins, Jr.; 1st Lieutenant, Nelson Flansbury ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George Welch. 

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin II. Chadburn ; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore M. Dogctt ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William S. Hendricks. 

Co. K — Captain, Augustus C. Barry ; 1st Lieutenant, Harlan Page ; 2d Lieutenant, 
William Brewer. 

On the 8th of February, 18G2, the regiment broke camp and 
embarked tor Cairo, and then on to Fort Henry, joining General 
Grant's army before Fort Donelson, and fought, during the three 
days 1 battle, under General Lew. Wallace. The regiment, upon the 
capitulation of Donelson, marched back to Fort Henry, and encamped 
about one month. On the 6th of March it embarked for Crump's 
Landing, where it remained for two weeks, and then, with the army, 
marched against A. S. Johnston's forces, then entrenched at Shiloh. 
The battles of Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, were fought on the 
6th and 7th days of April, and in these the 57th participated, losing 
187 officers and men killed, wounded and missing. After these 
battles the 57th remained on the field till the army took up the line 
of march on Corinth, and took part in that siege, and upon its 
evacuation went into camp in the town, and remained there till Van 
Dora's rebels came up and assaulted the works on the 3d and 4th of 
October. The 57th, during these terrible days, stood the brunt of 
the battle, hurling back the enemy at the point of the bayonet when- 
ever he came up. Forty-two men of the regiment were either killed 
or wounded in these engagements. In May, 1863, under General 
G. M. Dodge, the 57th marched in pursuit of Forrest, who had been 
committing depredations, and chased him, skirmishing with his rear 
guard, up to the Tuscumbia Valley, when, the object of the expedi- 
tion being accomplished, the army returned to Corinth, and remained 
in garrison till the 4th of November, when the regiment marched to 
Louisville, Tennessee, and went into garrison, remaining till the 17th 
of January, when it re-enlisted for a further term of three years, and 
on the next day started for Chicago, to spend its thirty days' leave 
of absence, arriving on the 27th of January, 1864. While in Chicago 
the regiment was reinforced by 250 new recruits. On the 9th of 
March it quitted Chicago for the field, and reached Athens, Alabama, 



THE FIFTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY 249 

on the 15th, and was garrisoned there till the 1st of May, when it 
joined Sherman's army, then marching to the reilef of Rosecrans' 
beleaguered army at Chattanooga, moving to the right and rear of 
Dalton, compelling its evacuation by the enemy, and then moved on 
■with the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by the lamented 
McPherson, participating in the battle at Rome Cross Roads, and 
thence continued on to Rome, where it remained until about the mid- 
dle of August. When Wheeler made his raid north toward Nash- 
ville, the 57th followed him to the Muscle Shoals, where he escaped, 
and then returned to its camp at Rome, and remained till the 2d of 
October, when it marched to Georgia, and assisted in repulsing the 
rebel French, who assaulted our works. The 57th lost in this fight 
fourteen killed and wounded, and returned to Rome. On the 1 3th 
of October it was engaged with the rear of Hood's army, which was 
on the march north, driving the rebels in confusion seven miles, 
losing seven men killed and wounded. On the 10th of November, 
with the 3d Brigade, 4th Division of the 15th Army Corps, the 57th 
took up the line of march from Rome for Atlanta, and from thence 
marched in conjunction with Sherman's great army for the Atlantic 
coast, arriving in front of Savannah on the 10th of December, skirm- 
ishing with the enemy until the 21st, when the army marched in and 
took formal possession of the city. On the 27th of January, the 4th 
Division started north through the Carolinas with the 14th and 20th 
Corps, and on the 19th, 20th and 21st days of February was engaged 
with the enemy at Bentonville. On the 22d the regiment started 
for Goldsboro, and was present at the capture of Joe Johnston's 
army, which ended the rebellion. After Johnston's surrender the 
57th marched north, first to Raleigh, thence through to Richmond 
and Washington, and there participated in the grand review. From 
Washington the regiment took cars for Parkersburg, and there 
embarked on steamers, reaching Louisville on the 8th of June, 1865, 
and encamped till the 7th of July, when it took formal leave of the 
brave and glorious 15th Corps, and reached Chicago on the 10th of 
July, where it was mustered out and discharged. 

FIFTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 58th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, 
where nine companies were mustered into the service on the 24th 



250 PATRIOTISM Of ILLINOIS. 

ami 25th of December, 1851. The remaining company (11) was 
not mustered in until February 7, 1802. The following ia the origi- 
nal roster of the regiment : 

Colotnl, William F. Lynch ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Isaac Rutishauscr ; Major, Thomaa 
Newlan; Adjutant, Lewis H. Martin ; Quartermaster, George Sawin ; Surgeon, 
Henry M. Crawford; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Emory A. Merrificld. 

Co. A — Captain, Robert W. Heal; ; 1st Lieutenant, Eugene Lynch ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hiram M. Van Arm an. 

Co. B — Captain, Thomas D. Griffin; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham Vandenburgh ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John W. Babbitt. 

Co. C — Captain, George W. Kittell; 1st Lieutenant, Sanford W. Smith ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph G. Burt. 

Co. D — Captain, Nicklaus Nieklaus ; 1st Lieutenant, George Glassner; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Gustav C. Kothe. 

Co. E — Captain, Karl P. Rutishauser ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Kittel; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Stauffer. 

Co. F — Captain, Frederick Kurth ; 1st Lieutenant, Julius Kurth ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Lewis W. Pfeif. 

Co. G — Captain, James A. Bewley ; 1st Lieutenant, Loring P. Fuller; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert II. Winslow. 

Co. II — Captain, Lawrence Collins; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Lonergan ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Danforth L. Scott. 

Co. I — Captain, Philip R. Heelan ; 1st Lieutenant, David J. Lynch ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Job Moxom. 

Co. K — Captain, Patrick Gregg; 1st Lieutenant, John Tobin ; 2d Lieutenant, John 
W. Gregg. 

The regiment left Chicago on the 11th of February, 1802, for 
Cairo, where it was immediately transferred to the steamer Fanny 
Bullitt, and proceeded to take part in the siege and capture of Fort 
Donelson. After the victory at that point, it was marched to Fort 
Henry, where it lay until March 6th, when it embarked for Crump's 
Landing, seven miles below Pittsburg Landing. At the battle of 
Shiloh, which soon followed, the greater portion of the regiment 
were taken prisoners. The captured men were transferred to various 
rebel prisons at Mobile, Cahawba, Selma, Montgomery and other 
points in Alabama, and Macon, Griffin and Madison, in Georgia. 
Here they suffered various vicissitudes of starvation, sickness and 
all the untold horrors of a Southern prison pen. On the 29th of 
May the privates and surgeons of the regiment were released on 
parole, by order of General Beauregard, but General O. M. Mitchell, 
commanding the Union forces, refused to receive them, and they 



TOE UNION BRIGADE. 251 

were returned to the rebel prisons. On the 17th of October, 1862, 
the men were gathered in Libby Prison, at Richmond, where they 
were paroled and sent to Annapolis, Maryland, the officers being 
paroled two days previously. They left Annapolis in December, and 
arrived at Camp Butler on the 23d of that month. 

That portion of the regiment not captured at Shiloh was organ- 
ized into what was known as the "Union Brigade," composed of the 
remnants of the 58th Illinois and 8th, 12th and 44th Iowa, the 58th 
forming three companies out of the ten in the brigade. The Union 
Brigade participated in the siege of Corinth, and after the evacuation 
of that place joined in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Jonesville, 
Mississippi, returning to Corinth. At the battle of Iuka, one com- 
pany of the 58th was engaged, losing 17 in wounded and prisoners. 
The Brigade was also engaged in the battle of Corinth, October 3d 
and 4th. 

In December, 1862, the entire regiment was re-united at Camp 
Butler, where it remained, re-organizing, recruiting and guarding 
prisoners of war, until June 28, 1863, when it was ordered to Cairo. 
It garrisoned Cairo, Mound City, Union City, Columbus and Padu- 
cah until January 1, 1864, when it re-enlisted in the veteran service. 
It was then ordered to Vicksburg, and joined in General Sherman's 
Meridian raid, in which it was engaged in numerous skirmishes. It 
next participated in the Red River expedition, under General A. J. 
Smith. It was the first regiment to enter and plant its colors on 
Fort De Russey. At the battle of Pleasant Hill, April 9th, it was 
complimented with having made the charge which " changed the 
tide of battle," and lost heavily. Returning from the Red River 
expedition, it was engaged at Marksville Prairie, Cloutierville and 
Yellow Bayou. At the latter place its loss was very heavy, nine 
color bearers being shot in less than ten minutes — one of them, Fred, 
Mink, being wounded in each arm before he would give up the colors 
to another — and Colonel Lynch, commanding the brigade, being 
severely wounded. The regiment reached Vicksburg on the 24th of 
May, which it left for Columbia, Arkansas, on the 6th of June. At 
Memphis, on the 10th of June, the veterans were furloughed, and 
the non-veterans sent to Tupelo, Mississippi, at which place, on the 
14th of July, and at Mill Springs, they met and whipped Forrest's guer- 



252 PATRIOTISM OP n. uxors. 

rillaa. The command then returned to Memphis, where the reterani 
rejoined the regiment on the 6th of August. On the following day 
it was sent out on the " Oxford raid," returning on the 80th, On 
the 5th of September it began a campaign against Price in Misouri, 
and finally reached Jefferson Barracks September 20th. October 2d 
it Kft St. Louis, marching through Missouri to Kansas, returning on 
the 18th of November, having had a very hard inarch, with a poorly 
supplied' commissary. On the 1st of December it arrived at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, and on the 15th and 16th was engaged in the bat- 
tles at that place, and on the 17th joined in the pursuit of the 
retreating army of Hood, following them as far as Eastport, Missis- 
sippi. The term of the original organization expiring on the 6th of 
February, 1865, the non-veterans were ordered home on the 31st of 
January, and the veterans and recruits, numbering about 390, were 
consolidated into four companies and known as the "Battalion 58th 
Illinois Infantry," Major K. W. Healy being retained in command. 
The battalion left Eastport on the 9th of February for New Orleans, 
and in March joined General Canby's army in the operations against 
Mobile. It took part in the investment of Fort Blakeley from April 
3d to the 9th. On the latter day it was in the front line when the 
charge was made which resulted in the capture of the fort. While 
at Mobile it was joined by one new company, and subsequently by 
five others, raising it to a full regiment. On the 27th of April it 
reached Montgomery, Alabama, where, in July, it received from the 
81st and 114th Illinois the men not entitled to be mustered out with 
those regiments. It remained at Montgomery, doing garrison duty, 
until April 1, 1866, when it was mustered out. It was then sent to 
Camp Butler, Springfield, where it received payment and final dis- 
charge, after having been in the service over four years and a half. 
Its record during this time is one which will ever redound to the 
credit of the brave men of the 58th. 

General William F. Lynch was born in Rochester, New York, 
March 12, 1839, of Irish parents, and moved to Cuba, Alleghany 
County, New York, where he lived four years. He came from there 
to Elgin, Illinois, which place he has since made his home. His 
father, who was a merchant, liberally educated his family, of whom 
William was educated at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, 



GENERAL WM. F. LYNCH. 253 

I 

Indiana. He first enlisted from Notre Dame on the 19th of April, 
1861, and raised a company from among the students, which was the 
first company tendered to Governor Morton. Owing to the oppo- 
sition of the parents of the students and the members of the Faculty, 
the company was broken up, and General Lynch went from South 
Bend as a private. The company in which he went was not received, 
and he returned to Elgin, and there joined the 23d Illinois ( Irish 
Brigade), in which he served as Sergeant-Major till September 1, 
1861. He was then authorized to raise the 58th Illinois, of which 
regiment he served as Colonel for nearly four years. General Lynch 
was wounded at Shiloh, and captured on the evening of Sunday, 
April 6th, and held a prisoner about seven months. After being 
exchanged he was placed in command of Camp Butler, Springfield, 
Illinois. He was also post-commander at Cairo, Illinois, during the 
summer and fall of 1863. He was with General Sherman on the 
Meridian trip, and commanded the 1st Brigade of General A. J. 
Smith's old division, as also during the Red River campaign. At 
Yellow Bayou he received a wound which crippled him for life. 
General Lynch was brevetted for gallant service in the field. At 
the time he was appointed Colonel of the 58th he was but 22 years 
of age — then the youngest Colonel in the servicee. He was wounded 
seven times while in the service, and has since made himself promi- 
nent as a Fenian leader, holding a commission as Major-General in 
the Fenian " forces." 

FIFTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 59th regiment was organized at St. Louis on the 18th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, as the 9th Missouri Volunteers. The men had pre- 
viously been mustered into the United States service by companies, 
recruited and organized in Illinois. The following is the original 
regimental staff: 

Colonel, John C. Kelton, Captain United States Army, and 1st Assistant- Adjutant 
General on General Fremont's staff; Lieutenant-Colonel, Calvin H. Frederick, St. 
Louis ; Major, D. C. McGibbon, St. Louis ; Adjutant, P. Sidney Post, Galesburg, 
Illinois ; Surgeon, J. D. S. Hazlett, St. Louis ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, H. J. Maynard, 
Illinois ; Quartermaster, Frederick Brasher, St. Louis. 

The various companies, previous to the organization of the regi- 
ment, were employed on guard and picket duty, building fortifi- 



254- PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

cations, &c, at Cape Girardeau and St. Louis. On tlio 22.1 of Sep- 
tember the regiment embarked for Jefferson City, and was from that 
time engaged in active campaigning in Missouri till March 7th :m<l 
8th, 1862, when it took part in the battle of Pea Ridge [Vol. I., p. 
222 ], where it fought bravely and successfully. On the I2th of 
February, while on the Missouri campaign, the designation of the 
regiment was changed from the 9th Missouri to the /3 1 1 1 Illinois 
Volunteers. The campaigning in Missouri was continued till May 
22d, when the regiment arrived at Cape Girardeau, and immediately 
proceeded to Hamburg Landing, Tennessee, and took part in the 
siege of Corinth. It then pursued the enemy as far as Booneville, 
returning to camp at Clear Creek, near Corinth. August Gth it had 
a skirmish with the enemy at Big Springs, Mississippi, driving them 
from the town, and disabling a large cotton mill and capturing 200 
bales of cotton. It arrived at Iuka on the 8th, and from here six 
companies of the 59th and detachments from the 3d Michigan cav- 
alry and 7th Kansas cavalry, under Colonel Post, made a raid into 
Alabama and captured 190 bales of cotton. The regiment made 
various marches until it arrived at Murfrcesboro, September 1st, and 
there joined General BueH's army. It accompanied Buell in his 
disastrous retreat to Louisville, where it remained till October 1st. 
It bore a gallant part in the battle of Pcrryville, October 7th and 
8th, losing 113 in killed, wounded, &c, out of 361 men it took into 
action. It then pursued the enemy to Crab Orchard, and from thence 
marched to Nashville, where it arrived on the 7th of November, 
going into camp at Edgefield, eight miles from Nashville. On the 
25th of December it started upon the Stone River campaign, taking 
part in the engagements at Franklin, Nolensville, Knob Gap, Mur- 
freesboro and Liberty Gap. From July 3 to August 16, 1863, it was 
stationed at Winchester, Tennessee. It next marched to Chatta- 
nooga, where it arrived September 22d. During the siege of this 
point, from September 22d till October 25th, it was continually under 
fire. It was among the foremost at the glorious charges upon Look- 
cut Mountain and Mission Ridge, following the enemy to Ringgold, 
where it again attacked and defeated them. On the 1st of Decem- 
ber it was engaged in burying the dead upon the battle field of Chicka- 
mauga. On the 12th of January, 1864, it was mustered in as a 



THE FIFTY-NINTH INFANTKY. 255 

veteran regiment, and on the 6th of February left Chattanooga for 
Springfield, where it arrived on the 10th. On the 19th of March 
the regiment again left Springfield for Chattanooga and Cleveland, 
Tennessee. On the 3d of May the Atlanta campaign was begun, 
and the 5 9th bore its full share therein. It took part in the fights at 
Tunnel Ilill, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kingston, Dallas, Pine 
Top Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Atlanta, Rough and 
Ready and Lovejoy Station. September 6th it encamped at Atlanta, 
remaining till October 2d. On the 3d the 59th started in pursuit of 
Hood's army, to Nashville, participating in the battles of Spring 
Hill and Franklin. It bore a conspicuous and honorable part in the 
battle of Nashville, leading in the assault upon Overten's Hill. It 
then followed the enemy to the Tennessee River, camping at Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, January 3, 1865. On the 31st it again went to Nash- 
ville, returning to Huntsville on the 7th of February. March 15th 
it went to Strawberry Plains, and thence to Greenville. From here 
it made an expedition to Warm Springs, North Carolina, leaving on 
the 6th and returning on the 10th of April, returning to Nashville 
April 23d. On the 16th of June it went to New Orleans, and thence 
to Indianola, Texas. It was stationed at New Braunfels, Texas, till 
December 8, 1865, when it was mustered out of the service, and on 
the following day started for home, arriving at Springfield on the 6th 
of January, 1866, where it was paid off and discharged. During its 
term of service the 59th w r as never stationed in the rear on garrison 
or other duty, but was constantly in the front. During this time it 
marched 13,339 miles, and has inscribed on its colors, by order of 
the War Department, the names of nineteen battles in which it bore 
a victorious and meritorious part. 

The following is the original roster of the 59th after it had been 
designated as an Illinois regiment : 

Colonel, P. Sidney Post; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles H. Frederick; Major, Joshua 
C. Winters ; Adjutant, Samuel West ; Quartermaster, Frederick Brasher ; 1st Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Charles Bunce. 

Co. A — Captain, Clayton Hale; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel M. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, 
P. Sidney Post. 

Co. B — Captain, Hcndrick E. Payne ; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Johnson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Andrew It. Johnson. 

Co. C — Captain, Barzillai M. Veatch ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel W. Henderson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Heslip Phillips. 



256 PATRIOTISM Of ii.i.in'OIS. 

Co. D — Captnin, Orlando \V. Fra/.ier ; 1st Lieutenant, Emanuel Mennei ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charley A. Moasmana. 

Co, K — Captain, James M. BtOOkey; 1st Lieutenant, James II. Knight; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert Gooding. 

Co. F — Captain, George E. Curric ; 1st Lieutenant, Reuben Maddox ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant. Henry C. Bonham. 

Co G— Captain, Joseph S. Hackney; 1st Lieutenant, Horace W. Starkcy ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Thomas B. Johnson. 

Co. H — Captain, Albert Anthony; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton W. Hall ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Henry W. Wiley. 

Co. I — Captain, Charle9 F. Adams; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Beach; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles C. Doolittle. 

Co. K — Captain, Henry N. Snyder ; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Van Osdel. 

SIXTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 
On page 409 of the first volume of this work we have given the 
original roster of this regiment, and the history of its achievements 
up to the date of its march with Sherman to the relief of Knoxville. 
On the 26th of December, 1863, it went into winter quarters atRoss- 
ville, Georgia. On the 22d of February, 1864, it was mustered into 
the service as a veteran regiment. On the 26th it took part in the 
battle of Buzzard Roost, and on the 6th of March was sent home on 
veteran furlough. On the 18th of April it was again on the way to 
the front, arriving at Rossville on the 26th. It at once joined in the 
Atlanta campaign, taking an honorable part in the battles of Ring- 
gold, Dalton, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Nickojack, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro and Atlanta. 
It remained at Atlanta until the 29th of September, when it went to 
Florence, Alabama, where, on the 5th of October, it had a sharp 
skirmish with the enemy, and drove them across the river. On the 
10th of October it returned to Chattanooga, and soon after joined 
in the grand march to the sea. It took part in the Carolina cam- 
paign, after which it marched to Washington and was present at the 
grand review before the President. From here it was sent to Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out on the 31st of July, 1865. 
On the 2d of August it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off 
and discharged. 

SIXTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 
The 63d regiment was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna, and 
mustered into the service on the 10th of April, 1862. The following 
is the original roster : 



THE SIXTY-THIKD INFANTRY. 257 

Colonel, Francis Mora ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph B. McCown ; Major, Henry 
Glaze ; Adjutant, Charlie S. Chambers ; Quartermaster, John M. Maris ; Surgeon, 
William M. Gray ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Lyman Hall ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Alex- 
ander A. Lodge ; Chaplain, Stephen Blair. 

Co. A — Captain, Richard McClure ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Cartwright ; 2d 
Lieuteuant, Victor E. Phillips. 

Co. B — Captain, George J. Johns ; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Grayscn ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Arnot L. McCoy. 

Co. C — Captain, William M. Boughan; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Laws; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jacob Lewis. 

Co. D — Captain, John W. Champion ; 1st Lieutenant, James Isaminger ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Benjamin M. Tabler. 

Co. E — Captain, Henry Gilbert ; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram H. Walser ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant William C. Keen. 

Co. F — Captain, Joseph Lemon ; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Davis; 2d Lieutenant, 
James M. Hunter. 

Co. G — Captain, Joseph R. Stanford; 1st Lieutenant, Westford B.Russell; 2d 
Lieutenant, William P. Richardson. 

Co. H — Captain, Sylvester G. Parker; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Davis; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James Houselman. 

Co. I — Captain, John B Craig ; 1st Lieutenant, George F. Glossbrenner ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph H. C. Dill. 

Co. K — Captain, James H. Briggs ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew A. Ricketts ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Leamon. 

The regiment left Camp Dubois on the 28th of April for Cairo. 
July 12th it was ordered to Henderson, Kentucky, to defend that 
place against a guerrilla attack. On the 22d it returned to Cairo, 
and remained there until August 4th, when it was ordered to Jack- 
son. It then joined in the Yocna expedition, which forced the rebels 
to Grenada, Mississippi. The surrender of Holly Springs, by cutting 
off communications and supplies, forced the abandonment of the 
expedition, and the 63d returned to Memphis, reaching there January 
20, 1863. On the 10th of May it was ordered to Vicksburg. On 
the 21st it crossed the Mississippi at Warrenton, and "closed the 
last link in the investment of the city, by silencing the guns of two 
forts on the extreme left," on the 24th. It took part in the destruc- 
tion of Richmond, Louisiana, and other movements connected with 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and on the 5th marched into the 
city. On the 12th of September it arrived at Helena, Arkansas, and 
on the 28th was ordered to Memphis. October 6th it left Memphis 
for Chattanooga, arriving there on the 20th of November. It took 
part in the battles at Mission Ridge on the 23d and 24th, and joined 
17 



258 PATBIOTISM OF n.i.iN'ois. 

in the pursuit of Bragg's forces to Ringgold. On the 26th of 
■nil. i- it arrived at Hunts ville, Alabama, where it went into 
winter quarters. On the 1st of January, L864, the regimenl re-en- 
listed in the yeteran service, and <>n the 10th of April arrived at 
Centralia, Illinois, where it received veteran furlough. On the 21st 
of May il reported at Huntsville, Alabama, and on the 23d was 
ordered to Triune. On the 30th of June it arrived al Kingston, 
Georgia, where it was stationed to guard the line of railroad. It 
continued here until November 11th, when it was ordered to join 
General Sherman at Atlanta. On the 15th it left Atlanta on (he 
march to the seashore. After the capture of Savannah, it partici- 
pated in the Carolina campaign, and was in all its battles and skirm- 
ishes. At Columbia, South Carolina, it lost one officer and five men 
by the explosion of an arsenal. On the 24th of May, 1865, it took 
part in the grand review at Washington, and on the 3d of June 
started for Louisville. Here it was mustered out of the service on 
the 13tb of July, and on the 16th arrived at Camp Butler, where it 
was paid off and discharged. During its term of service the 63d 
traveled 6,453 miles, of which 2,250 miles was on foot. 

SIXTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

Recruiting for the 64th Illinois Infantry was commenced in Sep- 
tember, 1861, under authority to raise a battalion of four companies 
of riflemen. By the 31st of December, however, six companies had 
been raised, and on that day the battalion Avas mustered into the 
service, taking the title of " Yates Sharpshooter?." The following 
is the original roster: 

Lieutenant-Colonel, David E.Williams; Major, Fred. W. Matte son ; Adjutant, 
Aaron E. May; Quartermaster, A. T. Cameron; Surgeon, J. T. Stewart; Chaplain, 
Charles Cain. 

Co. A — Captain, John Morrill ; 1st Lieutenant, James C. Cameron; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles J. Conger. 

Co. B — Captain, George W. Stipp ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Thompson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Robert R. Gibbons. 

Co. C — Captain, C. B. Keasey; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Doran ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George A. Caine. 

Co. D — Captain, J. W. Stewart ; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. N. Stewart ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George \V. Reid. 



THE SIXTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. 259 

Co. E — Captain, D. G. Grover ; 1st Lieutenant, M. W. Manning ; 2d Lieutenant, 
E. H. Moore. 

Co. F — Captain, 0. H. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, J. W. Baker; 2d Lieutenant, J. S. 
Reynolds. 

The battalion left Camp Butler January 8, 1862, for Quincy, where 
it remained until February 4th, when it went to Cairo. On the 13th 
of March, with General Pope's command, it arrived before New 
Madrid, Missouri, in the reduction of which place it took an active 
part. [Vol. I., p. 216.] The 64th then joined the forces moving 
southward, and on the 3d of May had a severe skirmish with the 
rebels at Chambers' Creek. On the 8th it again met the enemy at 
the battle of Farmington, and on the 30th was among the first to 
enter Corinth. It also participated in the battle of Iuka on the 19th 
of September, in which it lost heavily. [Vol. I., pp. 284-295.] From 
this date the battalion was engaged in various duties, with occasional 
skirmishes, until December 31, 1863, when it re-enlisted for another 
three years' service. On the 22d of January, 1864, the battalion 
arrived at Chicago, where it was given thirty days' furlough. A 
month later, the men rendezvoused at Ottawa, where a sufficient 
number of recruits were obtained to fill the six companies to the 
maximum. At this time Captain Manning brought to the battalion 
four new companies, making a full regiment, which was mustered in 
as the 64th Illinois Infantry, with the following roster : 

Colonel, John Morrill ; Lieutenant-Colonel, M. W. Manning ; Major, S. T. Thomson ; 
Adjutant, Wm. H. Hinckley; Quartermaster, L. S. Ames; Surgeon, J. T. Stewart; 
1st Assistant Surgeon, W. D. Plummer ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, H. A. Mix ; Chaplain, 
Alphonso D. Wyckoff. 

Co. A — Captain, Charles I. Conger ; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Smith ; 2d Lieutenant, 
D. M. Moore. 

Co. B — Captain, R. R. Gibbons ; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Bell ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George W. Robinson. 

Co. C — Captain, T. C. Fullerton ; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Yates ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas Horner. 

Co. D — Captain, George W. Reid ; 1st Lieutenant, Duncan M. Reid ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Darius N. Myers. 

Co. E — Captain, Ed. H. Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, George Bargus ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Baker. 

Co. F — Ccptain, Joseph S. Reynolds; 1st Lieutenant, Ward Knickerbocker; 2d 
Lieutenant, "Wm. W. Zuel. 

Co. G — Captain, H. Logan ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Snyder ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hanson H. Crews. ' 



200 PATRIOTISM of ILLINOIS. 

Co. II — Captain, Henry J. Stoner; 1st Lieutenant, Robert S. Rives ; 2d Lieutcn- 
int, Peter Bogardua. 

Co. I — Captain, John .1. Long ; 1st Lieutenant, Ambrose II. Brown ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Julius \V Brown. 

Co. K — Captain, Charles Case ; 1st Lieutenant, Ilarley Kingsbury ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Howland Meeker. 

On Iho 15th of March, 1SG4, the regiment left Ottawa for the front, 
arriving at Decatur, Alabama, on the 23d. Leaving this place to 
join in the movement upon Atlanta, it reached Resaca on the 9th of 
May, where for five days it held the front line. It next met the 
enemy at Dallas. In the grand charge on Kenesaw Mountain the 
regiment bore a conspicuous and honorable part, and for twelve 
hours lay on the ground under the very muzzles of the enemy's 
guns, finally planting its regimental flag on the rebel works. From 
this time until the fall of Atlanta the regiment was actively 
engaged. Soon after that event it took part in the pursuit of 
the rebels under Hood, after which it joined in the grand march 
to the sea, bearing its full share of the privations of that campaign 
and the one immediately succeeding it, in the Carolinas. After 
taking part in the national review at Washington, it was ordered to 
Louisville, Kentucky, where, on the 11th of July, 1865, it was mus- 
tered out of the service, and on the ISth received final payment and 
discharge at Chicago. The following is the roster of the 64th Illinois 
at the time of its final discharge : 

Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, John Morrill ; Lieutenant-Colonel and Bre- 
vet Brigadier-General, Joseph S.Reynolds; Adjutant, Robert Russell; Quarter- 
master, Edwin G. Lewis; Surgeon, Henry A. Mix; Assistant Surgeon, Otto E. 
Roesch ; Chaplain, Alplionso D. Wyckoff 

Co. A- — Captain, Robert M. Woods ; 1st Lieutenant, John Bunker ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Theodore Gaylord. 

Co. B — Captain, John L. Hack; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Hindman ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edward Forward. 

Co. C — Captain, William W. Zuel ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac W. Seaman. 

Co. D — Captain, Darius N. Myers ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Miller; 2d Lieutenant, 
J. B. J. S. Evans. 

Co. E — Captain and Brevet Major, Ed. H. Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Feely. 

Co. F — Captain, Hanson H. Crews ; 1st Lieutenant, Rufus T. Sparks ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Francis M. Frank. 

Co. G — Captain, Henry Logan ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph H. Bishop; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Berow. 

Co. H — Captain, L. S. Ames; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver H. Abbott. 

Co. I — Captain, John J. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Julius W. Brown. 

Co. K — Captain, Charles Case ; 1st Lieutenant, Howland Meeker. 



THE SIXTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 261 

Brevet Brigadier-General Joseph S. Reynolds was born at New 
Lenox, Will County, Illinois, February 3, 1839, where his parents 
still reside. At the age of sixteen young Reynolds came to Chicago, 
and attended the Scammon school, where he was awarded the high- 
est prize — the Foster medal. He graduated in the High School in 
1861. In the fall of that year he entered the 04th Illinois as 2d 
Lieutenant. By successive steps he rose to the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel. Soon after the discharge of his regiment from the service, 
Colonel Reynolds was, on the recommendation of his superior officers, 
commissioned as Brigadier-General of Volunteers by brevet — a com- 
pliment he richly deserved. 

Major Fred. W. Matteson, who died in the battalion hospital at 
Clear Creek, Mississippi, August 8, 1862, was a son of Ex- Gover- 
nor J. A. Matteson, and a young man of superior ability and educa- 
tion. Graduating at Yale College, he spent a year in a military 
school in Vermont, and then went to Germany to complete his mili- 
tary education. Returning to his native land, he at once entered 
the service ; but at the end of six months, worn out with the toils of 
war, he laid down his life for the flag he had so bravely defended. 

SIXTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In our first volume [p. 585 ] we have given the original roster of 
the " Scotch Regiment," and a brief resumh of its history to the time 
of its re-enlistment in the veteran service. At the expiration of its 
veteran furlough, the 65th rejoined Sherman's grand Army of the 
West, twenty-five miles below Kingston, Georgia. It was in the 
Atlanta campaign, participating in the battles of Kenesaw Mountain, 
Rough and Ready, Atlanta, Jonesboro, &c. It then went into camp 
at Decatur, and on the 5th of October broke camp and started in 
pursuit of Hood, who was operating on our rear against the line of 
supplies. The pursuit was changed to a retreat, in which the whole 
army joined. At Columbia, Tennessee, November 25th and 26th, 
the 65th had a sharp skirmish with the rebels, suffering severely. 
The tables were turned again at Franklin, where Hood received a 
check, which culminated at Nashville in his disastrous defeat. In 
these battles the 65th bore a most gallant part, and after the victory 
pursued the rebels to Clifton. On the 15th of January, 1865, the 



PATRIOTISM OF [LLIHOI8. 

66th was Bent, via Cinoinnati, Washington and Annapolis, to Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, arriving there on the Ttli of February. 
1!' • it did excellent service until the city fell, on the 22d, wken it 
wcni Into oamp until March 6th. < )n tin- Tt h it marched to Kingston, 
where tin- oon-veterana w ere detached and sent home for muster out. 
Tie regimenl wras then ordered \>> Goldsboro, and thence marched 
R ileigh, where Sherman received the surrender of the rebel armies, 
[t then went to Greensboro, into permanenl camp. Here, in .May, 
it received four companies of recruits, and in the latter part of June 
.cil tour officers and 260 men from the 92d Illinois, two officers 
ami 120 men from the 112th, and 25 men from the 107th. This filled 
its ranks to the maximum strength. On the 13th of July it was 
mustered out at Greensboro, and at once started for home. On tho 
24th it was paid off and discharged at Chicago. 

THREE MONTHS' REGIMENTS OF 1862. 

To preserve the uniformity of the record, mention should be made 
at this point of the enlistment of the three months' regiments of 
1862. At a lime of threatening peril, Governor Fates received a 
telegram from Mr. Stanton, bearing date .May 25th, stating that the 
enemy was marching upon the National Capital in great force, and 
asking him to send forward without delay all the military force at 
his disposal, United States Volunteers and militia. On the 27th the 
call was revoked, but under it the three months' regiments below 
mentioned were organized and in cam]) in two weeks. The alacrity 
and enthusiasm were marvelous. With the exception of the 1 1st 
they remained on" guard duty in the State, and did good service by 
releasing veteran troops for the field. 

SIXTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 07th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, 
June 13, 1862, where it remained during its term of service. The 
following is its roster : 

Colonel, Rosell M. Hough ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Eugene H. Oakley ; Major, Wm. 
E.Haskell; Adjutant, Daniel T. nale ; Quartermaster, Isaac N. Buck ; Surgeon, 
Brock McVicker; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Roscoe L. Hall; Chaplain, William H. 
Ryder. 



THE THREE MONTHS ' REGIMENTS OF 1862. 263 

Co. A — Captain, Charles B. Hull ; 1st Lieutenant, King H. Milliken ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Judson Ellison. 

Co. B— Captain, John F. Scanlon; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Caldwell; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, David F. Maloney. 

Co. C — Captain, Hiram R. Enoch ; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Kerr ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Joseph S. Berry. 

Co. D — Captain, Judson W. Read; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick W. Cole; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Sharp. 

Co. E — Captain, Charles A. Heilig ; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Sexton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles H. Vogel. 

Co. F — Captain, William H. Frites ; 1st Lieutenant, Abram D. Van Veckten; 2d 
Lieutenant, Horace E. Dyer. 

Co G — Captain, Charles K. Purple ; 1st Lieutenant, Jeremiah Dockstater; 2d 
Lieutenant, Edward K. Valentine. 

Co. H — Captain, James W. Crane ; 1st Lieutenant, Stephen Allen ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alonzo Hilliard. 

Co. I — Captain, Ruel G. Rounds ; 1st Lieutenant, Kelsey Bond ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Murphy. 

Co. K — Captain, S. W. McKown ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Bailey; 2d Lieutenant, 
James Wright. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. '. 

The 68th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, June 20, 1862, 
where it spent its term of service. The following is its roster: 

Colonel, Elias Stuart ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Houston L. Taylor ; Major, George W. 
Lackey ; Adjutant, John S. Bishop ; Quartermaster, Samuel F. True ; Surgeon, 
Albert H. Lanphier. 

Co. A — Captain, John W. King; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Harrison; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Martin V. B. Parker. 

Co. B — Captain, Daniel F. Coffey ; 1st Lieutenant, Judson J. C. Gillespie ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William Reynolds. 

Co. C — Captain, John P. St John ; 1st Lieutenant, Elsey Blake ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Green B. Davis. 

Co. D — Captain, John C. Hall ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas K. Jenkins ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Hugh B. McKnight 

Co. E — Captain, Henry Davey; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Whiteman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Isaac N. Coltrin. 

Co. F — Captain, John W. Morris; 1st Lieutenant, John R. Larrimore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Lewis Ijamis. 

Co. G — Captain, James P. Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, Harvey C. DeMotte ; 2d Lien- 
tenant, John II. Stout. 

Co. H — Captain, Leroy T. Brown ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Hamilton; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Adam H. Bogardus. 

Co. I — Captain, John W. Bear; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Crisky; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, S. Wheaton West. 



20-i r.\i EtIOTISU OF ILLINOIS. 

'. Captain, Edward J. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas L. Masters; 2d Lieu- 
tenant. Biram L Dunn. 

SIXTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The O'.'tli regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and 
mustered into the Bervice on June 14, 1862, with the following 
roster : 

Col' b II. Tucker; Lieutenant-Colonel, Tliomas J. Pickett ; Major, George 

P.Smith; Adjutant, Abram H. Van Buren; Quartermaster, Charles W. Cringle ; 
on, Isaiah P. Lynn; Assistant Surgeon, Azro E. Goodwin ; Chaplain, William 
W. Everts. 

Co. A — Captain, Abram Lash, Jr. ; 1st Lieutenant, David Robinson Jr. ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Edward R. Virden. 

Co. B — Captain, Jonathan Kimball; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel II. Hunter; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas W. Tefft. 

Co. C — Captain, Lansing B. Tucker; 1st Lieutenant, James 0. McClellan ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John S. Mabie. 

Co. D — Captain, Frank J. Bush; 1st Lieutenant, Warficld B. Todd ; 2d Lieuten- 
anftRobert Irwin. 

Co. E — Captain, Tidel Schlund ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Vargcs ; 2d Lieutenant, 
August W. WUlige. 

Co. F — Captain, Fra/.cr Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, Ezra M. Beardslcy ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George Schemcrhorn. 

Co. G — Captain, Joseph A. Vincent ; 1st Lieutenant, E. S. Scribner; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Herbert. 

Co. U — Captain, James W. Rearden; 1st Lieutenant, Eli B. Baker; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Edwin F. Bennett. 

Co. I — Captain, William C. Hale; 1st Lieutenant, Charles L. Peny; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alvah R. Jordan. 

Co. K — Captain, John Coakley ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Tousley ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Isaac H. Allen. 

SEVENTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 70th regiment was organized and mustered into the service 
at Camp Butler, July 4, 1862, with the following roster : 

Colonel, Owen T. Reeves; Lieutenant-Colonel, John D. Sage; Major, Joseph H. 
Scibird ; Adjutant, James B. Breese ; Quartermaster, John B. Burrows ; Assistant 
Surgeon, Madison Recce ; Chaplain, William C. Lacy. 

Co. A — Captain, Gilbert Summe ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel E. Wishhard; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Benjamin Hove. 

Co. B — Captain, William Perce ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Bills; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John S. Clark. 



THE SEVENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 265 

Co. C — Captain, John T. Maddux ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Black ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James G. Seward. 

Co. D — Captain, George W. Fox ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac P. Wilson ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William M. Lewis. 

Co. E — Captain, Daniel D. Snyder ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Hinman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George Dempsey. 

Co. F — Captain, Alfred Comings ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles P. Fleshbein ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William J. Allen. 

Co. G — Captain, Newton Harlan; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Beyles; 2d Lieutenant, 
Daniel 0. Martin. 

Co. H — Captain, James 0. Donald ; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Robinson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Albert Braxton. 

Co. I — Captain, James Hudson; 1st Lieutenant, George Wilderboor; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William T. Hudson. 

Co. K — Captain, George R. Brumlay ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert W. Musgrave ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Henry A. Club. 

SEVENTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The Vlst regiment was organized and mustered into the service at 
Camp Douglas, Chicago, July 26, 1862, with the following roster: 

Colonel, Othniel Gilbert; Lieutenant-Colonel, James 0. P. Burnside ; Major, 
DeWitt C. Marshall ; Adjutant, Henry G. Hicks; Quartermaster, James H. Moore; 
Chaplain, William C. Mason. 

Co. A — Captain, Jerome B. Fuller ; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Lafferty ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles C. Jamison. 

Co. B — Captain, Luther W. Black; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Snyder; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Emanuel Stover. 

Co. C — Captain, Charles A. Summers ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Hartman ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Solomon N. Nebleck. 

Co. D — Captain, Horatio G. Coykcndall ; 1st Lieutenant, James L. Smedley ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charles C. Huntley. 

Co. E — Captain, Charles Parker; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron S. Hadley ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William D. Lattimer. 

Co. F — Captain, Pliny L. Fox ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin H. Towner; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James N. Phillips. 

Co. G — Captain, William H. Weaver; 1st Lieutenant, James C. Tice ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas B. Collins. 

Co. H — Captain, Theodore M. Brown ; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Heffington ; 2d 
Lieutenant, George W. Pittman. 

Co. I — Captain, Jesse P. M. Howard ; 1st Lieutenant, David P. Murphy ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John M. Loy. 

Co. K — Captain, James Creed; 1st Lieutenant, Flavius J. Carpenter; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Absalom A. Lasater. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FROM ATLANTA TO MILLEN. 

Toward the Sea — Communications Citt — Impedimenta Removed — TnE Eagle's 
Wings — Composition — General Orders for the Campaign — Soldierly and States- 
manlike — Supplies — Sherman and the Atlanta Authorities — Atlanta Burnt — 
" On to the Sea " — Astonishment at Sherman's Plan — Rerel Reading — English 
Views — Northern Opinions — His Faith in Thomas — Four Columns — Advances — 
Skismishss — Macon — Wolcott Wounded — Irwinton — Into Milledgeville — New 
Legislature — Thanksgiving — Rebel Pronbnciamentoes — The Four Rivers — Gris- 

WOLDSVILLE SaNDERSVILLE — KiLPATRlCK'S MARCH ON MlLLEN FALLS BaCK Is 

Assaulted — Defence — Louisville — Ready to go South. 

WE resume the march toward the sea. Thomas was entrusted 
with holding Hood at Nashville until ready -to crush him, and 
render his army no longer capable of mischief. Sherman was about 
to cut all connections between his army and Washington, between 
his men and their homes, between his Grand Army and the stores of 
the Government ; his men were to march to the sea before they could 
send or receive messages from their families, and henceforth their 
living was to be drawn from the country they traversed. The loth 
and 17th Army Corps were moved deliberately to the neighborhood 
of Smyrna, Kilpatrick's cavalry and the 20th were at Atlanta, and 
the 14th marched to Kingston, where Sherman arrived in person 
November 2d. Here he put his army in light marching order— extra 
baggage and artillery, the small army of refugees, the sick, wounded 
— in short all impedimenta were sent to Chattanooga. On the 11th 
Sherman sent his final dispatch to Halleck, and on the 12th his com- 
mand was isolated. General Corse destroyed bridges, manufactories, 
etc., at Rome; Steadman gathered the garrisons northward from 
Kingston, and with the public property, rails and railway stock, back- 
ward from Resaca, went into Chattanooga. The railway between 



THE WINGS — ORDERS. 267 

the Ostanaula and Etowah was not destroyed, as it seemed impor- 
tant to leave it for General Thomas should he find it necessary to 
occupy the country to the Etowah line. 

Two huge wings were to envelop the rebellion. The right, under 
Howard, composed of the 15th Corps, commanded by Osterhaus, and 
the 1 7th under Blair ; the left was under Slocum, with the 14th under 
Jeff. C. Davis, and the 20th commanded by General A. S. Williams. 
In the 15th Army Corps were the divisions of Woods, Hazen, John E. 
Smith and Corse. We meet in Hazen's command the scarred vete- 
rans organized by Sherman at Paducah, and led by him at Shiloh, 
and commanded afterward by David Stuart, Smith and Blair. The 
17th Army Corps comprised the divisions of Mower, Leggett and 
Giles A. Smith. The 14th Army Corps comprised the divisions of 
Carlin, James D. Morgan and Baird. The 20th, to form which the 
11th and 12th Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac had been 
consolidated, consisted of the divisions of Jackson, Geary and Ward. 
The aggregate of infantry was about 60,000. There was a division 
of cavalry under Kilpatrick, 5,500 strong ; this was divided in two 
brigades commanded by Colonel E. H. Murray of Kentucky, and 
Colonel Smith D. Atkins of the famous 92d Illinois mounted Infan- 
try. There was one field gun to each thousand men. 

On the 14th the entire force was again grouped around the doomed 
city of Atlanta. 

On the 9th, while at Kingston, the Commander-in-Chief issued 
the general orders for the great campaign. The first directed the 
grand march to be, whenever practicable, by four roads as nearly 
parallel as possible to converge under orders from head-quarters ; 
the cavalry was to receive special orders from himself. 

"III. There will be no general trains of supplies, but each corps will have its 
ammunition and provision train distributed as follows: Behind each regiment should 
follow one wagon and one ambulance ; behind each brigade should follow a due pro- 
portion of ammunition wagons, provision wagons and ambulances. In case of danger 
each army corps commander should change this order of march by having his advance 
and rear brigades unencumbered by wheels. The separate columns will start habit- 
ually at seven A. M., and make about fifteen miles a day, unless otherwise fixed in 
orders. 

"IV. The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. To this 
end each brigade commander will organize a good andsufncent foraging party under 
the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route trav- 



2 18 r \i MOT IBM OF II. I. IN' 

eled, of any kind, vegetables, corn, meat, or what- 

ever is needed by the command ; aiming, at all times, to keep in the wagon trains 

at least ten days' provision for tbe < imand, and three days' forage. Boldiers must 

nter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass: during the halt 
or at camp they maj be permitted to gather turnij . and othei 

and drive in stock in front of their camps. To regular foraging parties must !"• 
entrusted th<' gathering of provisions and forage at any distance from the road 
traveled 

•• V. To army corps commanders is entrusted the pow p to de rtroy mill3, houses, 
cotton-gins, etc, and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and 
neighborhoods where the armj is unmolested, no destruction of such property should 
be permitted ; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the 
inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then 
army corps commanders should order and en force a devastation more or less relent- 
less, according to the measure of such hostility. 

" VI. As for horses, mules, wagons, etc., belonging to the inhabitants, the cavalry 
and artillery may appropiiate fully and without limit, discriminating however, 
between the rich, who aie usually hostile, and the poor or industrious, usually neu- 
tral or friendly. Foraging parties may also take mules or horses to replace the 
jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for regiments or brigades. 
In all foraging of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or 
threatening language, and may, when the officer in command thinks proper, give 
certificates of the facts, but no receipts; and they will endeavor to leave with each 
family a reasonable portion for their maintenance. 

" VII. Negroes who arc able bodied, and can be of service to the several columns, 
may be taken along ; but each army commander will bear in mind that the question 
of supplies is a very important one, and that his first duty is to see to those who 
bear arms." 

There were also orders to pioneer battalions to prepare roads, 
crossings, etc., and requiring Captain O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer, to 
assign each wing a pontoon train and require its protection. 

These orders are the evidence alike of high military ability and 
statesmanship. The army of the Union must march to the sea. The 
enemy would not suffer uninterrupted communication with its base 
of supplies .in the rear. Then the enemy's country should furnish 
the supplies. It had abundance; its soil was rich ; its fields and 
gardens were full ; its granaries freshly replenished, its barns pleth- 
oric — Sherman would compel the country which made the war 
support his army as well as that of Hood. All that was right. It was 
politic to say that private property should be treated according to the 
spirit of the owners. Houses, mills and cotton-gins might stand if 
there was quiet submission ; if there was the contrary they should 
light the pathway of the grand march — the residents might choose. 



SHERMAN ON WAR. 269 

There was partial immunity and complete personal safety to such as 
acquiesced ; as for others their " treason was made odious," and they 
must suffer. We had learned after a long discipline and a costly 
pupilage, that war was something terribly and deadly earnest, and 
that only when the interior South should feel its ravages could we 
hope to bring it to an end. 

This came out more fully in Sherman's correspondence with the 
authorities of Atlanta. He ordered the city to be vacated by its 
inhabitants, and an earnest protest was sent in by the Mayor and 
conncilmen. He answered in a letter worthy of preservation among 
the noted military documents of history. We can only give a few 



"I give full credit to your statements of the distress that will be occasioned, and 
yet shall not revoke my order, simply because my orders are not destined to meet 
the humanities of the case, but to prepare for the future struggle in which millions, 
yea hundreds of millions of good people outside of Atlanta have a deep interest. 
We must have peace not only in Atlanta, but in all America. To secure this we 
must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and favored country. To stop 
the war we must defeat the rebel armies that are now arrayed against the laws and 
constitution which all men must respect and obey. 

********* 

"War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it ; and those who brought war on our 
country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. 

********* 

" You might as well appeal against the thunder storm as against the terrible hard- 
ships of war. They are inevitable, and the only way the people of Atlanta can hope 
once more to live in peace and quiet at home is to stop this war, which can alone be 
done by admitting that it began in error, and is perpetuated in pride. We don't 
want your negroes, nor your horses, or your houses, or ycur land, or anything you 
have ; but we do want and will have a just obedience to the laws of the United 
States." 

On the 15th of November, by his orders, Atlanta was wrapped in 
a general conflagration, and in the glow of its flames commenced the 
grand march 

" From Atlanta to the sea." 

The publication of Sherman's plan astonished the world. Rebel 
journals expressed their pleasure, and assured the world that it was 
what, above all things, they most desired. In the East Lee had 
Grant just where he wanted him, and now Sherman, abandoning 



L'TO PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

supplies and defences, was marohing his army Btraighl into their 
power. An aroused people were to hang upon his flanks with fire 
and sword; before him would go destruction, and instead of making 
he would find destitution, while formidable combinations under great 
military Leaders would confront and overwhelm his hunger-weakened 
troops. In the lighl of his march, such is qo"w refreshing reading. 

In Europe various opinions were expressed. The London Times 
said, "Since the ureal Duke of Marlborough turned his back upon 
the Dutch, and plunged heroically into Germany to fight the famous 
battle of Blenhiem, military history lias recorded no stranger marvel 
than the mysterious expedition of General Sherman on an unknown 
route against an undiseoverahle enemy;" and a military journal of 
England said, "lie has done either one of the most brilliant or one 
of the most foolish things ever performed by a military leader." 

At home, among loyal people, there was confidence mingled with 
serious apprehension. Thoughtful men said he will find the bulk of 
population largely made up of slaves, who will hail his coming as a 
deliverer, and there will be little bushwhacking, for the whites will 
not venture to provoke both an advancing army and a domestic force 
strong enough to crush them. Many feared that he would find it 
impossible to subsist his large force; others that he must fail in 
reducing strongly fortified places, ami thai his only success wouldbe 
that of a raid on a gigantic scale. Others trembled Lest Hood should 
crush Thomas, and then turn upon Sherman while armies from the 
coast should confront him, and secure his destruction. Sherman him- 
self said, "If Thomas had not whipped Hood at Nashville, 600 miles 
away, all my plans would have failed, and I would have been 
denounced the world over, but I knew General Thomas, and the 
troops under his command, and never for a moment doubled a favor- 
able result." 

The army moved in four columns, on two general lines, Sherman 
being with Jeff. C. Davis' division. Howard with the right wing 
moved from Whitehall on the 15th. His force was in two columns, 
Osterhaus marching by Rough and Ready, and turning to the left 
tow r ard McDonough, a short distance from Jonesboro, while Blair 
marched to McDonough via the direct road. Kilpatrick was with 
the right wing, and met the enemy's cavalry in force near East Point, 



MARCHING — MACON. 271 

and drove it to the crossing of Flint River, and Osterhaus met it 
at one or two points. Howard marched on the 16th by three routes 
to the vicinity of McDonough. At Cotton River Osterhaus barely 
saved the bridge, fired by the retreating cavalry. Kilpatrick crossed 
the Flint near Jonesboro at 7 A. M., and chased the foe to Lovejoy's, 
where they had taken position in the old rebel works with two pieces 
of artillery. Murray's brigade was dismounted, and carried the 
works. Atkins pursued them, overtook them, made a brilliant charge 
and captured their artillery. 

On the 17th, the right wing, still in three columns, reached Jack- 
son ; on the succeeding day the Ocmulgee was crossed ; on the 19th, 
with much difficulty, the trains mounted a steep and slippery hill, 
and it was not until the morning of the 20th the troops were all over 
the river. On the 20th the force moved on Gordon in two columns, 
Kilpatrick via the Clinton road and river road toward Macon ; Oster- 
haus toward Clinton, and Blair by Blountsville. Kilpatrick waited 
at Clinton until the infantry arrived, and advanced toward Macon ; 
met the enemy on the left hand road four miles from the city, drove 
them in, and charged their works though defended by artillery 
strongly supported. He forced the head of the column into the 
defences, but could not hold them. He struck the railway, destroyed 
a mile of track and a train of cars. On the 21st he took an advanced 
position covering all the roads leading from Macon. By the 22d the 
entire right wing closed up near Gordon. A demonstration was 
made toward Macon. The rebel cavalry made a dash and captured 
a cavalry picket post, but after a spirited encounter was driven from 
the ground in disorder. In the afternoon Wolcott's brigade met a 
sharp attack from rebel infantry and artillery, but repulsed it ; Gene- 
ral Wolcott being wounded. Howard ordered an advance forward 
to secure Oconee bridge, and prepare it for. crossing. On the 23d 
the entire wing was in or about Gordon, and Hazen's division of the 
old 15th was marching on Irwinton, while Blair was wrecking the 
Macon and Savannah Railway. 

Slocum's command, the left wing of Sherman's grand army, left 
Atlanta on the 13th and on the Decatur road, and encamped that 
night near the Augusta railway, south of Stone Mountain. It moved 
along the Augusta railway, destroying it as far as Madison. It then 



272 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

moved south upon Milled jeville, the capita] of Georgia, which it 
reached on the 21st and 22d. Governor Brown and his legislature 
fled, forgetting the roU of Rolla, which the people had beenexh 
t" play. The soldiers organized a legislature, and performed divers 
acta of Legislation not precisely recognized by the Georgian Consti- 
tution or usual under its peculiar institutions. 

Davis' l i:h Army Corps moved from Altanta on the lGth, via 
Decatur ami Covington. On the 18th it crossed STellow River on 
pontoon bridges; on the 19th crossed the Ulcofauhatchee and 
marched to Shady Dale ; on the 20th was at Eatonton Factories; 
on the 23d it went into camp near Milledgeville. 

After our boys had adjourned their Legislature they celebrated 
thanksgiving day in the heart of the rebellion. They were merry, 
and sang and shouted to their hearts 1 content. Turkeys and chickens 
were at every mess fire, and the exercises were enlivened by such 
national songs as 

"John Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave," 

and 

" We'll rally round the flag, boys," 

while the army poets improvised stanzas adapted to the occasion. 

The enemy was alarmed by the magnitude and celerity of these 
movements, and made frantic appeals to the people to resist. Beau- 
regard appears once more, as witness : 

" Corinto, November 18th, ) 
" via Sklma, November 18th.) 

" TO THE FEOrLE OF GEORGIA. 

"Arise for the defence of your native soil! Patriotic Governor and gallant 
soldiers. Obstruct and destroy all the roads in Sherman's front, flank and rear, and 
his army will soon starve in your midst. Be confident ! Be resolute ! Trust in an 
overruling Providence and success will soon crown your efforts. I hasten to join 
you in defence of your homes. 

"G. T. Beauregard." 

Then spoke out the Georgia delegation in Congress as follows : 

"Richmond, November 19th. 

"TO THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA. 

"We have had a special conference with President Davis and the Secretary of 
War, and are able to assure you that they have done and are still doing all that can 
be done to meet the emergency that presses upon you. Let every man fly to arms. 



EEBEL PKONUNCIAMENTOES. 273 

Remove your negroes, horses, cattle and provisions from Sherman's army, and bura 
what you cannot carry. Burn all bridges and block up the roads in his route. Assail 
the invader in front, flank and rear, by night and day." 

Safe advice given at the distance of Richmond, but not easy of 
execution to the "People of Georgia." Senator B. H. Hill issued 
his manifesto from Richmond also, addressed to the People of 
Georgia. 

"You have now the best opportunity ever presented to you to destroy the enemy. 
Put everything at the disposition of our Generals, remove all provisions from the 
path of the invaders, and put all the obstructions you can in his way. 

" Every citizen with his gun, and every negro with his spade and ax can do the 
work of a good soldier. You can destroy the enemy by retarding his march. Geor- 
gians, be firm ! Act promptly, and fear not ! " 

And to this manifesto was appended 

" I most cordially approve the above. 

"James A. Sedden, Secretary of War." 

But in vain. The day had gone by when Beauregard's name was 
a tower of strength, or when the decree of Southern Congressional 
hotspurs could call armies into the field. Senator Hill was to see 
that the negroes could not be safely trusted either with spade or ax, 
as quasi soldiers of the C. S. A. 

On the 27th and 28th both wings were temporarily encamped 
between Sandersville and Irwin's Cross Roads, in the vicinity of the 
Georgia Central Railway. Four large rivers lay at the outset in the 
line of Sherman's march, all tending southeasterly; viz., the Ocmul- 
gee, Oconee, Ogeechee and Savannah, with smaller streams and much 
marshy ground between the last named two. The right wing passed 
the Oconee below the Oconee Bridge, and the left at Milledgeville. 
The Ogeechee was crossed at Finn's Bridge in the march from 
Sandersville, and the main army grouped about Louisville in Jeffer- 
son County, where it made a temporary halt, foraging, bringing in 
mules and horses, and " working on the railroad." A portion of the 
15th Corps was left at Griswoldville to protect the rear in the march 
upon Milledgeville, which was furiously assaulted by three rebel brig- 
ades, which met a bloody repulse, leaving behind in killed and 
wounded nearly a thousand men. At Sandersville there was some 
skirmishing with Wheeler's cavalry. 
18 



274 PATRIOTISM OF Il.l.iv 

'General Kilpatrick had marched from Milledgeville toward Mil- 
lcn on the 25th, hoping to liberate our brave prisoners held in torture 
disgraceful to humanity, and :i message was received from him on 
the 29th that he was ten miles from Louisville hard pressed by 
Wheeler's cavalry. He had struck the railway on the 27th, and had 
been constantly skirmishing with Wheeler, but had continued to 
destroy the road. At Waynesboro he learned that the prisoners 
had been removed two days before, and as the object of the expedi- 
tion was frustrated, he prudently resolved to fall hack and await the 
infantry. Atkins moved his brigade to the intersection of the 
Waynesboro and Louisville roads, where he was to have halted until 
Murray should move into the rear, but from some misunderstanding 
he moved on, and the remainder of the force was attacked and partly 
surrounded, but gallantly cut their way out, and the two detach- 
ments united, crossed Buckhead Creek, burned the bridge, and 
halted for needed rest two miles beyond. Word came that Wheeler 
wa> crossing with his entire force, and coming on in hot pursuit. 
Our force assumed the defensive with a strong position, the flanks 
thrown toward the rear, and such barricades as could be were pro- 
vided. On came the rebel cavalry in fine style, making a desperate 
charge only to be repulsed and rolled back, inflicting slight loss upon 
Kilpatrick. Our force advanced a few miles, and again halted, and 
were not pursued. Reinforcements were sent, but were not needed, 
aud on the 29th Kilpatrick joined the main army, taking position 
near the 14th Corps. 

The rivers were crossed, the enemy had been beaten at every 
point, the army was enthusiastic — the way was open to the sea, and 
Sherman was ready to go. 






v£ 






CHAPTER XVII. 

TO SAVANNAH. 

• The Right Wing — Two Columns — No. 9 — Millen — The Prison Pen — " 'Working 
the Road" — Captured Mail — Corduroy — Eden — Jenk's Bridge — Twelve Mile 
Post — King's Bridge — Enemy's Rifle Pits — Blair — In Sight of Savannah — TnE 
Left Wing — Its March — Montieth Swamp — "Water Witch" — Jacksonboro — 
Pontoons — Kilpatrick and Wheelf.r — Atkins — Waynesboro — The Ninety-se- 
cond Illinois — Before Savannah — Charleston Severed — Savannah Invested — 
Rebel Defenses — Fort McAllister — Hazen's Assault — Sherman on a Rice 
House — Illinois Regiments Engaged — Meets the Navy — Dahlgren and Foster — 
Guns from Port Royal — Assault Ordered — Hardee leaves Savannah — Geary 
goes in — Sherman to Lincoln — To the Sea — Bowman's Resume — Lincoln to Sher- 
man — Chattanooga to Savannah — The End not Yet. 

THE right wing swept down the Ogeechee. Osterhaus with its 
right, Sherman accompanying Blair, who with the 17th was on the 
left. November 30th Wood and Corse encamped near Deep Creek. 
Blair reached the Ogeechee at Barton, and crossed on a pontoon 
bridge. On the 1st of December the right wing moved in three 
columns, Hazen's and John E. Smith's divisions, the lower, on the 
Statesboro road; the middle, "Wood's and Corse's divisions, on the 
Savannah road, and Blair's corps along the Georgia railroad, destroy- 
ing as they went. At night the two columns on the right encamped 
opposite Station No. 8, where Wood secured and repaired a bridge, 
and sent over a detachment to break the railway and burn the depot 
both of which were done. Blair halted the 1 7th Corps at No. 9. 

On the 2d Blair entered Millen, having destroyed the road and 
depots to that point, with a large stock of cross-ties, lumber. It 
required an effort to restrain our gallant men at the seat of one of 
the Southern bastiles, where their comrades had suffered day after 
day, wearily and painfully watching the delayed coming of the 



-T 1 ' PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

delivering host. The prison Btockade was in a thick for< 9t of pine, 
six miles from the town. It was a square of fifteen acres, enclosed 
by ;i high log fence. Within was the dead line, :i rail-fence, and the 
lmts in which brave men burrowed, sickened, starved and died! In 
the center waa a brick kitchen — a quarter of a mile away was the 
hospital with accommodations for H" 1 ' patients, and withoutit were 
050 graves, a single month's mortality ! One unburied corpse, round 
in one of the huts received Christian burial. 

Wood and Corse rested near Clifton's Ferry, where they spanned 
the liver with a bridge, and Corse sent a brigade to assist the 17th 
in ' % working on the road." Scouts dashed on to Scarsboro and cap- 
tured a Savannah mail, and read the morning papers of that day, thus 
again establishing communication with the outside world, through 
rebel sources. The loth Corps remained in position the next day, 
sending additional forces to aid in destroying the railway between 
Millen and Scarsboro. The 1 7th Corps came up to No. 7, near 
Scarsboro and encamped. On the 1th Wood and Corse reached 
Wilson's Creek, and Blair, with part of Corse's men made Station 
5£ ; Ilazen and Smith reached Scarsboro, Hazen having had a brush 
with rebel cavalry, and having been compelled to make a corduroy 
road through swampy ground. On the 5th advances were made with 
little opposition. On the Gth reconnoissances were made in various 
directions. Efforts to save the bridges for crossing were made, but 
the rebels hail fired them. At Eden Station the bridge was partially 
burned, but Colonel Williamson constructed afoot-bridge, and threw 
over a small force, which went to the railway, one detachment going 
as far as Twenty-mile Station, fighting both ways. General Howard 
sent a Lieutenant to strike the Gulf railroad, but he found too strong 
a rebel force before the approaches to the burning bridge over the 
Cannonchee, and fell back. Wood's command rested at Wright's 
Bridge, except a brigade which crossed on the foot-bridge mentioned, 
and marched down the east bank toward Eden. At Jcnk's Bridge 
a pontoon bridge was laid, in spite of bold resistance, and the troops 
began to cross. General Rice, of Corse's division, encountered the 
rebel force and drove them from behind rail barricades, receiving 
small loss. The other troops advanced as rapidly as possible. 

General Howard resolved on the 8th to dislodge the enemy, reported 



EDEN. 277 

to have a strong force at the Twelve-mile post, and sent two divi- 
sions of the 15th down the west bank of the Ogeechee, to force the 
crossing of the Cannonchee, cut the Gulf railway and take King's 
Bridge across the Ogeechee, and to reconnoiter between the Big and 
Little Ogeechee. The way was tilled with trees, etc., which were 
removed; a burnt bridge over the Savannah Canal was replaced in a 
half hour, and the bridge near the mouth of the canal found sufficient 
for pontoon crossing, which was laid. A reconnoissance disclosed 
the rebels in force at the junction of the road upon which our troops 
were moving and the King's Bridge and Savannah road. Osterhaus 
got over the Cannonchee with two brigades, and the 17th Corps, 
corduroying much of the way, toiled up to Eden, or Station No. 2. 

On the 9th Blair came upon the rifle-pits of the foe, three miles 
and a half from Station No. 2, and launched upon them a force which 
drove the occupants, but the pursuers were stopped by an entrenched 
line defended by guns in position. Blair's advance was through a 
thickly wooded swamp, full of undergrowth, but his three battle lines, 
preceded by hardy skirmishers made their way, driving the enemy, 
reaching Station No. 1, where he camped for the night. Savannah 
was near. Soon the ardent troops hoped to bathe their blistered 
feet in the waters of the sea ! 

The Savannah and Gulf railway was reached and cut by the 15th 
Corps. Corse confronted six hundred rebels with two pieces of 
artillery. A single brigade dislodged them, capturing one of their 
guns, and chasing them within twelve miles of the city. His 
advance crossed the Little Ogeechee and camped within eight miles 
of Savannah. King's Bridge was burnt, but pontoons spanned the 
Ogeechee, and thus, almost within sight of Savannah, Howard, under 
the eye of his chieftain, united the columns of his victorious army, 
and gave adoring praise to the God he worshiped. 

Slocum was not idle, but was crowding forward his army, the left 
wing of the great Eagle swooping down upon the South. 

Williams' 20th Corps left Louisville December 1st, marching until 
the 8th via the Louisville and Savannah road, down the Peninsula 
between the Ogeechee and Savannah rivers, and on the 8th encamp- 
ing near Eden Cross-roads. His intermediate stops were Baker's 
Creek, Buckhead Church, Horse Creek, Little Ogeechee, Sylvania 



278 PATRIOTISM OF [LUNOI8. 

Cross-roads, Cowpens and Jack's Branch, near Springfield. From 
K len the march was eastward inward Montieth Post-office, on the 
Charleston Railway. The Montieth Swamp, one of formidable 
extent, was to be crossed, and obstructions were anticipated, and 
found in the form of felled trees, two limited earthworks, one gun 
and a small infantry force, which soon gave way- The corps reached 
Montieth Station on the 10th, destroyed several miles of the railway, 
and marched to a point near the five-mile post on the Augusta and 
Savannah Railroad. A rebel dispatch-boat with Hardee's dispatches 
was overhauled. The boat was the Water Witch, formerly of our 
navy. Here our corps halted, finding a strong rebel line before 
them. 

Carlin's division of the 14th Corps marched to Sebastopol, and on 
the 2d of December joined the corps, and the column encamped at 
the crossing of the Birdsville and Waynesboro roads. Morgan's 
division, in charge of the corps train, encamped two miles from 
Louisville. General Sherman indicated Jacksonboro as the next cen- 
ter for the 14th Corps. On the 3d General Davis crossed the creek 
with pontoon bridges, and ordered Baird and Kilpatrick to move 
from Reynold's toward Waynesboro, as though destined to Augusta. 
They halted near Thomas' Station in presence of a pretty strong 
rebel force. Carlin and Morgan made Lumpkin's Station at the cross- 
ing of the Jacksonboro road and the Augusta and Savannah rail- 
road. On the 4th they moved with their corps trains, leaving a long 
stretch of wrecked railway (for in the hands or* those Illinois opera- 
tors Southern railway stocks declined) and made thirteen miles. 
Baird and Kilpatrick skirmished sharply with Wheeler's cavalry, 
driving it over Brier Creek, and Baird tore up several miles of track. 
On the 5th the corps converged near Jacksonville ; on the next day 
it crossed the Beaver-dam and marched twenty miles to Hudson's 
Ferry on the Savannah River. 

Onward through dense timber, pontooning streams, building cor- 
duroy, yet ever indomitable, the march continued, Atkins covering 
the rear, and on the 9th Morgan found the rebel force in a strong 
field work to contest the path. He placed his guns, opened fire, 
deployed his infantry, but night compelled inaction, and when morn- 
ing came the enemy was gone. On the 10th Carlin and Morgan 



OUR CAVALRY — WAYNESBORO. 279 

reached the Ten-mile House and camped, giving the road to the 20th 
Corps. Baird was covering the rear, tearing track and aiming at 
the destruction of the costly bridge over the Savannah. 

The cavalry had met some experiences not yet recorded. After I 
various skirmishes with Wheeler, the force of Kilpatrick was busily 
engaged on the 3d in the usual railway operation. Wheeler burst 
upon one of Atkins' regiments, expecting to crush it, but was 
repulsed. Sherman had ordered a reconnoissance toward Waynes- 
boro, and that wherever Wheeler was found he should be fought, 
and Kilpatrick ordered all impedimenta out of his way, and early on 
the 4th moved out in the clear crisp air, with Atkins in advance. 
The enemy was found and his skirmish line driven in. Atkins 
advanced and assailed his works, but found the cavalry dismounted, 
and posted behind strong barricades, the flanks secured, and his first 
effort failed. The gallant 92d Illinois dismounted; the 10th Ohio 
and 9th Michigan cavalry were also dismounted, and in columns of 
four, by battalions sent on the right, and the 9th Ohio in the same 
order on the left. Then Captain Beebe brought up his 10th Wis- 
consin battery within six hundred yards and opened a terrific fire, 
silencing the rebel artillery. The charge was sounded and forward 
went the line, Illinois, Michigan and Ohio, going like an avalanche ! 
No pause, no stay, the barricades were reached and carried, and 
the rebel force broken into fragments. Desperately they rallied, and 
more than once attempted counter charges, and at one time with 
some show of success, but were again broken, and fell back to 
Waynesboro. There Wheeler was found even more strongly pro- 
tected, and his flanks secure. Kilpatrick ordered his center to be bro : 
ken, and Murray hurled his men upon it, broke it, scattered the foe, 
Wheeler's famous cavalry was completely routed, and the town was 
ours. 

After some unimportant skirmishing the division united ten miles 
south of Springfield, and moved to the rear of the 17th Corps. 

Thus from Atlanta onward through bog and morass, over all 
obstacles had thundered our legions, now the enemy flying to the 
defence of Macon, now of Augusta, again trembling for Charleston, 
confident that Yankee pride would strike for the nest where treason 
broke its shell, but now the two wings, having marched more than 



2S0 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

three hundred miles in twenty four days— feeding from rebel grana- 
ries ami Bmoke houses — to the defences of Savannah, within which 
was the army of Hardee, stretched out across the peninsula between 
the two rivers, and Savannah was doomed! 

Sherman, the crazy man of Kentucky was, already, well nigh the 
most (anions man in the world, but his work was not done — strat- 
egy and heroism were yet to do more. 

The investment of Savannah was made as complete as possible. 
On the 1 1th the left wing took position on the right and in front of 
the city ; the left of the 20th Corps rested on the Savannah, its right 
on the Ogeechee. The 17th Corps was on the right center, and the 
15th in reserve, ready to open communication with the fleet. 

Slocum had struck the Savannah and Charleston railway, and 
severed communication between those two cities, and had erected 
breastworks and placed artillery; Baird's division protected the rear 
of the left wing from Wheeler's cavalry raids, and planted batteries 
on the river to check rebel gunboats. The Union line stretched ten 
miles from the Savannah, where Slocum's left lay within three miles 
of the city, to the Gulf railway, where Howard's right was posted, 
ten miles from Savannah. General Sherman was using every effort 
to open communication with the fleet in Tybee, Wassaw and Ossa- 
baw Sounds, for its appearance at this time was part of the precon- 
certed scheme. Kilpatrick moved with alacrity through Sudbury to 
Kilkenny, and found the United States ship Fernandma, Captain 
West, in sight down the bay. 

The enemy's defences were formidable, following substantially a 
swampy creek which empties into the Savannah about three miles 
from the city, and thence to another which debouches into the Little 
Ogeechee. Only by five narrow causeways could the city be entered, 
and these were commanded by heavy artillery, while the banks of 
the canal and dykes were broken and the ground flooded. Hence 
Sherman decided on a complete investment, and establishing com- 
munication with the fleet before any assault should be made. 

On the 13th, however, Hazen,of the 15th Corps, was ordered to 
assault and carry Fort McCallister. King's Bridge, over the Ogee- 
chee, was burned, but was reconstructed in brief space, although a 
thousand feet in length, and Hazen took over his division, with a 



FORT Mc CALLISTER, 281 

detachment from the 17th Corps, and marched thirteen miles reach- 
ing the environs of the Fort at 1 P. M. He deployed his force about 
the place, both flanks resting upon the river, and posted his skirm- 
ishers judiciously behind the trunks of trees whose branches had 
been used for abattis, and about 5 P.' M. made his assault. Gene- 
ral Sherman says, " I witnessed the assault from a rice mill on the 
opposite side of the river, and can bear testimony to the handsome 
manner in which it was accomplished." 

Captain Conyengham, in his "March through the South," thus 
narrates the assault: 

"Hazen brought no artillery, as the ground was too swampy to move it, and he 
had decided on taking the fort by a bold dash, and at the point of the bayonet. 

" As soon as the line commenced moving over the open space the fort opened all 
its guns upon them. Hazen moving in a single line did not suffer much. 

" Their loss was mostly from torpedos, which now and then blew up, hurling piles 
of dirt on the column, and knocking some poor fellows over. The column was all 
this time rapidly closing up ; not a man wavered ; each resolved that the fort should 
be taken. As we got near enough we poured a steady fire in through the embras- 
ures, knocking off a good many of the gunners. We afterward found their bodies 
lying beside their pieces. The first obstruction we met was a thick abattis, which 
our troops tore up and crawled through. The column had now closed in around the 
fort; the guns were silenced, as nothing could live near them, so deadly was our fire. 
Only a deep ditch, studded with spikes, now separated us from the enemy. Into this 
the men jumped, tearing away the palisade, climbed up the crest, and mingled in 
a fierce hand-to-hand conflict with the foe. Shouts, groans and curses, the whir of 
the bullet, and the clash of steel rang from the enclosure. 

"The contest was of short duration, for our troops burst in on all sides, overpower- 
ing the enemy, who fought desperately, some of them being bayoneted at their 
pieces. The officers did all in their power to rally them ; several of them preferring 
death to dishonor. 

" The contest was over ; the palmetto had trailed in the dust ; the stars and stripes 
had floated in its place. The fort was ours — thus opening the navigation of the 
river — with its splendid guns, and large supply of arms, and a full ce!lar of rich old 
wines. This was one of the noblest exploits of the campaign, and proves how much 
quick, determined action can accomplish. Had Hazen sat down before this, to take 
it by regular siege, it would keep us days at work, and cost us more lives. As it was 
our loss in killed and wounded scarcely amounted to one hundred. 

"During the assault Generals Sherman and Howard and staffs occupied a Doctor 
Chevc's rice mill, opposite the fort, on the Ogeechee. Sherman was on the roof of 
the mill. He had signal officers Berkely and Cole there to communicate with Hazen. 
While anxiously looking out for Hazen's signals, Sherman's eagle eye descried smoke 
in the distance, seaward. As yet he had received no intelligence from the fleet, 
though Captain Duncan, chief of Howard's scouts had started on the hazardous enter- 
prise of opening communication with them as early as the 9th. 



282 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

" Sherman looked ; his bronzed features lighted up as he exclaimed — ' Look, Bow- 
ard ; there n the gunboat ! ' 

" Soon after the guns of the fort opened one fierce fire, while puffa of smoke 
ourled along Eazen'a line, showing that they were replying. Hazen signaled — 

■■ ' i have in ■ ested the fort, and « ill assault immediately.' 

" Berkelj announces a Bignal from the gunboat. All anxiously look out for it. 
The Bignals inform as that Foster and Dahlgrcn arc within speaking distance, and 
ask — 

" 'Can we run up? Is Fort McAllister ours?' 

" ' No, Bazen is just ready to storm it. Can you assist?' 

" • Yes ; wh it shall we do?' 

"Another moment, the thunder from the fort grew fiercer, the metallic rattle of 
small arms increase, and are borne clearly across the three miles of intervening 
marsh. Sherman looks toward the fort intensely with his glass, and exclaims, 

" 'How grandly they advance ! Not a waver ! ' 

"Again — 'Look, Howard, Look! Magnificent! See that flag how steadily it 
advances ! Not a man falters ! Grand, grand ! ' Again he looks, and turns to 
Howard ; 

" 'They arc closing in ; there is faltering there; no flinching. Stop; it has 
halted — they are wavering — Xo, heavens! it's over the parapet ! There, they go 
light over it ! See, see, there is a flag, and another, and another on the works — 
Hurrah, it's ours ! The fort's taken !' " 

The excitement of the greal Captain was natural. He was about 
to take the key to Savannah ; the fleet with its heavy guns and stores 
was at hand, and, beside, Hazen Mas leading his own old division, and 
he felt his old pride and soldierly affection all aglow. Turning to an 
aid he ordered a boat that he might go to the captured fort, from 
which a half dozen flags were already Hying. 

Illinois was fully represented in this brilliant assault. On the right 
of the attacking line was the 110th, under Lieutenant-Colonel Mad- 
dox, on the left, Colonel Martin commanded the 111th, in the center 
the old 48th was led by Major Adams, and the 00th by Colonel 
Stuart. Logan was not at the head of his eld division, but it won 
that day laurels as unwitheiing as any with which his daring or genius 
had ever crowned it. 

Sherman went down to the fort, and gave cordial greeting to Hazen 
and his men, and entering another boat was rowed down the Ogee- 
chee until he met the tug Dandelion, Captain Williamson, and learned 
that his scout, Captain Duncan, had reached Dahlgren and (General 
Foster, and that they were expected every hour in Ossabaw Sound 
He returned to the fort and wrote the Secretary of War: 



SUMMON TO SURRENDER. 283 

" The weather has been fine, and supplies were abundant. Our march has been 
most agreeable, and we were not at all worsted by guerrillas. * * 

We have not lost a wagon on the trip, but have gathered in a large supply of negroes, 
mules, etc., and our trains are in much better condition than when we started. * 
* * * The quick work made with Fort McAllister, and the opening 

of communication with our fleet, and the consequent independence for supplies dis- 
sipates all their boasted threats to head me off and starve the army. I regard 
Savannah as already gained." 

Major Strong, of Major-General Foster's staff, arrived at the fort 
before daybreak, and informed General Sherman that General Fos- 
ter was in the Ogeech.ee on the steamer Nemaha. Sherman went to 
him, and after some time they proceeded down the sound in search 
of Dahlgren, whom they found about noon in Wassau Sound. Con- 
ference was held ; Foster was to send some heavy artillery from 
Hilton Head; Dahlgren informed Sherman as to the fleet, the rebel 
forts guarding channels, etc., while Sherman informed the Admiral 
that with the exception of the plank-road on the South Carolina 
shore, Savannah was invested, and that he hoped to reach from his 
left flank across the Savannah River. He asked the fleet to engage 
the attention of the forts along the "Wilmington Channel at Beau- 
lieu and Rosedew, and he would take Savannah with his men as soon 
as his heavy guns could arrive from Hilton Head. 

Returning to his lines in the rear of Savannah, on the 15th, Gene- 
ral Sherman considered with care the reports of his subordinates, 
and formed his plan for assaulting the city on the arrival of the guns 
to be sent by General Foster. Several thirty-pounder Parrotts 
reached King's Bridge on the lVth, and he sent to Hardee, by flag 
of truce, a formal demand for the surrender of the city, and as a 
suggestion, enclosed a copy of Hood's demaud for the surrender of 
Dalton, with its sanguinary alternative, "No prisoners being taken 
in case of a refusal." Hardee answered coolly that the investment 
was incomplete ; that he had men and means to hold out, and that 
he should not surrender. 

General Sherman decided after careful and scientific reconnois- 
sance from the left flank that it was not prudent to push any consider- 
able force across the Savannah River, under fire from the rebel iron- 
clad gunboats, which could destroy our pontoons, and isolate any 
force which might cross from Hutchinson's Island to the South Caro- | 



2S4 PATRIOTISM OF tl LINOIB. 

lina shore. Arrangements were made for Slocum to assault, while 
he wenl in person to Port Royal, and arranged with Foster to rein- 
force a division placed in the poinl between the Coosawhatchie and 
Tullifenney rivers, at the head of Broad River, where In- could bring 
his artillery. There was a chivalrous strife among division com- 
manders who should firstenter the city. 

Preparations for the assault were nearly complete, when Hardee 
decided to n treat. Accordingly he opened a fierce fire of shot and 
(shell on the Union lines, from gunboats and batteries. On the night 
of the 20th he decamped, pontooncd the river, and marched toward 
Charleston on the only open road. General Geary, suspecting the 
movement, pushed his division up to the city, and on the morning of 
the '21st received the surrender of Savannah from the hands of the 
Mayor, and sent the tidings to his superior, General Slocum. 

Sherman sent to President Lincoln this note, dated December 22d: 

" I beg to present you as a Christmas gift with one hundred and fifty heavy guns, 
and plenty of ammunition, and also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton." 

The sea was reached. The wonderful march was made — the con- 
quering army had established its base — tons of letters from home 
were received, and eagerly read ; and the army of the Union had 
made another grand stage toward its final goal. 

Colonel Bowman, in his valuable work, "Sherman and his Cam- 
paigns," thus sums up: 

"The army marched over three hundred miles in twenty-four days, directly through 
the heart of Georgia, and reached the sea with its subsistence trains almost unbroken. 
In the entire command, five officers and fifty-eight men killed, thirteen officers and 
two hundred and thirty-two men wounded, and one officer and two hundred and fifty- 
eight men missing ; making a total list of casualties of but nineteen commissioned 
officers and five hundred and forty eight men, or five hundred and sixty-seven of all 
ranks. Seventy-seven officers and twelve hundred and sixty-one men of the Con- 
federate army, or thirteen hundred and thirty-eight in all, were made prisoners. 
Ten thousand negroes left the plantations of their former masters, and accompanied 
the column when it reached Savannah, without taking note of thousands more who 
joined the army, but from various causes had to leave it at different points. Over 
20,000 bales of cotton were burned beside the 25,000 captured at Savannah. ] 3,000 
head of beef-cattle, 9,500,000 pounds of corn, and 10,500,000 pounds of fodder were 
taken from the country, and issued to the troops and animals. The men lived mainly 
on the sheep, hogs, turkeys, geese, chickens, sweet potatoes and rice gathered by 
the foragers from the plantations along the route of each day's march. Sixty thou- 
sand, taking merely of the surplus which fell in their way as they marched rapidly 



LINCOLN TO SHERMAN. 285 

over the main roads, subsisted for three weeks in tho very country where the Union 
prisoners at Andersonville were starved to death or idiocy. Five thousand horses 
and four thousand mules were impressed for the cavalry and trains ; three hundred 
and twenty miles of railway were destroyed, and the last remaining links of com- 
munication between the Confederate armies in Virginia, and the West effectually 
severed by burning every tie, twisting every rail while healed red hot over the flam- 
ing piles of ties, and laying in ruin every depot, engine-house, repair-shop, water- 
tank and turn-table." 

This wonderful march, made in four great columns, was from first 
to last a mystery to the rebel authorities, who knew not at what point 
the cloud they saw would launch its vengeful bolt. Their old van- 
tage of interior Hues was gone. 

Mr. Lincoln was overjoyed. From the time the army leaped from 
its base at Atlanta until the head of the conquering column was 
before Savannah the Government was in suspense, hearing nothing 
except through rebel journals. Sherman's brief dispatch brought 
unutterable gladness to the patriot President. He immediately 
replied : 

" Executive Mansion, ) 

"Washington, D. C, Dec. 26, 1864.) 
"My Dear General Sherman: 

" Many, many thanks for your Christmas gift, the capture of Savannah. 

" When you were about to leave Atlanta for the Atlantic coast, I was ayixious, if 
not fearful ; but feeling you were the better judge, and remembering that ' nothing 
risked, nothing gained,' I did not interfere. Now, the undertaking being a success, 
the honor is all yours, for I believe none of us went further than to acquiesce. And 
taking the work of General Thomas into the count, as it should be taken, it is, indeed, 
a great success. 

"Not only does it afford the obvious and immediate millitary advantages, but in 
showing to the world that your army could be divided, putting the stronger part to 
an important new service, and yet leaving enough to vanquish the old opposing 
forces of the whole — Hood's army — it brings those who sat in darkness to see a great 
light. 

"But what next? I suppose it will be safe if I leave General Grant and your- 
self to decide. 

" Please make my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, officers and men. 

"Yours, very truly, 

"A. Lincoln." 

From Chattanooga to Savannah, and the end not yet. 



C II A P T E R XVIII. 

THE CLOSE OF 1S64— TOE OPENING OF 18C5. 

Mr. Stanton's Summary of 1864 — Resume — Banks — Sherman — Stanton and Thomas 
— Hood's Army Destroyed — JoilN Morgan — Other Operations — In the East — 
The Vai.i.ey of the Shenandoah — Sheridan — The Lost Battle Saved — Opening 
Year — Grant Reports the Situation — Stanton's Enumeration — Reduction of 
Fort Fisher — Schofield's Corps — Battle at Kingston — Canby's Department — 
Mobile — Defences — The Forts — Farragut — The Flan — Lashed Vessels — Pass 
the Forts — Gunboats — Ram Tennessee — Terrific Fight — Triumph — Mobile Bay 
Ours — Forts Surrender — The City Invested — Carr's Brigades Assault and 
Carry The Spanish Fort — Fort Blakf.ley Taken — Our Losses — Mobile Ours — 
Losses — Captures — Wilson's Gigantic Alabama Raid — Andersonville — Record 
of its Honored Dead. 

THE year was closing with grand achievements to the cause of the 
Union. The Secretary of War reported the forces under arms 
at the opening of the spring campaigns as follows: 

Department of Washington 42,124 

Army of the Fotomae 120,380 

Department of Virginia and North Carolina 59,129 

Department of the South 18,165 

Department of the Gulf 61,866 

Department of Arkansas 23,666 

Department of the Tennessee 74, 1 74 

Department of the Missouri 13,770 

Department of the Northwest 5,295 

Department of Kansas 4,798 

Head-quarters military division of the Mississippi 476 

Department of the Cumberland 1 19,948 

Department of the Ohio 35,416 

Northern Department 9,546 

Department of West Virginia 30,782 

Department of the East 2 » 828 

Department of the Susquehanna 2,970 



Thomas' report. 287 

Middle Department 5,627 

Ninth Army Corps 20,780 

Department of New Mexico 3,454 

Department of the Pacific 5,141 

Total 062,345 

The spring operations of the West began in March with the ill-fated 
expedition of Banks against Kirov Smith, costing our State so 
heavily in the loss of men. Sherman began his brilliant campaigns 
in May. Atlanta gained, Hood was bated with the golden apple of 
West Tennessee, and clutched eagerly at the tempting lure. We 
have seen the result. Secretary Stanton, in his report, thus introduces 
and quotes from General Thomas : 

" While General Sherman's army was marching south from Atlanta (to the sea coast, 
the rebel army under Hood, strongly reinforced, was moving north, threatening Ten- 
nessee. The task of encountering this formidable foe, and defending the border 
states from invasion, was entrusted to Major-General George II. Thomas, who was 
ably assisted by his second in command, Major-General Schofield. In his report, 
General Thomas says : 

" ' I found myself confronted by the army which, under General J. E. Johnston, 
had so skillfully resisted the advance of the whole active army of the military divi- 
sion of the Mississippi, from Dalton to the Chattahoochee, reinforced by a well-equip- 
ped and enthusiastic cavalry command of over 12,000 men, led by one of the boldest 
and most successful cavalry commanders in the rebel army. My information, from 
all sources, confirmed the reported strength stated of Hood's army to be from forty 
to forty-five thousand infantry, and from twelve to fifteen thousand cavalry. My 
effective force, at this time, consisted of the 4th Corps, about 12,000, under Major- 
General D. S. Stanley ; the 23d Corps, about 10,000, under Major-General Schofield ; 
Hatcher's division of cavalry, about 4,000 ; Croxton's brigade, 2,500, and Capron's 
brigade, of about 1,200. The balance of my force was distributed along the rail- 
road, and posted at Murfreesboro, Stevenson, Bridgeport, Huntsville, Decatur, and 
Chattanooga, to keep open our communications, and hold the posts above named, if 
attacked, until they could be reinforced, as up to this time it was impossible to deter- 
mine which course Hood would take, advance on Nashville, or turn toward Hunts- 
ville. Under these circumstances, it was manifestly best to act on the defensive 
until sufficiently reinforced to justify taking the offensive. On the 12th of Novem- 
ber communication with General Sherman was severed, the last dispatch from him 
leaving Cartersville, Georgia, at 2:25 P. M. on that date. He had started on his 
great expedition from Atlanta to the sea board, leaving me to guard Tennessee, or 
pursue the enemy if he followed the commanding General's column. It was, there- 
fore, with considerable anxiety that we watched the force at Florence, to discover 
what course they would pursue with regard to General Sherman's movements, deter- 
mining thereby whether the troops under my command, numbering less than half 
those under Hood, were to act on the defensive in Tennessee, or take the offensive 
in Alabama.'" 



288 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

The battles of Franklin and Nashville, and the subsequent pursuit 
destroyed Bood ? a army, ami the organization which wrought so fear- 
fully at Shiloh, Stone River and Chickamauga passi d oul ofexistence. 

In the battle of Franklin, alone, it lost six general officers killed, 
six wounded and cue captured, and a further loss in killed, wounded 
and prisoners of 6,239. At Nashville the final blow was given, and 
it was crumbled into fragments, and the host led by Bragg, the two 
Johnstons and Hood was no more. It had been ably commanded, 
and gallantly had it fought. It was only beaten by superior ability, 
and a better cause. 

John Morgan made, in June, another invasion upon the quasi-loyal 
state of Kentucky, was beaten by Burbridge on the 12th, and killed 
by General Gillam's command in the following September. " In 
the month 6f November, a rebel expedition, under Breckinridge, 
Duke and Vaughn, was repulsed by General Amnion, and driven 
from East Tennessee. An expedition, under General Stoneman and 
General Burbridge, penetrated to Saltville, in Southwestern Virginia, 
destroyed the works at that place, broke up the railroads, and inflicted 
great destruction upon the enemy's supplies and communications. 

" After the withdrawal of our troops from the Red River, a large 
rebel force advanced under Sterling Price into Kansas, and pene- 
trated thence into the department of the Missouri. But they were 
at length driven back with heavy loss. 

" Other military operations, of greater or less magnitude, occur- 
red dining the. year — some attended with disaster, some with brilliant 
success. Of the former class were Kilpatrick's raid against Rich- 
mond, the capture of Plymouth and its garrison, at the commence- 
ment of the year, by the rebels under Hoke ; the defeat of the expe- 
dition from Memphis, under General Sturgis ; the capture of Fort 
Pillow by Chalmers and Forrest, and Stoneman\s expedition to 
Andersonville. On the other hand, the raids of Grierson from Mem- 
phis, in December, of Stoneman and Burbridge into Virginia, of 
Wilson into Alabama, inflicted sore distress upon the enemy, and 
brought the rebels to a solemn sense of the sufferings caused to them- 
selves by the war they had undertaken against their Government." 
— Secretary Stanton's report. 

Eastward, momentous events were transpiring. In Vol. I., the 



SHERIDAN. 289 

movements of Grant and Mead were outlined down to the siege of 
Petersburg, June 16th. There, the army of the great leader, Robert 
E. Lee, was held before the defences of the rebel capital, chafing 
furiously, as the armies of the West melted before Sherman and 
Thomas, and city after city opened its gates to the triumphant con- 
querors of the Union. 

The valley of the Shenandoah had been the theater of adverse 
contests throughout the war, relieved by partial victories and half 
successes. This was to change. Says the Secretary of War : 

"Active operations were also going on in the valley of the Shenandoah. On the 
1st of May an expedition, under Generals Crook and Averill was sent out by Gene- 
ral Sigel, which reached Wytheville, and accomplished the destruction of much 
rebel property. General Sigel advanced, on the 8th day of May, with his force, 
from Winchester to New Market, where, met by the enemy under General Breckin- 
ridge, he was defeated, and fell back to Cedar Creek. General Hunter was then 
placed in command of the department. He marched with a strong force toward 
Staunton, and in a brilliant engagement at Piedmont defeated the enemy with severe 
loss. Advancing to Staunton, he was joined there by Crook and Averil, and moved 
against Lynchburg. Reinforcements from the enemy having arrived before him, 
General Hunter retired by way of the Kanawha. Meanwhile, in order to repair the 
losses of the Army of the Potomac, the chief part of the force designed to guard 
the middle department and the department of Washington was called forward to the 
front. Taking advantage of this state of affairs, in the absence of General Hunter's 
command, the enemy made a large detachment from their army at Richmond, which, 
under General Early, moved down the Shenandoah Valley, threatening Baltimore 
and Washington. Their advance was checked at Monocacy, where a severe engage- 
ment was fought by our troops under General Wallace, reinforced by a part of the 
6th Corps under General Ricketts. After this battle the enemy continued to advance 
until they reached intrenchments around Washington. Here they were met by 
troops from the Army of the Potomac, consisting of the 6th Corps, under General 
Wright, a part of the 8th Corps, under General Gillmore, and a part of the 19th 
Corps, just arrived from New Orleans, under General Emory. By these troops the 
enemy was driven back -ntorn Washington, and retreated hastily to Virginia, pursued 
by our forces under General iVright. 

"On the 7th of August, 1S64, General Sheridan was placed in command of the 
military division comprising the department of Washington, the department of 
West Virginia, the department of the Susquehanna, and the middle department. In 
two great battles, at the crossing of the Opequan on the 19th of September, and 
at Fisher's Hill on the 22d of September, the rebel army under Early was routed, 
and driven from the valley with immense loss of prisoners, artillery and stores. A 
desperate effort was made by the enemy to recover their position. Early was 
strongly reinforced, and on the morning of the 19th of October, in the absence of 
General Sheridan, his lines were surprised, his position turned, and his forces driven 
back in confusion. At the moment when a great disaster was impending, Sheridan 

19 



200 PATUIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

appeared upon the field, the battle was restored, and a brilliant victory achi 
Tlie rooted forces of the enemy were pursued to Mount Jackson, where he arrived 
without an organized regiment <>f bia army. All his artillery, and thousands of 
prisoners fell into Sheridan's bonds. These successes closed military operations in 
the Shenandoah Valley, and a rebel force appeared there no more during the war." 

The campaigns of Sheridan have the charm and glitter of romance, 
and yet were substantial realities. History has no parallel to his 
appearance upon the lost field at Middletown. Five hours of disaster 
hail crushed hope; defeat was ordered, and grave peril was upon our 
cause, for the doors of the Shenandoah were to be thrown wide open 
for the descent upon the capital. 

Sheridan had been to Washington and, returning, had slept- at 
Winchester, where the booming artillery informed him that a battle 
was raging without him. Attended by his orderly he galloped to the 
field, and as he met the retreating troops swung his cap and shouted, 
" Face the other w ay, boys. We are going back to our camps. 
We are going to lick them out of their boots." Reaching the army, 
he countermanded the order for retreat ; rode for two hours along 
his lines, arranging them for an assault upon the flushed foe, saying, 
"Boys, if I had been here this never should have happened. I tell 
you it never should have happened. And now, we are going back 
to our camps. We are going to get a twist on them. We are going 
to lick them out of their boots." Not very Ciceronic was the speech, 
but it had effect, and was followed by loud huzzahs, and enthusiastic 
cheers. And when ready, he swept Early from the field. A defeated 
army was reinforced simply by its General and his orderly — not by 
flesh troops — and a disastrous defeat was converted into a glorious 
victory. The campaigns of the Shenandoah .^placed Sheridan as 
only below Grant and Sherman, and as the equal of Meade and 
Thomas; the subsequent battle of Five Forks assured the justice of 
the verdict. The country approved when he was promoted Major- 
General of the regular army in place of George B. McClellan, 
resigned. 

The new year opened with notes of preparation for the final strug- 
gle. Volunteers were being raised, State executives were bestirring 
themselves, a draft for 500,000 had been ordered, and the people 
were responding, as ever, to the calls upon them. All eyes were 
turned upon the movements in Virginia, and Sherman's contem- 



GRANT ON THE SITUATION. 291 

plated march through the Carolinas, in preparation for which he was 
resting and clothing his half-naked troops at Savannah. 
Lieutenant-Gcneral Grant thus states the situation : 

"In March, 1865, General Canby was moving an adequate force against Mobile, 
and the array defending it, under General Dick Taylor ; Thomas was pushing out 
two large and well appointed cavalry expeditions — one from Middle Tennessee, 
under Brevet Major-General Wilson, against the enemy's vital points in Alabama; 
the other from East Tennessee, under Major-General Stoneman, toward Lynchburg — 
and assembling the remainder of his available forces, preparatory to offensive opera- 
tions from East Tennessee ; General Sheridan's cavalry was at While House ; the 
armies of the Potomac and James were confronting the enemy under Lee in his 
defences of Richmond and Petersburg; General Stoneman with his armies, reinforced 
by that of General Schofield, was at Goldsboro; General Pope was making prepara- 
tions for a spring campaign against the enemy under Kirby Smith and Price, west 
of the Mississippi, and General Hancock was concentrating a force in the vicinity 
of Winchester, Virginia, to guard again/t invasion, or to operate offensively, as 
might prove necessary." 

The Secretary of War thus states the force in military service : 

" Official reports show that on the 1st of March, 1865, the aggregate national mili- 
tary force of all arms, officers and men, was nine hundred and sixty-five thousand 
five hundred and ninety-one, to wit: 

Available force present for duty 602,598 

On detached service in the different military departments 132,538 

In field hospitals, or unfit for duty 35,628 

In general hospitals, or on sick leave at home 143,419 

Absent on furlough, or as prisoners of War 31,695 

Absent without leave 19,6S3 

Grand aggregate 965,591 

"This force was augmented on the 1st of May, 1865, by enlistments, to the number 
of one million five hundred and sixteen of -.all arms, officers and men, ( 1,000,516). 

" The aggregate available force present for duty on the 1st of March was distributed 
in the different commands as follows : 

Army of the Potomac 103,2*73 

Head-quarters military division of the Mississippi 17 

Department of the Cumberland 62,626 

Department of the Tennessee 45,649 

Left wing, Armyof Georgia 31,644 

Cavalry corps military divisions of the Mississippi 2*7,410 

Headquarters military division of West Mississippi 24 

Reserve brigades military division of West Mississippi 13,748 

Department of the Gulf 35,625 

Department of Arkansas , 24,509 



292 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Department of the Mississippi 24,1 51 

Sixteenth Army Corps 1 1 

Hi nl quarters military division of the Missouii • . . 12 

Department of the Missouri 18,557 

Department of the Northwest 4,731 

Bead-quarters middle military division 841 

Cavalry forces middle military division 12,980 

Nineteenth Army Corps 0,612 

Middle Department 2,089 

Department of Washington 26,056 

Dopartment of West Virginia 15,517 

Department of Pennsylvania 820 

Department of the East 7,462 

Department of Virginia 45,986 

Department of North Carolina 34,945 

Department of the South 11,510 

Department of Kentucky 10,655 

Northern Department 1 1,229 

Department of the Pacific 7,024 

Department of New Mexico 2,501 

Grand Total 602,598 " 

The reduction of Fort Fisher was the first important occurrence 
of the new year. The Secretary of War says : 

"The active operations of 1865 began with the reduction of Fort Fisher, by a 
combined expedition of land and naval forces. The port of Wilmington, North 
Carolina, during the whole war, has been a principal point of foreign trade with the 
rebels. The advantage of its position defied the most rigorous blockade, and, after 
the fall of Savannah, it was the only gate through which foreign supplies could pass 
to the rebels. The strong works and garrison of Fort Fisher, at the mouth of Cape 
Fear River, were the main defence of Wilmington. On the 13th of December a 
force of about 6,500 men, under Major-General Butler, started from Fortress Mon- 
roe to operate in conjunction with a naval force under Admiral Porter, against Fort 
Fisher. General Butler effected a landing on the 25th cf December, but re-embarked 
on the 27th, and returned with his troops to Fortress Monroe. The Lieutenant- 
General ordered the enterprise to be renewed by General Terry, who, on the 2d of 
January, was placed in command of the same troops, with a reinforcement that 
made the whole number about 8,000. On the morning of the 13th of January the 
troops were disembarked, under cover of a heavy, effective fire fiom the fleet. An 
assault was made in the afternoon of the 15th of January, and after desperate hand- 
to-hand fighting for several hours, the works were carried, the enemy driven out, 
and about midnight the whole garrison, with its commander, General Whiting, sur- 
rendered. The fall of Fort Fisher carried with it the other defenses of Cape Fear 
River. Fort Caswell and the works on Smith's Island fell into our hands on the 16th 
and 17th, Fort Anderson on the 19th, and, General Schofield advancing, the enemy 
were driven from Wilmington on the 21st of February." 



canby's department. 293 

This indicates the presence of Western troops. After the victory 
of Nashville, General A. J. Smith was ordered to report to General 
Canby, while Sohofield was assigned to the command of the military 
department of North Carolina, and ordered to report to General 
Sherman, and his corps, the 23d, was taken East, and sent to Fort 
Fisher and Newborn, without the loss of a man or an animal. Early 
in March he pushed inland, to meet Sherman at Goldsboro. Near 
Kingston, on the 10th, his advance was struck by the enemy, who 
captured two or three guns and a line of skirmishers. Flushed with 
this success, they came on in force, attempting to carry his entrench- 
ments, and cut his center. They met the stern, steady fire, and cool 
courage of the veterans of Franklin and Nashville, and after seve- 
ral repulses, retreated, leaving their dead and wounded on our hands, 
with several hundred prisoners. They made another stand at Kings- 
ton, but were compelled to retreat. Schofield made his way to 
Goldsboro. 

After the Red River disaster, a change was made in the military 
organization west of the Mississippi. The departments of Arkan- 
sas and the Gulf, including Louisiana and Texas, were placed in one 
military division, called West Mississippi, and Major-General Canby 
placed in command. Within it transpired events of much impor- 
tance, which only the magnitude of our movements elsewhere pre- 
vented from being famous. In July, 1 864, Mobile was attacked by 
the land and naval forces. Three lines of strong earthworks extended 
five or six miles in the rear of the city ; along the east coast of 
Mobile Bay was a line of formidable batteries of thirty-two pound 
rifled cannon, mounted in earthworks. Forts Morgan and Gaines 
commanded the entrance to the bay, while between them and the 
city the channels were obstructed by piles, deeply driven, sunken 
stone-boats, etc., while in the Mobile River, above the city, four 
wooden gunboats and an iron-clad ram kept watchful custody. 

Farragut came with his fleet, and a land force, under Gordon 
Granger, was sent by General Canby, who came in person. July 
8th a consultation between the Admiral and the tw T o Generals decided 
upon investing Fort Gaines. The fleet was to cover the landing of 
a force on Dauphin's Island, and the 4th of August was finally fixed 
as the time. 



294 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

On that day our fleet, hvmly-six Bail, including three monitors- 
two double and one single turrets— and an iron-clad double-ender 
commenced closing in their lines southeast of Fort Morgan, as if 

intending to gather about Fort Gaines. Under the darkness of the 
preceding night < Granger's force of about 4,000 having been placed on 
Dauphin's Island, kept up a fire upon Gaines as though it was meant 
to be assailed by land and sea. The Admiral lashed his vessels two 
abreast, and on the morning of the 5th steamed up the main chan- 
nel, opening fire forty-seven minutes past six. Then ensued a fear- 
ful fight. The heavy guns of the forts opened upon the ships — the 
Tecumseh was torn by a torpedo, reeled, staggered and went down, 
carrying into the depth most of her gallant crew. The fleet pressed 
steadily onward, and passed the forts a little before 8 o'clock. The 
ram Tennessee made a fruitless attack upon the flag-ship Hartford, 
and our vessels rushed upon the rebel gunboats. The Selma was 
captured by the Metacomet, and the Morgan and Gaines compelled 
to seek shelter under the guns of Fort Morgan, the latter was run 
down and destroyed, while the Morgan got into Mobile. The iron 
ram, the Tennessee, now made a rush for the flag-ship. Commander 
Strong struck it with the full weight of the Monongahalia, carried 
away the iron prow and cut-water of his ship, doing the rebel no 
perceptible harm. Captain Marchand dashed the Lackawanna upon 
it full speed, crashing planking and timbers, but only rasing the rebel 
craft slightly. The Hartford now drove upon the Tennessee, but the 
wary pilot shifted the helm, and the blow was a glancing one, but as 
the vessels crashed past each other the Hartford delivered her port- 
broadside of nine-inch solid shot within ten feet of her adversary's 
casemate. Our monitors came up, and worked slowly, delivering 
their fire as they could, while a shot from the Manhattan broke the 
rebel armor, and penetrated the wooden backing. The Hartford and 
Lackawanna, making for the enemy, came in contact, seriously injur- 
ing the former, but they soon cleared, and again bore down upon the 
Tennessee, which was in a strait place. The Chickasaw was strik- 
ing constantly upon the stern, the Ossipee was coming up under full 
head of steam, three other huge ships were bearing down upon her, 
her smoke-stack and steering chains were gone, compelling the resort 
to her relieving tackles, and several of her port-shutters were badly 



MOBILE BAT OURS. 295 

jammed. From the time she received the desperate rush of the 
Hartford she had not fired a gun. Longer resistance was vain, the 
white flag was raised ; the Ossipee stopped her engines, but 
could not he checked so as to prevent "striking a glancing 
blow. 

It was a severe and sanguinary fight, and Farragut lost more men 
from the Tennessee and the gunboats than from the heavy fire of the 
batteries. It was another demonstration of the strength of vessels 
of that class. Admiral Buchanan was wounded in the leg, and him- 
self and Commodore Johnston surrendered. Admiral Farragut 
lashed himself to the mast, and thus directed the fight. 

Fort Powell surrendered on the 7th ; Fort Gaines followed, and 
the channel was ours. Fort Morgan held out, and on the 21st 
Granger notified Admiral Farragut that he would be ready to open 
fire early the next morning. Accordingly the fleet took position in 
order of battle, a rain of shot and shell poured upon the fort. During 
the shelling the citadel was fired, and the enemy unable to extinguish 
the flames was compelled to flood his magazine with water, to throw 
vast quantities of powder into the wells. 

The following morning General Page sent a flag o£ truce to 
Granger asking for terms of capitulation. After consulting with 
the Admiral unconditional surrender was demanded and conceded. 
General Page acquired deserved odium by destroying property after 
the surrender. By this important and brilliant success we virtually 
secured the important city of Mobile and its harbor, a large number 
of excellent guns, 1,500 prisoners, and sealed Mobile Bay against 
the blockade runners of " neutral powers." 

A number of minor expeditions were successfully undertaken in 
this department. 

Mobile was not taken, but its time was at hand. We will antici- 
pate somewhat its order, and give the account of its capture. Grant 
ordered a demonstration against Mobile to keep occupied a large 
rebel force in Alabama, and prevent it moving to reinforce General 
Lee. Canby commenced his operations March 20th. Light-draft 
vessels had been gathered in Mobile Bay to assist the troops. A. J. 
Smith took his veterans from Gaines' Fort to Fish River, where he 
was joined by Granger with the old scarred 13th Corps, brought 



29G PATRIOTISM OP iii.i.Nmis. 

from Fori Mor in. Two forts obstructed the passage of the gun- 

to the eity — the Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. The Sp 
Fort was to be first attacked, the navy to engage the water batteries, 
the land forces the rear works. Heavy siege guns were brought, and 
the bombardment opened on the 4th of April. 

On the s !li a furious bombardment was made, and continued for 
three hours, oui- lire telling with fearful precision. At 3 P. M. two 
Of Carr's brigades made their way rapidly to the ramparts, scaled 
them amid shouts of exultation, carried 300 yards of the works, made 
themselves secure, and waited for daylight to "go in?" but the 
admonished garrison capitulated at 1 A. M., the same day thai I. 
surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia. 

These brigades comprised some of the best regiments from Illinois. 
Says Colonel Howe, '-The 81st and 124th were in the 3d Brigade, 
3d Division, |16th Army Corps. Their guns were first to wake up 
the enemy at Mobile, and it was this brigade that led in the despe- 
rate charge on Spanish Fort on the 8th of April." 

The scarred V2d was in the other brigade. The 33d was also 
engaged. 

On the same day General Steele assaulted Fort Blakely. As the 
orders for the assault were being read a dispatch announced Lee's 
surrender. The effect was magical. The gallant men went forward 
gaily, removed obstructions under a galling fire, and among bur-l- 
ing torpedoes. The way clear, they crossed the ditch, Scaled a id 
carried the works in front, while Rinnekin and Gilbert turned the 
right, and entered the fort about the same time. White and colored 
troops vied in this assault. Our loss was near 1,000; the enemy 
Buffering much less. We captured 3,300 prisoners, 4,000 stand of 
arms and 32 pieces of artillery. 

The navy worked its way toward the city, through a channel 
sown with torpedoes. On the 12th, as our column moved to invest 
the city, its evacuation was announced. 

To the 8th Illinois Infantry, as having been first to mount the 
works of Fort Blakeley, and plant upon them our nationol colors, it 
was accorded the honor ot marching first into Mobile. A soldier's 
letter from that regiment says, " Which was done on the 12th of 
April, about 3 P. M. We were greeted with cheers and welcomed 



Wilson's raid. 297 

at every point by a majority of the citizens. They all express sur- 
prise and satisfaction at the marked good behavior of the Union 
troops. The 8th and 28th Illinois, and 29th Wisconsin, are on duty 
in and around the city." The 58th Illinois and 117th participated in 
the same charge. 

Our less in capturing the city was 2,000 men, two heavy iron- 
clads, one tin-clad, and one transport. Admiral Thatcher, who com- 
manded the fleet, reported 400 guns captured. 

A raid of much importance was almost overlooked in the excite- 
ment of the great events of the closing months of the war. We 
give it in the language of the Lieutenant -General's official report. 
It refers to General Wilson's raid : 

" The expedition, consisting of 12,500 mounted men, was delayed 
by rains until March 22d, when it moved from Chickasaw, Alabama. 
On the first of April General Wilson encountered the enemy in force, 
under Forrest, near Ebenezer Church, drove him in confusion, cap- 
tured 300 prisoners, and three guns, and destroyed the' Central 
Bridge over the Cahawba river. On the 2d he attacked and cap- 
tured the fortified city of Selma, defended by Forrest, with 7,000 
men and thirty-two guns, destroyed the arsenal, armory, navy foun- 
dcry, machine shops, vast quantities of stores, and captured 3,000 
prisoners. On the 4th he captured and destroyed Tuscaloosa. On 
the 10th he crossed the Alabama river, and after sending informa- 
tion of his operations to General Canby, marched on Montgomery, 
which place he occupied on the 14th, the enemy having abandoned 
it. At this place many stores and five steamboats fell into our 
hands. Then a force marched direct on Columbus, and another on 
West Point, both of which places were assaulted and captured on 
the 16th. At the former place we got 1,500 prisoners and fifty-two 
field guns, destroyed ten gun-boats, the navy yard, founderies, 
arsenal^ many factories, and much public property. At the latter 
place we got 300 prisoners, four guns, and destroyed nineteen loco- 
motives and three hundred cars. On the 20th he took possession of 
Macon, with sixty field guns, 1,200 militia, and five generals, sur- 
rendered by Howell Cobb." 

This is one of the most successful and gigantic raids known to> 
history, and had it not happened at a time when great victories 



298 PATRIOTISM OF II.LINOI8. 

wi'iv of constant occurrence, it would have set the nation ablaze 
with excitement. 

A few weeks later < May 11th, Wilson's oommand captured the 
arch-rebel, Jeff. Davis, attempting to escape; Colonel Piitchard, 
of the 4th Michigan Cavalry, surprising hia encampment and seizin;.: 
him and Postmaster General Reagan. 

We close this chapter with a sad record. The fact that our cap- 
tured soldiers were subjected to the grossest indignities, and most 
unheard of sufferings, was early brought to the attention of our gov- 
ernment, but all efforts to right the cruel wrong were abortive. It 
seemed to be the cool, fiendish policy of the rebel authorities to ren- 
der our men unfit for duty when exchanged. They were reduced by 
slow starvation to the verge of death — some, alas many, beyond it. 
Andersonville, Millen, Columbia, Florence, Salisbury, Danville, 
Libby Prison, &c, have ghastly records, and thousands yet living 
can neve,r remember them without a sickening shudder. At Ander- 
sonville, Georgia, the treatment was diabolical. Sherman's march 
demonstrated that the land abounded with food, and yet cur brave 
men died there by thousands for want of food, rotten with scurvy, 
prey to venom, shot, beaten — but we will not write the enormities 
only too clearly proven. The camp, near dense forests, yet no shelter 
from the Southern sun, was permitted either to strong or weak. 
Twenty acres were enclosed within the stockade, and in the center 
was -a " dismal swamp," and here a score and a half thousand of our 
citizens, sons and brothers, were shut in at once. S<>me courted 
death by crossing the dead line, some sank into idiocy or went raving 
mad, some attempted escape, and were hunted down with blood- 
hounds. The depraved villain, Captain Wirz, was tried, and upon 
sentence of a military court, hanged for his barbarism in coolly tortur- 
ing prisoners to death. That was well, but the "Southern gentle- 
men " who sat in the Presidential and Cabinet chairs of the Con- 
federacy, and commanded its armies, were far more guilty than Wirz, 
their miserable tool. 

We append a r.ccord of the soldiers from this state, known to have 

died in this horrible prison — died true to their country, for they 

would not have life at the cost of the loss of truth and fealty. The 

' list comprises those who died from March 7, 1864, to January 1, 



ANDERSON VILLE DEAD. 299 

1865, and was carefully copied from the death-register, by N. 
Rice Grevelle, of Company I, 6th Illinois Cavalry, while he was in 

the hospital at that place. The list comprises all the Illinois men 

who died there within the dates named. The name, company, regi- 
ment, date of death, and number of/grave of each is given : 

MARCH. 

DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF QRAVB. 

7th. Corporal M. R. Kell, D, 49th infantry, 18 

8th. Charles W. Prestoy, M, 8th cavalry 23 

15th. William Tunlee, D, 16th cavalry 46 

16th. Charles Myres, B, 16th cavalry 50 

17th. Thomas McLarry, L, 16th cavalry 56 

17th. W. Hake, E, 16th cavalry * 63 

19th. David Hill. A, 36th infantry 67 

19th. Philip Zolam, I, 44th infantry 72 

19th. James Kimball, L, 2d artillery 82 

21st. William Horseman, I, 16th cavalry 89 

21st. Gustavus Will, E, 16th cavalry 90 

25th. John Kunkle, G, 16th cavalry 158 

26th. A. P. Polk, G, 112th infantry ...*'. 161 

27th. H. Hannah, C, 107th infantry 187 

28th. Levi Eadley, H, 26th infantry 209 

28th. C. Errickson, M, 16th cavalry 214 

30th. William Collin, G, 93d infantry 257 

APRIL. 

1st. Joseph Neal, K, 16th cavalry 283 

2d. William Newbury, M, 2d artillery .' 299 

2d. John Cole, E, 112th infantry 300 

2d. Sergeant Erastus Rudd, K, 100th infantry 306 

2d. Jaf. Sipple, E, 107th infantry 309 

3d. John Harlee, E, 65tb infantry 318 

4th. George W. Devars, B, 21st infantry 352 

4th. Andrew Davis, A, 112th infantry 356 

4th. George B. Sweet, L, 7th cavalry 362 

5th. A. Metcham, E, 92d infantry 381 

6th. James Penny, D, 14th cavalry 393 

6th. John Kign, E, 22d infantry 396 

6th. Corporal W.Phillips, L, 16th cavalry 410 

7th. J. Belisky, D, 16th cavalry 411 

8th. Sergeant A. D. Matheny, 1, 79th infantry 429 

8th. Louis Frass, E, 16th cavalry 432 

8th. Edward Nashen, A, 65th infantry 438 

9th. Albert Cault, A, 116th infantry 446 

11th. George B. Fuller, D, 123d infantry 497 

12th. George Taylor, M, 16th cavalry 502 



300 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

DATS. liU AN!' XO. Of GRAVE. 

12th. A. B. Clark, I. L6th cavalry 

12th. William Sweet, B, B9th infantry 505 

18th. W. B Barr, E, 1 12th infantry 520 

18th. B. J. Rol .. G, 103d infantry.. 628 

i:;th. John Fowlej, D, 19th infantry r»::i 

14th. Martin 7an Buren Trailer, I, 16th cavalry 549 

16th. Hospital Steward, John Garvin, 57th infantry 579 

19th. George Byres, B, 65th infantry 62G 

20th. Thomas Jones, E, 112th infantry 644 

20th. John Krebs, K, 16th cavalry C52 

22d. J. Cairo!!, II, 5th cavalry GC6 

23d. David Khnchans, G, 65th infantry 685 

23d. B. McShane, K, 80th infantry 692 

23't. D. Kiuderman, D, 82d infantry 696 

25th. N. Hilderbrand, G, 24lh infantry 725 

26th. Benjamin Weeks, L, 16th cavalry 742 

26th. O. Podoers, A, 12th infantry 747 

26th. L. Trowbridge, M, 16th cavalry 751 

28th. George Greaves, K, 16th cavalry 783 

30th. Joseph Taylor, F, 4th cavalry 809 

30th. J. Morris, IT, 15th infantry •. 816 

MAY. 

8d. S. L. Stine, G, 41st infantry 855 

3d. Thomas B. Mason, B, 93d infantry 863 

8th. Sergeant P. Manty, E, 16th cavalry 953 

8th. Thomas Lee, E, 8th infantry 963 

9th. C. Basting, B, 47th infantry 977 

10th. Louis Wink, C, 16th cavalry 989 

10th. A. Wheelock, H, 96th infantry 992 

10th. J. C. Ramsey, B, 27th infantry 1,011 

11th. Frank Lowry, E, 65th infantry 1,017 

11th. J. Stegall, L, 16th cavalry 1,018 

11th. Ross Voriss, I, 16th cavalry 1,026 

11th. Thomas Bales, M, 2d artillery 1,064 

12th. R. Woodcock, L, 16th cavalry 1,042 

loth. James Freemont, B, 7th cavalry 1,055 

18th. II. C. Maxen, II, 19th infantry 1,061 

14th. James Vaughn, I, 16th cavalry . 1,078 

14th. W. Hicks, D, 85th infantry 1,102 

15th. C. Dorwin, I, 16th cavalry 1,103 

15th. John Wimcr, I, 16th cavalry 1,130 

16th. D. Herbert, C, 84th infantry 1,136 

16th. Fred. Purcer, A, 27th infantry 1,143 

17th. W. P. Henry, A, 23d infantry 1,162 

18th. W. Coddington, I, 93d infantry 1,198 






ANDERSONYILLE DEAD. 301 

DATB. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE. 

19th. M. Kcefe, M, 2d artillery 1,214 

20th. George Bender, C, 12th cavalry 1,230 

20th. Henry Laws, G, 93d infantry 1,233 

20th. William Ilallay, II, 92d infantry 1,241 

21st. J. Aldrich, L, 16th cavalry 1,264 

23d. T. Rudd, L, 16th cavalry 1,294 

23d. Corporal W. E. Lee, I, 16th cavalry 1,297 

23d. J. M. Dobin, H, 3d cavalry 1,314 

23d. J. McCluskcy, K, 16th cavalry 1,315 

23d. J. Morris, K, 66th infantry 1,320 

24th. G. H. Setters, 38th infantry 1,323 

24th. W. W. McMullen, 112th infantry 1,337 

24th. P. German, G, 24th infantry 1,340 

24th. J. Dowdiss, K, 16th cavalry 1,343 

24th. P. Galiger, C, 21st infantry 1,347 

27th. P. Myers, F, 24th infantry 1,407 

27th. J. S. Johnson, C, 7th infantry 1,412 

27th. N. D. Gibson, K, 93d infantry 1,416 

28th. R. C. Allen, I, 17th infantry 1,423 

28th. W. H. Massey, D, 111th infantry 1,428 

28th. IT. H. Doran, I, 78th infantry 1,441 

28th. Sergeant A. Martin, L, 16th cavalry 1,444 

29th. J. Luty, H, 23d infantry 1,456 

31st. J. Gillgers, I, 16th cavalry 1,499 

31st. B. Whitmore, D, 16th cavalry 1,496 

31st. W. B. Pierce, H, 8th cavalry 1,506 

JUNE. 

1st. H.J. O'Daniels, A, 9th infantry 1,533 

3d. Victor Scitz, L, 16th cavalry 1,573 

3d. H. Bruternier, M, 7th cavalry 1,578 

4th. H. C. Budwell, D, 38th infantry 1,603 

4th. H. Richards, I, 79th infantry 1,616 

4th. William McCreadey, C, 96th infantry 1,617 

4th. Sergeant C. Pranock, K, 79th infantry 1,619 

4th. B. McLaughlin, I, 90th infantry 1,634 

4th. John Stillwell, I, 38th infantry 1,640 

4th. J. V. Giles, H, 39th infantry 1,652 

6th. Ed. Shawbach, E, 44th infantry 1,661 

6th. Corporal L. Blanchard, D, 16th cavalry 1,665 

6th. M. Springer, E, 112th infantry 1,667 

6th. Sergeant H. F. Brewer, C, 24th infantry 1,669 

6th. B. Linday, H. 57th infantry 1,685 

6th. L. Whitmore, I, 104th infantry 1,699 

8th. F. Stark, H, 79th infantry 1,718 

8th. J. W. Dowd, G, 38th infantry 1,727 



002 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

DATI. HAMK AND ItratMBNT. "O- <>' CRAVE. 

8lh. A. .1. Bemort, II, L12th infantry 1,729 

9th. B. W. JordOD, D,84th infantry 1,784 

9th. John Bitter, I, 18th cavalry 1,777 

10th. Gharlei Seeley, 0, 41th infantry 1,787 

10th. Silas Roger*, D, 65th infantry 1,807 

10th. John Kyser, I, 32d infantry 1,809 

10th. F. Brandeger, K, 21th infantry 1,815 

10th. Corporal J. Linebarger, F, 16th infantry 1,818 

loth. .1. Temple, II, 100th infantry 1,825 

10th. D. W. Darling, B, 23d infantry 1,826 

lltli. F. Castle, E, 103d infantry 1,844 

11th. E. II. Jenning, F, 79th infantry 1,845 

11 tli. F. Glide well, K, 73d infantry 1,850 

11th. W. Hcgcnbeig, F, 24th infantry 1,852 

12th. T. Pollard, H, 127th infantry 1,862 

12th. J. Gillmore, I, 16th cavalry 1,868 

12th. J. Bcal, F, 78th infantry 1,870 

13th. E. D. T. Sharp, A, 89th infantry 1,899 

13th. P. P. Casey, G, 13th infantry :.. 1,902 

13th. J. Hester, C, 38th infantry. 1,906 

14th. E. Trout, F, 21st infantry 1,915 

11th. F. O'Dean, F, 78th infantry 1,921 

15th. J. E. Boyd, B, 84th infantry 1,971 

15th. W. W. Crandell, A, 93d infantry 1,974 

15th. F. Miller, M, 2d artillery 1,975 

15th. E. Ilartness, B, 39th inlantry 1,980 

15th. P. Blors, A, 21st infantry 1,983 

15th. M. Sadler, G, 27th infantry 2,000 

16th. W. Bought, H, 24th infantry 2,015 

16th. A. Furlough, B, 23d infantry 2,021 

16th. J. Crewin, D, 79th infantry 2,032. 

16th. II. Coalman, M, 16th cavalry, 2,048 

16th. W. Martmay, K, 16th cavalry 2,051 

17th. W. W. Roberts, I, 16th cavalry 2,074 

17th. J. French, B, 129th infantry 2,080 

17th. J. R. Meissrcs, C, 116th infantry 2,097 

17th. J. J. Hook, E, 98th infantry 2,098 

18th. II. Fitzgerald, I, 10th Cavalry 2,129 

18th. F. Jewitt, A, 14th infantry 2,135 

19th. W. Grace, D, 21st infantry 2,164 

19th. C. Sows, A, S2d infantry 2,165 

19th. C. Neher, F, 16th cavalry 2,177 

19th. George Kreanier, C, 24th infantry 2,179 

19th. W. Hart, K, 16th cavalry 2,002 

20th. P. Fitz, C, 38th infantry 2,210 

20th. William Erich, H, 9th infantry 2,211 



ANDERSON VILLE DEAD.. 303 

DATE. HAMB AND REGIMENT. KO. OF GRAVE. 

20th. F. Farmer, A, 27th infantry 2,230 

20th. W. Dcetreman, E, 44th infantry 2,231 

20th. A. Joyce, D, 90th infantry 2,241 

20th. T. Colborn, G, 16th cavalry 2,224 

21st. J. Elston, E, 112th infantry 2,245 

21st. W. Crawford, K, 16th cavalry » 2,253 

21st. J. II. Miller, I, 31st infantry 2,257 

aiBt. L. Lowdcn, F, 65th infantry 2,258 

21st. Christensian, I, 16th cavalry 2,287 

22d. W. G. Ileaward, I, 16th cavalry 2,329 

22d. M. Crane, E, 23d infantry , 2,329 

23d. John Lusk, B, 29th infantry 2,342 

23d. Hv. Dincks, C, 89th infantry 2,365 

23d. Sergeant M. Brinkuf, L, 16th cavalry 2,367 

24th. J. Zimmerman, 1st artillery 2,391 

24th. Allison, B, 21st infantry 2,400 

24th. A. Thomas, H, 16th infantry 2,425 

24th. John Thompson, L, 16th cavalry 2,453 

26th. W. Deuhart, K, 16th cavalry 2,497 

26th. William Grogan, B, 66th infantry 2.501 

26th. R. Filer, K, 11th infantry 2,502 

26th. H. Stansfield, H, 90th infantry 2,532 

26th. H. Morey, M, 16th cavalry 2,539 

27th. M. Ryan, A, 89th infantry 2,057 

27th, D. Forney, G, 93d infantry 2,564 

27th. Thomas J. Jones, I, 16th cavalry 2,567 

27th. A. C. Sharp, A, 22d infantry 2,570 

28th. Corporal N. Slosher, E, 96th infantry 2,585 

28th. N. Rodenbarger, C, 96th infantry 2,596 

28th. Corporal F. Babcock, G, 44th infantry. 2,598 

28th. P. Hanna, C, 21st infantry 2,605 

28th. A. E. Perkins, A, 89th infantry 2,621 

28th. J. W. Wright, C, 35th infantry , 2,634 

29th S M. Harrington, A, 112th infantry 2,633 

29th. Sergeant F. Meritt, F. 89th infantry 2,637 

29th. J. Morehead, E, 9th infantry 2,646 

29th. I. Shaw, E, 89th infantry 2,467 

29th. H. Jackson, C, 51st infantry 2,658 

2Sth. P. Durrand, E, 35th infantry 2,666 

30th. George Hart, K, 16th cavalry. 2,677 

JULY. 

1st. M. Colburn, I, 73d infantry 2,753 

2d. 0. 0. Curry, D, 106th infantry 2,758 

2d. A. Marshall, H, 96th infantry 2,762 

Sd. Thomas Han-.es, M, 14th cavalry 2,825 



304: 



I 4.TRTOTI8M OF ILLINOIS. 



DATE. RAMI AM> KIOtlCIHT, NO. Or ORATB. 

3d. D. Mulkey, D, B9th infantry 2,834 

3d. C . , H, 8£d infantry 2,836 

4 th. James Dooley, L, 16th cavalry. 2,867 

4 tli. J. B. Baglfiy, D, 2 1st infantry 2,890 

4th. John Baker, B, B9th infantry 2,892 

J II Blacl, E, 21st infantry 2,906 

5th. J. Brockhiller, M, 4th cavalry 2,927 

Oth. I). Coo vert, F, 78th infantry 2 933 

5th. <;. W. Evans, C, 103d infantry 2^936 

5th. H. Guadley, A, 24th infantry 2;942 

6th. B. V. Joy, I, 16th cavalry 2 972 

6th. M. Wahl, I, 16th cavalry ; 2,964 

7th. W. Jones, D, 27th infantry 2,990 

7th. W. R. Mulford, 23d infantry 2^993 

7th. O. Boorcm, B, 64th infantry 3,008 

8th. E. Tucker, B, 38th infantry 3,032 

8th. J. M. Ralston, I, 79th infantry 3,039 

8th. H. MeCuine, 0, 13th infantry 3,050 

9th. I. Bartrinder, G, 65th infantry 3,056 

9th. D. Powell, K, 16th cavalry 3,058 

9th. A. Topp, C, 19th infantry 3,064 

9th. M. Whalin, B, 23d infantry 3,067 

9th. C. II. Myres, F, 24th infantry 3,080 

Oth. D. McCampbell, B, 104th infantry 3,100 

9th. B. Greenwall, L, 16th cavalry 3,111 

10th. J. W. Dudley, F, 89th infantry 3,123 

10th. H. Miller, F, 92d infantry 3,139 

11th. Benjamin MeLin, E, 23d infantry 3,169 

12th. W. Chinni worth, G, 9th infantry 3,205 

12th. J. W. Howell, F, 78th infantry 3,211 

13th. E. Williams, D, 49th infantry 3,254 

13th. B. Morris, F, 8th cavalry 3,203 

13tb. George Votter, C, Oth infantry 3,271 

14th. J. Bathrick, A, 1st cavalry 3,275 

14th. G. Mead, H, 19th infantry 3,279 

14th. Thomas Baker, M, 16th cavalry 3,308 

14th. J. Iverson, I, 16th cavalry 3,312 

14th. John Benstecl, H, 27th infantry 3,345 

15th. R. Erssdrower, F, 74th infantry 3,373 

15th. 0. Garron, II, 38th infantry 3,393 

1 5th. F. F. Parsley. E, 120th infantry 3,408 

16th. J. Powers, C, 44th infantry 3,422 

17th. L. McEntyre, K, 16th cavalry 3,470 

17th. C. Schnoler, H, 24th infantry 3,490 

18th. D. Reed, n, 26th infantry 3,496 

18th. N. Perry, B, 1st cavalry 3,553 



ANDERSONVILLE DEAD. 305 

DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. HO. OF GRAVE. 

18th. C. Carl, H, 38th infantry 3,556 

19th. F. Barssley, E, 16th cavalry 3,603 

19th. W. (Mown, G, 9th infantry 3,609 

20th. J. V. Corwin, L, 6th cavalry 3,677 

21st. J. Jarvis, K, 73d infantry 3,680 

21st. James Workman, G, 7th infantry 3,696 

21st. John Babbitt, K, 7th infantry . - 3,709 

21sti J. E. Brookman, I, 44th infantry 3,717 

21st. P. Gulk, B, 79th infantry 3,730 

21st. J. Werner, G, 74th infantry 3,743 

22d. G. Place, F, 44th infantry 3,764 

22d. P. Bailey, B, 38th infantry 3,783 

23d. W. Beckhold, G, 16th infantry 3,809 

23d. J. Hoffman, I, 7th cavalry 3,825 

23d. P. Barclay, I, 42d infantry 3,829 

23d. G. W. Dodd, F, 21st infantry 3,834 

23d. John Adlet, K, 119th infantry 3,840 

23d. M. O'Coner, F, 2d cavalry 3,847 

24th. F. M. Fruck, G. 21st infantry 3,854 

24th. J. Corwin, K, 7th cavalry 3,850 

24th. A. Curtis, D, 16th infantry 3,877 

24tb. R. J. Charles, M, 5th cavalry 3,907 

25th. F. S. Whamer, G, 21st infantry 3,910 

25th. J. R. Malcolm, K, 38th infantry 3,935 

25th. James Brett, K, 88th infantry 3,940 

25th. N. Mills, K, 11th infantry 3,955 

26th. D. Freeman, L, 16th cavalry 4,031 

26th. H. Davis, A, 38th infantry 4,048 

26th. J. Martin, K, 9th infantry 4,071 

27th. E. Haggard, K, 16th cavalry 4,694 

28th. D. Ottway, A, 8th cavalry 4,125 

28th. S. A. Jackards, E, 29th infantry 4,132 

28th. John Shuby, G, 42d infantry 4,135 

28th. W. Davis, M, 16th cavalry 4,150 

28th. A. Lee, B, 112th infantry 4,172 

29th. S. F. Gibson, I, 78th infantry 4,201 

29th. H. F. Gooles, B, 47th infantry 4,203 

29th. R. B. Dodson, B, 6th cavalry 4,207 

29th. J. Branch, C, 38th infantry 4,259 

30th. H. Spangler, L, 16th cavalry 4,283 

30th. J. Burrows, L, 9th cavalry 4,299 

30th. H. Kappel, H, 30th infantry 4,318 

30th. J. Black, A, 31st infantry 4 315 

30th. S. C. Chitwood, M, 16th cavalry 4,319 

31st. C. Wentworth, D, 27th infantry 4,353 

81st, H. Rosecrans, A, 113th infantry 4,389 

20 



806 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

DATK. WiMM Ul HKGIMKNT. NO. OF GRAVB. 

31st. Ed. Dennis, B, 79th infantry 4,422 

81st. P. Swanasn, K, 9th cavalry 4,442 

AUGUST. 

1st. H. B. Robinson, B, 6th cavalry 4,460 

1st. J. Terry, M, 16th cavalry fc 4,466 

1st. Sergeant J. Getcham, G, 16th cavalry 4,485 

1st .1. Hill, G, 9th cavalry 4,489 

1st. T. Bwery, K, 22d infantry 4,502 

1st. M. Miller, C, 16th cavalry 4,575 

2d. II. Scuisser, G, 64th infantry 4,524 

2d. J. Monreal, G, 21st infantry 4,526 

2d. J. Grcathouse, I, 6th cavalry 4,560 

2d. J. Peck, G, 21st infantry 4,573 

2d. B. F. Heistand, D, 92d infantry 4,583 

3d. W. Spragan, H, 8th cavalry 4,598 

3d. J. B. Decker, C, 119th infantry 4,608 

3d. M. Batdorf, H, 93d infantry 4.618 

3d. H. Medler, I, 38th infantry 4,678 

3d. W. Smith, M. 16th cavalry, 4,659 

3d. James Dalby, H, 73d infantry 4,663 

4th. S. B. Mixell, F, 38th infantry 4,680 

4th. J. Covey, I, 38th . 4,683 

4th. Ira Krahl, H, 16th cavalry. 4,700 

4th. S. W. Stopes, E, 89th infantry 4,724 

4th. M. McMahon, E, 93d 4,725 

4th. D. W ilson, M, 1 6th cavalry 4,737 

-4th. J. O. Kcefe, M, 2d artillery 4,743 

5th. A. Kreiggc, C, 13th infantry 4,766 

6th. A. McCray, D, 103d infantry 4,850 

6th. George Ferry, G, 89th infantry 4,853 

6th. R. B. Severn, I, 112th infantry 4,872 

6th. T. II. SUlIwell, E, 79th infantry 4,878 

6th. G. P. Cook,—, 16th 4,879 

6th. C. Pierce, H, 16th cavalry 4,887 

6th. P. Jows, G, 41st infantry 4,889 

6th. J. Knight, IT, 9th infantry 4,908 

7th. J. Winemiller, G, 56th infantry 4,941 

7th. C. D. Edwards, K, 51st infantry 4,962 

7th. Buckman, H, 16th cavalry 4,952 

7th. J. Emerson, L, 16th cavalry 4,979 

7th. C. A. Farnham, D, 51st infantry 4,991 

8th. S. Huchins, A, 104th infantry 5,019 

8th. "William Guyer, E, 72d infantry 5,025 

8th. F. Myers, L, 16th cavalry 5,038 

8th. A. 0. Bourn, C, 113th infantry 5,045 



ANDEESONYILLE DEAD. 307 

DATH. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE. 

8th. R. R. Drake, H, 34th infantry 5,053 

8th. James Hagarman, E, 16th cavalry 5,074 

9th. William Clark, K, 14th cavalry , 5,143 

9th. F. Wiley, M, 7th cavalry 5,158 

9th. J. W. DeRue, E, 16th infantry 5,163 

9th. W. Wise, H, 16th cavalry 5,183 

10th. F. Hay worth, I, 7th cavalry 5,192 

lOtb. A. Bennett, B, 16th infantry 5,242 

10th. M. Wright, E, 57th infantry 5,255 

11th. William McGee, D, 30th infantry 5,283 

1 1 th. C. Y. Scybert, A, 39th infantry 5,350 

12th. L. Madden, D, 96th 5,390 

12th. S. Johnson, B, 100th infantry 5,395 

12th. Corporal S. Myres, C, 25th infantry 5,432 

12th. G. Burdiss, A, 89th 5,457 

13th. W. Bouden, F, 9th infantry 5,475 

13th. M. Sutten, M, 9th cavalry 5,515 

13th. M. Kennedy, C, 38th infantry 5,518 

13th. C. Puden, F, 12th infantry ' 5,541 

14th. W. Colburn, G, 16th cavalry 5,597 

14th! — Meyer, K, 24th infantry 5,608 

14th. P. Wildberger, B, 6th cavalry 6,613 

14th. W. Vox, E, 24th infantry 5,038 

15th. J. Kerby, H, 96th infantry '. 5,701 

1 5th. R. McComb, K, 16th cavalry 5,724 

15th. C. Heede, F, 24th infantry 5,741 

15th. E. Newby, A, 123d infantry 5,778 

15th. A. Powell, C, 122d infantry 5,783 

15th. J. Cline, T, 12th cavalry 5,787 

16th. D. H. Howard, 79th infantry 5,812 

16th. C. F. Barber, I, 112th infantry 5,848 

16th. C. Akins, F, 78th infantry 5,876 

16th. J. Pittijohn, F, 21st infantry 5,889 

16th. William Watts, L, 16th cavalry 5,898 

16th. W. A. Lanner, E, 9th cavalry 5,906 

17th. J. M. Brown, B, 29th infantry 5,924 

17th. K. Franklin, F, 81st infantry 5,933 

17th. H. Burns, D, 10th cavalry 5,936 

17th. E. Bourman, F, 123d infantry 5,943 

17th. George Smith, E, 53d infantry 5,960 

17th. F. Gruder, B, 16th cavalry 5,961 

17th. John Rcdment, H, 112th infantry 5,968 

17th. J. Brown, B, 73d infantry 5,978 

17th. W. Eastman, F, 36th infantry 5,992 

17th. J. F Whitney, G, 89tb infantry % 5,998 

17th. Isaac M. Price, D, 79th infantry 6,007 



308 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

DATK. NAMK ANI> IIRGIMKKT. NO. OF GIUVB. 

18th. W. II. Hudson, C, 107th infantry 6,035 

18th. W. Winters, II, 24th infantry 6,079 

18th. J. 15. Robison, A, 79th infantry 6,080 

18th. R. Huntley, F, 89th infantry 6,085 

18th. J. Cotton, II, 100th infantry 6,091 

18th. S. Payne, B, 88th infantry 6,095 

18th. J. Olson, D, 89th infantry 6,098 

18th. A. Schwartz, M, 7th cavalry 6,105 

18th. E. L. Chase, C, 23d infantry 6,109 

18th. J. Garng, F, 78th infantry 6,111 

19th. J. Hanell, K, 120th infantry 6,113 

19th. Peter Hoen, II, 112th infantry 6,117 

19th. G. Weaver, L, J 6th cavalry 6,173 

20th. Thomas Lewis, L, 2d cavalry 6, 238 

20th. W. C. Bryant, A, 107th infantry 6,256 

20th. W. Mee, H, 51st infantry 6,266 

20th. 0. Fagan, G, 23d infantry 6,268 

20th. F. Steward, I, 78th infantry 6,292 

20th. John Likin, I, 112th infantry 6,295 

20th. J. M. Paschall, A, 114th infantry 6,301 

20th. W. J. Partrage, F, 30th infantry 6,303 

21 st. II. Mariett, L, 16th cavalry 6,333 

21st. C. Callagan, F, 39th infantry 6,356 

21st. R. Mountz, B, 6th cavalry 6,402 

22d. J. Rening, G, 6th cavalry 6,412 

22d. A. Lindsay, D, 113th infantry 6,414 

22d. H. brewer, F, 78th infantry 6,421 

22d. G. W. Henson, C, 31st infantry 6,489 

22d. F. Thompson, B, 10th infantry 6,491 

22d. J. M. Campbell, G, 120th infantry 6,505 

22d. J. McCreary, C, 119th infantry 6,513 

22d. 0. B. Obevier, C, 112th infantry 6,519 

23d. M. J. Graham, E, 44th infantry 6,617 

23d. D. Bear, B, 93d infantry 6,644 

24th. J. C. Harlan, L, 9th cavalry 6,684 

24th. R. Cavit, D, 113th infantry 6,693 

24th. A. Anderson, K, 19th infantry 6,710 

24th. G. B. Jernagan, E, 30th infantry 6,730 

24th. J. Corneliona, H, 9th cavalry 6,738 

24th. Sergeant J. Crouse, I, 16th cavalry 6,749 

25th. J. Waddle, C, 122d infantry 6,767 

25th. — Oss, D, 89th infantry 6,774 

25th. W. Kelley, I, 94th infantry 6,795 

25th. T. Thompson, M, 2d cavalry 6,831 

25th. W. Brown, G, 1st cavalry 6,836 

25th. J. Christianson, F, 82d infantry 6,945 



ANDERSONVILLE DEAD.- 309 

DATB. NAME AND REGIMENT. KO. OP GRAVE. 

26th. L. C. Nichols, F, 14th infantry 6,945 

26th. John J. Coliers, B, 6th cavalry 6,971 

2fith. A. Floyde, A, 9th cavalry 6,972 

27th. W. E. Day, II, 111th infantry 7,013 

27th. J. R. Carroll, I, 78th infantry 7,037 

27th. J. Burns, K, 100th infantry 7,056 

28th. F. Nugent, E, 108th infantry 7,086 

28th. G. G. Thompson, M, 1st cavalry 7,128 

28th. B. F. Demos, F, 78th infantry 7,150 

29th. 0. Lambert, D, 38th infantry 7,155 

29th. John Scheider, K, 44th infantry 7,163 

29th. John Kelley, F, 7th 7,183 

29th. J. F. Hall, C, 9th infantry 7,194 

29th. N. H. Cole, A, 112th infantry 7,210 

29th. George Rodgers, G, 16th cavalry 7,228 

30th. J. A. Shields, E, 6th cavalry 7,270 

30th. J. Ladrew, H, 110th infantry 7,299 

30th. Joseph Shaw, D, 98th infantry 7,315 

30th. K. Armstrong, A, 89th infantry 7,339 

31st. B. D. Westbrook, B, 6th cavalry 7,42il 

81st. W. Moran, C, 11th infantry 7,428 

SEPTEMBER. 

1st. L. H. Needham, K, 42d infantry 7,439 

1st. F. Merz, K, 44th infantry 7,464 

1st. E. K. Center, K, 115th infantry 7,502 

1st. Joseph Denning, D, 31st infantry 7,514 

2d. D. Schuam, A, 23d infantry 7,658 

2d. J. H. Kearney, B, 6th cavalry 7,604 

2d. C. Simpson, D, 14th infantry 7,630 

3d. H. M. Peeter, C, 107th infantry 7,700 

3d. B. B. Foster, G, 112th infantry.. 7,720 

3d. D. Ritter, D, 14th artillery 7,748 

3d. A. O'Donell, I, 34th infantry 7,751 

4th. C. Clark, K, 51st infantry 7,760 

4th. L. D. Vincent, G, 7th cavalry 7,765 

4th. H. A. Linderman, B, 99th infantry 7,768 

4th. J. Kingham, G, 38th infantry 7,807 

4th. M. Green, C, 9th infantry 7,836 

4th. G. A. Wilhelm, K, 11th infantry 7,840 

4th. R. H. Kicholson, B, 123d infantry 7,847 

5th. J. Olderfield, B, 6th cavalry 7,850 

5th. J. W. Clancey, E, 38th infantry 7,868 

6th. J. Wartuck, C, 93d infantry 7,895 

6th. J. M. Lacost, E, 89th infantry 7,927 

6th. F. Gore, I, 36th infantry 7,958 



310 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

datr. tua and BBontun. NO. OF ORAVR. 

6th. Jolin Puck, D, 122d 7,972 

6tli. J. G. Cross, P, 21st infantry 7,882 

6th. S. P. Giles, A, 112th infantry 7,988 

6th. D. Mund, D, 8th infantry 7,989 

7th. M. Eisenbach, D, 7th infantry 8,048 

7th. J. Augustine, I, 100th infantry 8,049 

7th. (I. W. Hicks, F, 65th infantry 7,8G8 

7th. W. Somers, F, 40th infantry 7,079 

7th. Ed. Elliont, B, 92d infantry 8,084 

7th. W. Funks, F, 26th infantry 8,114 

8th. B. Alexander, B, 123d infantry 8,127 

8th. H. Newlan, A, 25th infantry 8,129 

8th. H. Newbury, F, 22d infantry 8,166 

8th. C. Dock, H, 9th cavalry 8,187 

8th. B. Beikiser, F, 16th cavalry 8,188 

8th. J. Lyman, D, 100th infantry 8,196 

9th. B. Guides, B, 6th cavalry 8,220 

9th. A. J. Foster, M, 16th cavalry 8,230 

9th. F. Adrian, E, 9th cavalry 8,249 

9th. J. Lidcy, I, 113th infantry 8,295 

10th. H. Hicks, G, 11th infantry 8,303 

10th. A. Williams, H, 22d infantry 8,310 

10th. E. Klage, G, 20th infantry 8,348 

10th. P. Albury, P, 22d infantry 8,381 

10th. J. F. Sherwood, I, 16th cavalry 8,386 

11th. H. F. Adams, E, 17th infantry 8,402 

11th. E. H. Robinson, A, 30th infantry 8,410 

11th. C. Owens, 120th infantry 8,414 

11th. W. Herell, K, 14th cavalry '. S,428 

11th. A. Storm, P, 89th infantry 8,451 

11th. J. Barnett, I, 120th infantry 8,458 

11th. W. Leaven, B, 115th infantry 9,464 

12th. P. Lee, A, 16th infantry 8,524 

12th. J. Striker, K, 11th infantry 8,539 

12th. C. Pavis, E, 112th infantry 8,533 

12th. A. Reed, I, 98th infantry 8,571 

12th. M. A. Rankin, I, 3d cavalry 8,578 

1 2th. J. W. nawkins, I, 79th infantry 8,608 

13th. John Sullion, I, 16th cavalry 8,615 

13th. G. Pake, P, 100th infantry 8,626 

13th. J. Ripley, B, 9th infantry 8,632 

14th. Charles Whipp, E, 9th cavalry 8,713 

14th. P. Harshman, H, 84th infantry 8,715 

14th. Henry Hill, 11th infantry 8,721 

14th. M. Cleggitt, 1, 36th infantry • • 8,750 

14th. P. Winning, C. 125th infantry • 8,755 



ANDERSON VILLE DEAD. 311 

DATS. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF QBAVB. 

14th. A. Barrett, D, 25th infantry 8,762 

14 tli. J. Butten, A, 89th infantry 8,776 

15th. G. Helch, K, 77th infantry 8,798 

15th. A. Wood, G, 21st infantry 8,815 

15th. A. Hill, C, 115th infantry .' 8,830 

15th. F. J. Clark, B, 6th cavalry 8,834 

1 5th. J. D. Cross, I, 14th cavalry 8,859 

loth. S. F. Shark, D, 113th infantry 8,861 

15th. J. Thorne, H, 16th cavalry 8,863 

16th. D. Brathers, n, 48th infantry 8,911 

16th. W. Brown, C, 16th infantry , 8,962 

16th. J. Jones, E, 1 17th infantry 8,971 

17th. J. H. Brown, F, 12th infantry 9,011 

17th. E. M. Strong, B, 95th infantry 9,013 

17th. J. C. Dyer, D, 30th infantry 9,037 

17th. >. Puckett, E, 30th infantry 9,059 

17th. C. Decker, M, 7th cavalry 9,073 

18th. W. Spindler, F, 113th infantry 9,092 

18th. J. Chatteuay, H, 82d infantry 9,095 

18th-. 0. S. Otey, I, 21st infantry 9,106 

18th. A. Marser, H, 24th infantry 9,145 

18th. M. Jourdan, C, 38th infantry 9,153 

18th. J. Whalen, F, 61st infantry. 9,184 

1 8th. F. Moram, C, 89th infantry 9,1 87 

18th. F. Miller, B, 16th infantry 9,188 

19th. J. Horner, F, 38th infantry 9,214 

19th. G. Walkei, K, 31st infantry 9,218 

20th. S. Craig, I, 38th infantry 9,307 

20th. J. F. Graber, D, 81st infantry 9,312 

20th. J. Perry, G, 9th cavalry 9,313 

20th. A. Weaver, A, 93d infantry 9,318 

20th. G. H. Shadrack, C, 7th cavalry 9,322 

20th. B. F Boyd, D, 6th cavalry 9,323 

20th. C. Sene, D. 8th cavalry 9,325 

20th. J. B. Sales, F, 14th infantry 9,345 

21st. A. F. Brown, C, 73d infantry 9,350 

21st. J. Graber, H, 24th infantry 9,398 

21st. J. Johnson, H, 125th infantry 9,458 

22d. J. Nelson, K, 93d infantry 9,531 

23d. C. Clark, B, 29th infantry 9,560 

23d. W. J. Bridges, F, 122d infantry 9,570 

24th. L. G. Lawrence, G, 89th infantry 9,633 

21th. G. Drum, F, 89th infantry 9,678 

25th. W. Ellis, G, 26th infantry 9,703 

25th. J. Craig, B, 23d infantry 9,704 

25th. W. McWorthrup, G, 92d infantry 9,710 



812 PA.TBXOTI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

I)VT8. >.tVK ANI> RKOIMKNT. NO. OF CIlAVi;. 

88th, .1. Rrbe, 0, 9th Infantry 9,717 

B6tb. J. Atkinson, I>, l nh cavalry. 9,733 

W. Ellison, I', nth cavalry 9,734 

86th. C. lli\, C, 88d infantry 9,753 

B5th. W. B McNiel, D, 78th infantry 9,763 

86th. J. Will, B, 86th infantry 9,785 

86th. M. Miller, A, 08d infantry 9,795 

87th. .1. Butts, I', 23d infantry 9,824 

87th. <i. W. Jones, B, 27th infantry 9,827 

27th. J. Thuraan, E, 89th infantry 9,833 

27th. .T. F. Fisher, P, L28d infantry 9,845 

27th. A. F. Howson, F, 38th infantry 9,880 

27th. J. Olson, K, 118th infantry 9,885 

27th. W. Howls, K, 89th infantry 9,899 

28th. B. Sawyer, C, 36th infantry 9,915 

28th. M. Cleaves, II, Sd cavalry •. 9,924 

88th, C. Gains, B, 20th infantry 9,925 

28th. A. Chingburg, G, 89th infantry 9,935 

28th. W. Anderson, C, 89th infantry 9,946 

28th. A. Doun, A, 75th infantry 9,947 

28th. D. L. Hews, H, 125th infantry 9,962 

29th. J. Flanigan, II. 42d infantry 9,992 

29th. J. Welch, E, 1st cavalry 10,001 

29th. II. M. May, I, 89th infantry 10,019 

29th. C. Capell, D, 82d infantry 10,026 

29th. II. Tayder, I, 7th cavalry 10,036 

29th. A. Olens, K, 108th infantry 10,042 

SOth. II. Flanesly, I), 14th infantry 10,059 

80th. 0. II. Haley, II, 22d infantry 10,061 

80th. William Skinner, B, 16th infantry 10,082 

30th. G. Welch, A, 95th infantry 10,085 

30th. T. Craig, K, 9th infantry 10,087 

30th. J. P. Fink, F, 53d infantry 10,090 

OCTOBER. 

1st. J. W. Dowde, K, 112th infantry 10,143 

1st. J. B. Sickley, F, 96th infantry 10,148 

1st. J. Sape, A, 125th infantry 10,178 

1st. J. Q. Rofferty, 11, 6th cavalry. 10,184 

3d. A. Anderson, E, 98th infantry 10,242 

3d. E. Anthony, E, 3d cavalry 10,271 

3d. D. J. Oinerie, E, 9th cavalry 10,279 

4 th. M. Jackson, F, 123d infantry 10,287 

4th. Hans Godard, G, 89th infantry 10,307 

4th. C. Dresser, G, 24th infantry 10,384 

5th. N. C. Thomburg, A, 79th infantry 10,347 



ANDEESONVILLE DEAD. 313 

DATE. NAME AND REOIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE. 

5th. W. Schwartz, F, 44th infantry 10,359 

5th. Corporal N. Butler, D, 89th infantry 10,362 

6th. S. B. Lord, B, 112th infantry 10,405 

6th. D. Thompson, K, 24th infantry 10,411 

6th. T. Pyner, D, 89th infantry 10,412 

6th. W. IT. Lansdon, A, 78th infantry 10,419 

6th. J. Strand, II, 9th cavalry 10,440 

7th. G. W. Harris, G, 9th cavalry 10,447 

7th. Samuel Cheney, K, 79th infantry ' 10,459 

7th. H. Grower, K, 42d infantry 10,466 

7th. J. W. Osbourn, H, 9th cavalry 10,469 

7th. T. Barnes, F, 135th infantry 10,480 

8th. A. Downer, H, 24th infantry 10,496 

8th. R. Lewis, K, 7th cavalry 10,508 

8th. W. Farmingham, K, 14th cavalry 10,509 

8th. L. Sandler, D, 19th infantry 10,512 

8th. H. Justice, H, 7th cavalry 10,513 

8th. J. Tanner, A, 7th cavalry 10,515 

8th. J. Killbraith, A, 42d infantry 10,520 

8th. G. Quinn, A, 52d infantry 10,531 

9th. W. Choat, D, 6th cavalry 10,551 

10th. A. A. Worthy, K, 21st infantry 10,582 

10th. J. Butler, D, 88th infantry 10,586 

10th. J. Gross, B, 20th infantry 10,594 

10th. G. Davis, D, 113th infantry 10,603 

10th. G. Hathaway, B, 15th cavalry 10,606 

11th. B. Morbley, H, 48th infantry 10,645 

11th. C. W. Benton, B, 29th infantry 10,653 

11 tb. P. Slick, E, 9th infantry 10,663 

11th. William Best, E, 88th infantry '. 10,681 

11th. S. Stevens, D, 44th infantry 10,737 

11th. L. Furguson, K, 115th infantry 10,740 

12th. F. Rodes, G, 16th cavalry 10,751 

12th. H. Alf, A, 89th infantry 10,762 

1 2th. E. Bieiden, E, 35th infantry 10,763 

12th. C. Yagle, B, 24th infantry ' 10,766 

12th. C. F. Randall, I, 124th infantry 10,772 

12th. J. W. Weidman, I, 38th infantry 10,785 

12th. J. Bowman, D, 108th infantry 10,791 

13th. A. Stine, H, 14th infantry 10,828 

13th. J. S. Tucker, G, 8th cavalry * 10,832 

13th. J. Smith, C, 14th cavalry 10,849 

13th. D. O'Brien, C, 89th infantry 10,851 

13th. N. P. Smith, G, 28th infantry 10,836 

13th. N. J. Ford, I, 17th infantry 10,881 

14th. J. Buckmaster, C, 79th infantry 10,882 



314 PATRIOTISM 01 ILLINOIS. 

DATE. Rim AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE. 

Mih. I>. Price, K, I08d Infantry 10,893 

14th. ML Leatuerman, B, 98th infantry 10,896 

14th. <;. W. Williams, B, L5th infantry 10,899 

11th. W. A. Barley, G, 21st 10,909 

Mih. 0. W. Crelly, B, 29th 10,912 

Mih. S. Mills, F, 14th oavalry 10,921 

15th. .' •'. Darren, I, 112th infantry 10,961 

15th. P. Smith, H, 114th infantry 10,975 

15th. B. Atkins, 0, 9th oavalry 10,979 

1 6th. A. Madrill, A, 12th infantry 10,982 

10th. .'. Boyer, II, 1 ttfa infantry 10,984 

16th. S. Parmer, A, 120th infantry 10,988 

16th. J. Graal, 0, 51st infantry 10,998 

17th. B. Scott, G, 28th infantry 11,077 

18lh. E. L. Bodkia, D, 103d infantry 11,085 

18th. D. Underwood, E, 11th infantry 11,091 

19th. N. Hungerford, I, 108th infantry 11,140 

19th. John Green, II, 23d infantry 11,155 

19th. D. Ilmson, E, 39th infantry 11,188 

20th. 0. Layson, C, 89th infantry 11,222 

21st. C. Lewis, A, 79th infantry 11,258 

22d. W. Ochley, K, 24th infantry 11,274 

22d. 11 Bargeant, K, 14th infantry , 11,289 

23d. G. R. Ward, E, 7th cavalry 11,845 

23d. J. W. Haddock, A, 79th infantry 11,358 

23d. J. Shcerlock, E, 89th infantry 11,859 

24th. J. Grimm, F, 76th infantry 11,449 

20th. V. Lineli, 0, 88th infantry 11,467 

20th. W. Ross, F, 45th infantry 11,473 

26th. G. W. Williams, F, 15th infantry 11,497 

26th. J. Horpc, A, 100th infantry 11,506 

27th. Fiskc, G, 65th infantry 11,541 

27th. J. J. Frask, B, 7th cavalry 11,550 

27th. G. H. Hall, B, 7th cavalry 11,592 

29th. J. R. Mitchell, G, 89th infantry 11,617 

29th. L. Waterman, D, 95th infantry 11,619 

29th. J. McGivens, A, 119th infantry 11,623 

30th. J. Beard, K, 14th infantry 11,652 

30th. A. R. Butten, E, 79th infantry 11,068 

31st. Hi B. Boyle, I, 14th infantry 11,078 

NOVEMBER. 

1st. W. Williams, C, 89th infantry 11,712 

1st. H. H. Compton, K, 21st infantry 11,719 

1st. J. Miller, C, 22d infantry 11,721 

LBt. E. K. Harris, C, 79th infantry 11,725 



ANDERSON 7ILLE DEAD. 315 

DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. "OF GRAVE. 

1st. W. Aron, M, 7th cavalry 11,72*7 

1st. F. Boyle, B, 4th cavalry 11,729 

2d. T. Welch, F, 24th infantry 11,751 

3d. A. Alvord, G, 23d infantry 11,777 

3d. Green George, D, 120th infantry 11,778 

3d. G. S. Howard, K, 127th infantry 11,782 

4th. IT. P Button, B, 100th infantry 11,795 

4th. B. F. Sutter, L, 4tb cavalry 11,808 

5th. Peter Hall, D, 105th infantry 11,833 

5th. R. Hoffman, C, 35th infantry 11,847 

6ht. O. L. Burton, I, 35th infantry 11,858 

7th. P. Knoble, E, 108th infantry 11,891 

7th. P. Munz, I, 14th infantry 11,900 

8th. M. Beaver, B, 29th 1 1,917 

8th. G. Bonser, F, 89th infantry ' 11,921 

10th. B. McLaven, A, 89th infantry 11,952 

11th. W. Haginus, G, 89th infantry 11,959 

15th. S. See, G, 11th infantry 12,034 

16th. V. Lance, D, 59th infantry 12,044 

16th. H. C. Siebert, M, 7th cavalry 12,046 

16th. F. Clir.es, E, 15th infantry 12,051 

16th. H. Kane, A, 95th infantry 12,052 

17th. C. Highland, C, 14th infantry 12,070 

18th. R. S. Ward, C, 15th infantry 12,072 

18th. F. Horn, A, 86th infantry 12,090 

22d. C. Green, A, 79th infantry 12,116 

23d. Stalholt-, H, 92d infantry 12,132 

24th. A. Sharp, B, 7th cavalry 12,149 

27th. J. B. Peterson, I, 112th infantry 12,179 

'28th. C. Stonn, C, 96th infantry 12,190 

DECEMBER. 

4th. J. L. Hall, G, 89th infantry 12,223 

12th. G. Langley, K, 14th infantry 12,270 

19th. S. Delaney, D, 2d artillery 12,311 

20th. H. C. Hall, D, 41st infantry 12,314 

23d. F. Richardson, E, 34th infantry 12,324 

27th. J. C. Cadding, B, 89th infantry. .' 12,348 

28th. F. Parkhurst, H, 14th infantry. . , 12,356 

29th. B. Buffington, F, 74th infantry 12,362 

Number of patients admitted 17,460 

Number of deaths 12,854 

Remaining in hospital 886 

Returned to quarters 3,730 

Highest number of deaths, 127, August 23, 1864. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

* REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Seventy-second — Batti.es of Franklin and Nashville — General Joseph 
Stockton — The Seventy-fourth — What Hood Got — The Seventy-fifth — Its 
Battles — The Seventy-sixth — Its Roster and History — The Seventy-ninth — 
The Eightieth — Its Battles and Marches — The Eighty-first — Pursuit of Price 
— The Eighty-second — Gettysburg — Colonel Frederic Hecker — General E. S. 
Salomon — The Eighty-third — Defence of Fort Donelson — The Eighty-fourth — 
The Eighty-sixth — The Atlanta Campaign — The Eighty-ninth — A Brllliant 
Record — The Ninetieth — "The Irish Legion" — The Ninety-first — Service in 
Texas. 



T 



SEVENTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

HE following is the original roster of this (the First Board 
of Trade) regiment ■ 



Colonel, F. A. Starring ; Lieutenant Colonel, Joseph C. Wright; Major, Henry W. 
Chester; Adjutant, Ebenezer Bacon; Quartermaster, Benjamin W. Thomas; Sur- 
geon, Edwin Powell ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, B. Durham, Jr. ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
E. A. Beers ; Chaplain, Henry Barnes. 

Co. A — Captain, Joseph Stockton ; 1st Lieutenant, George B. Randall ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Gallaher. 

Co. B— Captaiu, Jacob S. Curtis ; 1st Lieutenant, David W. Perkins; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, D. W. Whittle. 

Co. C — Captain, William James, Jr. ; 1st Lieutenant, Glen C. Ledyard ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Clifford Stickney. 

Co. D — Captain, James A. Sexton ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Underwood ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Nathan C. Underwood. 

Co. E — Captain, W. B. Holbrook ; 1st Lieutenant, H. C. Mowry ; 2d Lienteuant, 
Porter E. Ransom. 

Co. F — Captain, Isaiah II. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, George W.Colby; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Richard Pomcroy. 

Co. G — Captain, H. D. French ; 1st Lieutenant, J. H. Smith ; 2d Lieutenant, J. 
H. Bingham. 



THE SEVENTY-SECOND INFANTRY. 317 

Co. H — Captain, Edwin C. Prior ; 1st Lieutenant, J. W. Murray ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Hezekiah Stout. 

Co. I— Captain, J. W. Harvey ; 1st Lieutenant, Abner E. Barnes; 2d Lieutenant, 
John W. Abbott. 

Co. K — Captain, John Reid ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Gladding; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edwin Small. 

This regiment was organized by the Board of Trade of Chicago. 
Its enlistment rolls were first opened on the 23d of July, 1862, and 
on the 23d day. of August — just one month from the first enlist- 
ments — 1862, the regiment embarked on board the Illinois Central 
Railroad cars for Cairo, where it remained imtil September 8th. 
It then took boats to Paducah, Kentucky, where it arrived 
September 9th, and was employed in post duty until the 17th, when 
it again embai-ked for Columbus, Kentucky, and remained there 
on post and picket duty until November 21st. 

On that day the regiment started on the march for Vicksburg, but, 
with the rest of the army, was obliged to retrace its steps, the cap- 
ture of Holly Springs, Mississippi, having cut off the supplies. On 
the 13th of March, 1863, the regiment again embarked to join in the 
movement against Vicksburg. On the 16th of May, after march- 
ing all day, it reached the battle-field of Champion Hills, just in 
time to help turn the enemy's left flank, and send him flying from 
the field. On the next day (17th) it was engaged at BlackRiver 
bridge, and on the 19th it was the first to bring on the engage- 
ment of that day at Vicksburg. May 22d it took part in the general 
assault on the enemy's line around Vicksburg, and suffered severely. 
From that time until July 4, 1863, the regiment took an active part 
in the siege of Vicksburg, and was among the first troops to enter 
the city after its* surrender. 

Subsequently, the 72d participated in the capture of Natchez, 
the battle of Benton, Mississippi, and General Slocum's expedition 
to Port Gibson and Grand Gulf. On the 30th of November, 1864, 
the regiment was engaged in the battle of Franklin, in which it suf- 
fered severely, losing, in killed, wounded and taken prisoners, nine 
officers and one hundred and fifty-two enlisted men, and where 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stockton was severely wounded. On the 15th 
of December it bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Nash- 



318 PATBIOTIOM 01 n.i.iN"!-. 

ville. Prom this point it moved to Eastport, Tennessee, and, :i 
month Later, to New Orleans, where it arrived February 21st, 

1865. 

Thon followed the movemenl apon Mobile, in which it bore a 
not animportanl part, sharing in tin- capture of Spanish Fort, and in 
tin- Bnbsequeni < -:i | >i »n-c of Blakeley. 

From Mobile the regiment marched to Montgomery, Alabama. 
Remaining in camp at thai place until the 23d of May, it was 
ordered on post duty at Union Springs, Alabama, forty-five miles 
east of Montgomery, where it continued until July 19, 1865. 
Having received orders to muster out of the service, it proceeded 
to Vicksburg, Mississippi, via Montgomery and Selma, Alabama, 
Meridian and Jackson, Mississippi, arriving there on the 1st of Au- 
gust, and w as mustered out on the 13th, having participated in the 
following engagements : Champion Hills, Big Black, Siege of Vicks- 
burg, Benton, Franklin, Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Pillow, Clark- 
son, Horn Lake Creek, Fort Pcmberton, St. Catherine's Creek, 
Cross Bayou, Grand Gulf, Columbia, Spring Hill, Iuka and Cedar 
Point, • 

General Joseph Stockton was born at Pittsburg, August 10, 1833. 
He was educated at Sewickley, Pa., and removed to Chicago in 
1851. Here he was engaged in mercantile pursuits until the break- 
ing out of the rebellion. He was mustered into the service as First 
Lieutenant, and was the second man to sign the rolls of the Board 
of Trade regiments — Adjutant Heafford being the first. General 
S. rose by successive steps to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the regi- 
ment, which post he held when the regiment was mustered out, 
previous to which time he was brevetted a Brigadier-General for 
meritorious service. • 

SEVENTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

On page 397 et seq. of the first volume of this work, we have 
given the roster of this regiment, and followed its record till the 1st 
of September, 1864. After the retreat of the rebels from Jonesboro, 
the 74th marched to Lovejoy's Station, and from thence went to 
Atlanta and camped. On the 25th of September, Hood having 
commenced his campaign north, the 2d division moved back to Chat- 



THE SEVENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 319 

tanooga, where it remained till the 22d of November, when the 
army began its retreat to Nashville, pursued by Hood, who, in an 
order to his soldiers, said he was bound for h — 1 or Nashville. At 
Spring Hill his advance cavalry came upon the 74th and 88th Illi- 
nois, who were in the rear guard of Thomas' army, and was sent 
back reeling. At Franklin, when the enemy broke our lines, these 
two regiments charged forward and saved the day. On the 15th 
and 16th of December, at the battle of Nashville, the 74th nobly did 
its duty, the boys saying Hood got h — 1, but not Nashville. The 
74th reached Chicago on the 14th of June, 1865, and was then mus- 
tered out. When it left Rockford for the field, it numbered 936 men 
and officers. It returned with 279, one-third of whom were re- 
cruited during the last year of its service. 

SEVENTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In the first volume of this work [ p. 402 ] we have given the 
original roster of this regiment, and followed its fortunes as far as 
the commencement of Sherman's memorable march to the sea. At 
this date (November 6, 1864), the 75th was attached to the 4th 
Corps, which Sherman left at Gaylesville, when it proceeded to 
Pulaski, Tennessee. The regiment was in the battle of Franklin, 
and suffered severely. Then it went back to Nashville, where, on 
the second day of the siege, it charged through an open cornfield on 
the double quick for the distance of half a mile, driving out the 
rebels. A second charge was made by the whole corps, by brigades 
in echelon. The 75th was in the first charging line, and captured 
223 prisoners, and large quantities of arms and camp equipage. 
This was the last of its fighting. It went into quarters at Hunts- 
ville on the 1 4th of April, moving via Rollin to Knoxville, and thence 
to Greenville, where the news of the surrender was received, and the 
regiment returned to Nashville. On the 15th of June, 1865, it 
arrived at Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged. 

The 75th started out with 868 men, and during its service recruited 
nearly 200. It returned with 266 men and non-commissioned officers, 
leaving 85 behind. Its Colonel was justly complimented with a com- 
mission as Brevet Brigadier-General, and the regiment could point 
to the following battles and skirmishes in which it had borne an 



320 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

honorable part: IYrryville, Lancaster, Nolesville, Stone River, 
Liberty Gap, Chickamaiuga, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ring- 
gold, Buzzard's Roost, Franklin, Nashville, Rocky Face, Resaca, 
Dallas, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, North Marietta, Siege 
of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy. 

SEVENTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 76th regiment was raised in Kankakee, Iroquois, Champaign, 
Morgan and Grundy counties, organized at Kankakee, and mustered 
into the service on the 22d of August, 1862. The following is the 
original roster: 

Colonel, AlonzoW. Mack ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Samuel T. Busey ; Major, William 
A. Dubois ; Adjutant, John F. Huntoon ; Quartermaster, George J. Hodges ; Surgeon, 
Franklin Blades ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, William A. Babcock ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Edmund Ridgeway ; Chaplain, John W. Flower. 

Co. A — Captain, George C. Harrington ; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham Andrea ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James R. Elliott. 

Co. B — Captain, Homer W. Avers; 1st Lieutenant, Ning A. Riley; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James E. Smith. 

Co. C — Captain, Charles C. Jones ; 1st Lieutenant, William Reardon, Jr. ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Richard Hughe3. 

Co. D — Captain, Francis Seguin ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles 0. Savoil ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Noel Brosseau. 

Co. E — Captain, Abram Irvin ; 1st Lieutenant, Peter J. Williams ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Cornelius L. Hoyle. 

Co. F — Captain, George Cooper ; 1st Lieutenant, William P. Mitchell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, David Palmer. 

Co. G — Captain, Joseph Park ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Ingersoll ; 2d Lieutenant, 
James R. Dunlap. 

Co. II — Captain, Daniel Plummer ; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Nichols; 2d Lieutenant, 
Jacob Ruger. 

Co. I — Captain, Walter W. Todd; 1st Lieutenant J. B. Durham ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Warren R. Hickox. 

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Davis; 1st Lieutenant, Charles R. Ford; 2d Lieutenant, 
John B. Dille. 

On the 26th of August the regiment was sent to Columbus, Ken- 
tucky, remaining there till October 3d, when it was sent to Bolivar, 
Tennessee. On the 24th of November it joined in General Grant's 
Yocna expedition. February 23, 1863, it returned to Memphis, and 
from there was ordered to Vicksburg, arriving May 20th. The great 



THE SEVENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 321 

charge of the 22d, in which it bore a prominent part, was the first 
real fight in which it was engaged, but the men behaved with 
the steadiness and gallantry of veterans. After this charge the regi- 
ment was placed on the extreme left of the besieging line, where it 
remained, with the exception of the last week of the siege, when it 
was stationed at Hall's Ferry, until the place surrendered. On the 
5th of July it proceeded to Jackson, taking part in the siege and 
capture of that place. It then returned to Vicksburg, and from 
thence went to Jackson. It participated in Sherman's famous Merid- 
ian raid, but took no part in any great battles. In February and 
May, 1864, it was on the expedition up the Yazoo, and participated 
in the battles of Benton, Vaughn's Station and Deasonville, with 
credit, but, fortunately, with no serious losses. With the exception 
of one pretty severe conflict between Clinton and Jackson, Louisiana, 
the time was filled up with an uneventful routine of skirmishes and 
reconnoissances in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennessee, 
until the time of General Steele's expedition from Pensacola to 
Blakeley, Alabama, reaching the latter place April 1. 1864. On the 
line of march it had but one engagement of any note, that at Pol- 
lard's Station. On the 9th of May it assaulted and carried the 
enemy's position at Blakeley. The assault lasted only about fifteen 
minutes, but in that time the regiment lost 17 killed and 81 severely 
wounded. Its colors were the first to be planted on the rebel works. 
Long and uneventful marches and tedious waiting in camp at Selden, 
Mobile and Galveston occupied the rest of the time until the 22d of 
July, 1865, when it was mustered out at Galveston. On the 29th 
it started for home, arriving at Chicago August 3d, where it was 
paid off and discharged. Daring its term of service, the 76th 
traveled over 10,000 miles. It received but 156 recruits, and trans- 
ferred all left of these to the 37th Illinois, bringing back 471 officers 
and men. It will thus be seen that it was very fortunate in the 
chances of war, having lost only about one half its original members 
by battle and disease. 

SEVENTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

In Vol. I. of this work [p. 391 ] we have given the original roster 
of this regiment, and its history to the time of its marching to the 

21 



322 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

relief of Burnside a1 Knoxville. It previously participated in the 
Atlanta oampaign, bearing itself gallantly at Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. At the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville it fought bravely and suffered severely. Tt then followed 
the rebels till they were driven out of the State. Its time was after- 
ward occupied in uneventful marches and tedious waiting in camp 
at various points in Tennessee, until June 12, 18G5, when it was 
mustered out of the service at Nashville, Tennessee, the veterans 
being transferred to the 42d regiment. It arrived at Camp Butler 
on the 14th, and was there paid off and discharged. 

EIGHTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 80th regiment was organized at Centralia, and mustered into 
the service on the 28th of August, 1862. The following is the 
original roster : 

Colonel, Thomas G. Allen; Lieutenant-Colonel, Andrew F. Rogers; Major, Erastus 
N.Baker; Adjutant, James C. Jones ; Quartermaster, Robert J. Harmer ; Surgeon, 
Nathan W. Abbott ; Assistant Surgeon, EbenezerRodgers ; Chaplain, John W. Lane. 

Co. A — Captain, James L. Mann; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel T. Jones ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Goodwin Scudmore. 

Co. B — Captain, George W. Carr ; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Wright ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Henry C. Smith. 

Co. C — Captain, Henry Zeis ; 1st Lieutenant, Herman Steinscke ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Benjamin Kohln. 

Co. D — Captain, Carter C. Williams ; 1st Lieutenant, James Neville ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alexander Van Kendle. 

Co. E — Captain, Stephen T. Stratton ; 1st Lieutenant, Newton C. Pace ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles W. Pavey. 

Co. F — Captain, Edmund R. Jones ; 1st Lieutenant, John Woods ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Albert Foster. 

Co. G — Captain, Andrew Wilson ; 1st Lieuteuant, John W. McCormack ; 2d Lieu* 
tenant, William H. McDill. 

Co. H Captain, James Cunningham ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel G. Andrews ; 2d 

Lieutenant, John R. Cunningham. 

Co. I — Captain, Daniel Hay; 1st Lieutenant, James Adams; 2d Lieutenant, 
Richard M. Davis. 

Co. K— Captain, Alexander Hodge ; 1st Lieutenant, Edmund D. Kiersey ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John A. Miller. 

The regiment left camp on the 4th of September for Louisville, 
receiving arms at New Albany. On the 1st of October it started 



THE EIGHTIETH INFANTRY. 323 

with Buell's army in pursuit of Bragg, participating in the battle of 
Perryville, where it suffered severely. It continued with the array 
in pursuit to Mumfordsville, where it arrived on the 24th. On the 
31st it marched to Cove City, and returned on the 6th of November. 
On the 11th of December it arrived at Bledsoe Creek, Tennessee, 
and on the 26th started in pursuit of John Morgan. January 2, 1 863, 
the pursuit of Morgan was discontinued, and* the regiment marched 
to Nashville and Murfreesboro, arriving at the latter place on the 
10th. It remained here till April 7th, foraging and scouting. On 
the 20th of March, the brigade, while on a scout, ;was attacked by a 
largely superior force of rebels, who were repulsed with a heavy loss. 
On the 7th of April the regiment left Murfreesboro for Nashville, 
where it prepared to go upon " Straight's expedition." On the 10th 
all was ready, and it embarked. On the 30th, the expedition was 
attacked at Day's Gap and Sand Mountain, repulsing the rebels on 
both occasions. On the 3d of May the expedition met with its dis- 
astrous defeat, and the forces were surrendered to Forrest. On the 
17th, after great suffering, the private soldiers who had been captured 
were landed at Annapolis on parole ( the officers being retained in 
Libby Prison ), and were at once sent to Camp Chase, Ohio. June 
23d, having been exchanged, the regiment was sent to Nashville, 
arriving on the 29th. September 8th it moved to Stevenson, Ala- 
bama, where it was placed on guard duty along the railroad. On 
the 16th of October it moved to Battle Creek, and thence to Bridge- 
port. On the 27th it moved up Lookout Valley to open the road to 
Chattanooga, and was present at the battle of Wauhatchie on the 
night of the 28th, but, being in the reserve, was not actually engaged. 
November 24th and 25th it participated in the battle of Mission Ridge. 
On the 27th it made a forced march to Red Clay, and destroyed 
several miles of the track of the East Tennessee and Georgia Rail- 
road. On the 29th it started to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, 
encamping within fourteen miles of the city on the 5th of Decem- 
ber. On the 7th, Longstreet having retreated from Knoxville, the 
regiment returned to its former camp in Lookout Valley, capturing 
and destroying a large amount of Confederate stores on the march. 
On the 24th of December it moved to Whiteside, Tennessee, where 
it remained till January 27, 1864, when it went to Blue Spring, Ten- 



olM lATKIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

nesaee. Hero it encamped till May 4th. From the 22d to the 23th 
of February it was engaged in a reconnoissance toward Dalton, 
Georgia, Bkirmishing considerably with tlie enemy. On the 3d of 
Mav it started on the Ailanta campaign, participating in the battles 
of Dalton, Etesaca, Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy Station, *md pursuing the rebels until September 5th, 
when it returned to Atlanta. October 3d, marching orders were 
received, and the regiment started in pursuit of Hood, halting at 
Pulaski November 3d. On the 23d it began the famous retreat to 
Nashville. It was present at the battle of Franklin, but did not 
participate. It did its full share, however, at the battle of Nashville, 
and pursued Hood till he was driven out of the State. It then 
returned to Huntsville, arriving January 5, 1865. March 12th it 
moved to Chattanooga and Knoxville. Here it was sent out to Straw- 
berry Plains, Morristown, Bull's Gap, Shields' Mills, &o., to Green- 
ville, to guard a signal station, returning to Nashville April 23d. 
It remained in camp near Nashville till June 10th, when it was mus- 
tered out and sent home, arriving at Camp Butler on the 13th, where 
it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service it 
marched over 6,000 miles, was engaged in more than twenty pitched 
battles, and the conduct of its members was such as to reflect honor 
on the regiment, the State and the nation. 

EIGHTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 81st regiment was mustered into the service at Anna on the 
26th of August, 1862, 915 strong. The following is the original 
roster : 

Colonel, James J. Dollins ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Franklin Campbell ; Major, 
Andrew W. Rogers ; Adjutant, Zehedee Hammock ; Quartermaster, Logan H. Roots ; 
Surgeon, Lewis Dyer; Chaplain, William S. Post. 

Co. A — Captain, James P. Cowan ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Payne ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William McNeill. 

Co. B — Captain, Thomas Hightower ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Grammar ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Josiah Goodwin. 

Co. C — Captain, John C. Armstrong ; 1st Lieutenant, Mortimer C. Edwards; 2d 
Lieutenant, Thomas B. McClure. 

Co. D — Captain, Cornelius S. Ward ; 1st Lieutenant, Logan Wheeler ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Isaac Rapp. 



THE EIGHTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 325 

Co. E — Captain, Marrnaduke F. Smith ; 1st Lieutenant, John P. Reese ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, David R. Sanders. 

Co. F — Captain, Samuel L. Campbell ; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob W. Sanders ; 2d 
Lieutenaut, George W. Kelly. 

Co. G — Captain, George W. Sisney ; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Russell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William L. Farmer. 

Co. H — Captain, Albert F. Crane ; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Stewart; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James V. Pierce. 

Co. I — Captain, J6hn W. Felt ; 1st Lieutenant, James Bartleson ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles J. Minnick. 

Co. K — Captain, Samuel Pyle ; 1st Lieutenant, Lycurgua Rees ; 2d Lieutenant, 
William Needham. 

On the 7th of September, 1862, the 81st left Anna for the front, 
under James J. Dollins, its first Colonel, who fell at the charge upon 
the enemy's fortifications at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. It was in 
that splendid series of battles, under General Grant: Port Gibson, 
Mississippi, May 1, 1863 ; Raymond, Mississippi, May 12, 1863 ; 
Jackson, Mississippi, May 14, 1863; Champion's Hill, Mississippi, 
May 16, 1863 ; investment of and charge on Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
May 19 and 22; 1863, and marched in triumph into the city, July 
4, 1863; Brownsville, Mississippi, October 16, 1863. On the death 
of Colonel Dollins, Lieutenant-Colonel F. Campbell succeeded to 
the office of Colonel, but being absent under orders, Lieutenant- 
Colonel A. W. Rogers was in command of the regiment while on 
the celebrated Red River expedition, under Banks. During that 
arduous expedition it participated in the battle and capture of Fort 
De Russey, Louisiana, spring of 1864 ; two battles of Cloutierville, 
Old River, Marksville, Yellow Bayou, and in numerous skirmishes 
while aboard the transports in their attempt to ascend the river to 
Shreveport. The 81st was in the disastrous Guntown expedition, 
under General Sturgis, and this was the first and only time it was 
ever driven from the field of conflict. On the 3d of August, 1864, 
the division to which it belonged was ordered to St. Charles, Arkan- 
sas, on "White River. The 81st, with some other troops, having 
been sent up to Augusta, to drive away the enemy, who were con- 
centrating there, returned for a few days, after accomplishing this 
work, to Duvall's Bluff, and from thence went to Brownsville, on the 
Little Rock Railroad, where the expedition under General Mower 
was organized and sent with all haste after the rebel General Price, 



32G PATBIOTISM OF ll.i.l.VOIS. 

who was moving toward Missouri This little army, with twelve 
days' rations, marched over the mountains, through swamps, fording 
and bridging streams, to < 'ape I Hrardeau, a distance of S2S miles, in 
nineteen days. Colonel Campbell having resigned inconsequence 
of protracted ill health, Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers assumed its entire 
command, which he retained, bavingthe commission of Colonel from 
Governor Fates. At Cape Girardeau the troops wjere Bent by riv r 
to St. Louis and Jefferson City, and from thence by rail and land 
marches to Warrensburg, in Western Missouri. General Price hav- 
ing "been driven from the country, the 81st was dow assigned to 
General A. J. Smith's command, and hurried to oppose General Hoo ', 
who was about to invest Nashville. It participated in the celebrated 
fights of the loth and lC'h of December before that city, and bore a 
noble part in the pursuit of that discomfited General to Pulaski, 
eighty miles south, and thence to Clifton, on the Tennessee River, 
eighty miles west. Here it took boats for Eastport, making the recon- 
noissance of Corinth, and on the 8th day of February, 1S65, it 
started on its way to New Orleans, making brief stops at Cairo, 
Memphis and Vicksburg. Remaining for some three weeks in camp, 
it commenced its movement toward Mobile, by way of Forts Gaines 
and Morgan ; landing on the eastern shore of the bay, the approaches 
to Spanish Fort, the most formidable of the defenses of Mobile and 
the key to all the rest, were at once pushed forward. The 3d divi- 
sion of the 16th Army Corps was ordered, on the 20th of March, to 
make a reconuoissance in force into the immediate vicinity of the 
enemy's fortifications. Locating him with sufficient accuracy, the 
81st Illinois being in the advance, and deploying one half the regi- 
ment as a skirmish line, it received a heavy musketry fire from the 
enemy, when, in pursuance of orders, the siege was commenced by 
the whole division. On the thirteenth day of the siege the 3d Brig- 
ade of the 3d Division was ordered to charge upon the fortifications 
— the 8th Iowa leading the charge, closely supported by the 81st 
Illinois, led by Colonel Rogers in person. The charge was a com- 
plete success. In a day or two after, Fort Blakeley was successfully 
charged by General Steele and the 2d Division of the 16th Army 
Corps, after which Mobile quickly surrendered. Tin; 81st Illinois 
was now moved up to Montgomery, where it remained on provost 



THE EIGHTY-SECOND INFANTKY. 327 

duty until ordered home for discbarge, arriving at Chicago on the 
7th of August, 1865. 



EIGHTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 82d Infantry — named the " Second Hecker llegiment," in 
honor of its first Colonel — was almost exclusively a Chicago organ- 
ization, and was also as exclusively made up of Germans, except 
Co. I, which was composed of Scandinavians. Its original roster 
was as follows : 

Colonel, Frederick Heeker ; Lieutenant Colonel, Edward S. Salomon ; Major, Fer- 
dinand Rolshanson ; Adjutant, Eugene F. Weigel ; Quartermaster, Herman Panse ; 
Surgeon, George Scbloetzer ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Emil Brendel ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Oscar Julius Bergk ; Chaplain, Emanual Juliua Richhelm. 

Co. A — Captain. Anton Bruhn ; 1st Lieutenent, Edward Kafka ; 2d Lieutenant. 
Charles E. Stueven. 

Co. B — Captain, Augustus Bruning; 1st Lieutenant,, George Heinzman ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charles Lanzendorfcr. 

Co. C — Captain, Jacob Lasalle ; 1st Lieutenant, Mayer A. Frank ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Frederick Bechstein. 

Co. D — Captain, Matthew Marx; 1st Lieutenant, William Warner ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Frank Kirchner. 

Co. E — Captain, Robert Lender ; 1st Lieutenant, Rudolph Mueller ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Brech Celler. 

Co F — Captain, Frederick L. Weber ; 1st Lieutenant, Erich Hoppe ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lorenz Spoenmann. 

Co. Cr — Captain, William Neussel; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Gottlob ; 2d Lieuten- 
aiit, Conrad Schonder. 

. Co. H — Captain, Emil Frey ; 1st Lieutenant, Johann Sporre ; 2d Lieutenant, Jos. 
Riegert. 

(Jo. I — Captain, I var Alexander Weid ; 1st Lieutenant, John Hillborg ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Peter Hunson. 

Co. K. — Captain, Joseph P. Greenhut ; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Fuchs ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Dominicua Kiutscn. 

The 82d was mustered into the service on the 26th of August, 
1862, at Camp Butler, and left for the field on the 3d of November, 
900 strong, and joined Sigel on the Potomac, and fought under him 
in the 11th Army Corps. The first fight was at Chancellorsville, 
where the regiment had a hard trial, doing some splendid work, and 
fighting bravely ; it was the last to quit the field. The Colonel and 
Major were wounded, and two line officers killed ; the regiment lost 



338 PAraionsM of nxnroxi. 

157 men killed and grounded, among which were ten commissioned 
offio< rs, 

\. Gettysburg the regiment particularly distinguished itself, and 
was the only Illinois infantry regiment present there. On the first 
day of tin' battle it occupied the center of our line, and when both 
wings of i lie army began the retreat, it remained to cover the move- 
ment, and was the hist regiment to leave the field. On the second 
day it was again placed in the center, on the cemetery hill, which 
was one of the most exposed positions in the entire line. On the 
second day, the rebels obtained possession of our rifle pits, on the 
right, when Colonel Salomon with the 82d made a charge upon them, 
driving them back and taking more prisoners than the number of his 
own command. On the third day it occupied the same position as 
on the preceding, and took part in the winning of the glorious vic- 
tory. During the three days' battle, Colonel Salomon had two horses 
shot under him. The regiment lost 131 men out of 312 engaged, 
and was highly complimented by Generals Schurz, Howard and 
Meade. 

The regiment took an effective part in the campaign in Northern 
Georgia. It left Whiteside, Tenn., where it had been stationed to 
guard the- railroad, on the 3d day of May, 1864, arriving at Triune 
on the 7th, marching thence to Resaca, arriving there on the 13th. 
On the 14th the regiment marched with the brigade to the rear of 
the center of their line of battle before Resaca, and subsequently 
moved to the extreme left, on the double quick. The brigade formed 
on the high bank of a little creek, with an open field in the front. 
Before the line had been perfectly formed, the brigade on the right 
gave way, being closely pressed by the enemy, leaving the 5th Indi- 
ana battery in imminent danger of being taken. At this critical 
juncture the 82d charged in double quick across the open field, 
and with a full volley into the rebel ranks drove them back. The 
battery was saved, and the brigade occupied the field for the night. 
On the 15th this regiment again gallantly repulsed a severe attack, 
relieving the 150th New York amid a perfect hailstorm of bullets. 
It then pressed the enemy for three days, losing one man in a skir- 
mish on the 19th. At Dallas the regiment advanced in the face of 
a heavy fire to within one hundred and fifty yards of the enemy's 



COLONEL FREDERIC HECKER. 329 

line, and remaining there till its ammunition was exhausted, and 
then, till more came, took the cartridges from the dead and wounded. 
Out of 245 muskets going into that fight, 11 men were killed and 69 
wounded. At Kingston, during the first few days of June, the 
regiment kept up a lively skirmish with the rebels, throwing up 
breastworks ; on the 4th and 5th a continuous fire was kept up dur- 
ing the day and night. On the 6th of June it marched and struck 
the pickets of the rebels near Lost Mountain, about twelve miles 
west of Marietta, and skirmished till the 15th of June, when at Pine 
Hill the regiment had a severe conflict with the enemy, losing five 
men. On the 17th it lost one man killed and three wounded, 
out of a skirmish line of fifteen. At Peach Tree Creek the regi- 
ment behaved most gallantly, each man firing from 135 to 140 rounds 
of ammunition, keeping up a brisk fire for over three hours at short 
range. At Atlanta, 'too, the 82d did noble service working in 
the trenches, and was in the first brigade that entered the city. 
Then began the march to the sea followed by the Carolina campaign, 
in which the 82d bore a prominent part. 

At Averysboro and Bentonville, it engaged the enemy with 
great bravery, losing about fifteen men at the former place and about 
twenty-five men at the latter. It arrived at Raleigh, N". O, on the 
16th of April, 1865, where the news was received that hostilities had 
ceased. Fatiguing marching still remained, but there was no more 
fighting, and after a long delay the boys set their faces toward home, 
after the grand review at Washington, arriving in Chicago on the 
17th of June, when they were mustered out. The regiment re- 
turned with 310 men; it marched on foot 2,503 miles, traveled by 
railroad 2,385 miles, crossed 43 rivers and waded through innumer- 
able creeks and swamps. It has inscribed upon its record the story 
of gallant deeds at Chancellorsvillc, Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, 
Resaca, Cassville, Dallas or New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Pine 
Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Savan- 
nah, Columbia, Averysboro and Bentonville. With its members 
love of liberty has been shown in deeds more than in words. 

Colonel Frederic Hecker was born in Baden, Germany, Septem- 
ber 28, 1811. He took a leading part in the revolution of 1848, and 
on the defeat of the revolutionary forces fled to America. On the 



:'.-'> I'M ui'.i IBM 01 [LLINOIfl. 

Beoond outbreak, under the Lead of Lorenz Brentano (now <>ne of 
the editors ofthe Illinois Stoats Z< itung in Chicago), in 1849, Colonel 
Booker returned to his nativo Land, 1 >ut arrived there too Late 
t.> take part La the struggle for liberty. He then returned to 
America and purchased :i (arm near Lebanon, St. Clair County, 
Illinois. In L850, he was a candidate for Presidential Elector 
on the Fremom tickel —the only official po ition in civil Life for 
which he has ever consented, to be a- candidate, though often press 1 
to do so. At the outbreak of the rebellion, he enliste I as a private 
in the 3d Missouii infantry, from which he was called i>» (he Colo- 
nelcy ofthe 24th Illinois, his commission dating June 17, 1801. lie 
resigned in December, and accepted the same position in the 82d 
Illinois. lie commanded his regiment in the bloody battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, and afterward commanded a brigade till he resigned, in 
March, 1804, and retired to his farm, where he now resides. Colonel 
Hecker is a gentleman of splendid abilities and education, and is an 
orator of no mean degree. He is brave even to rashness, very fiery 
and impulsive. 

General Edward S. Salomon was born in Sebleswig-IIolstein, on 
the 25th of December, 1830, of Jewish parents, and is, we believe, 
the only individual of that faith who rose to the rank of Brigadier- 
General. He removed to this country in 1854, settling in Chicago 
one year later. Here he was first employ, d as a clerk in a whole- 
sale hat and cap house, then studied law with Davis and Bui !1, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. In the following year he was 
chosen Alderman from the sixth ward, which position he occupied 
when the war broke out. In 1861, he entered the service in the 
24th Illinois infantry (First Hecker regiment) as Second Lieutenant, 
and was promoted successively to First Lieutenant, Captain and 
Major. When Colonel Hecker resigned, Major Salomon resigned 
also, as did a number of other officers, and with Colonel II. set 
about the formation of "the Second Hecker regiment,"' of which he 
was chosen Lieutenant-Colonel. His career was then with his regi- 
ment. On Colonel Hecker's resignation in 1804, he was promoted 
to the Colonelcy, and in March, 1805, was commissioned Brigadier- 
General by President Lincoln, for gallant service. When the 82d 
was mustered out, General Salomon returned to Chicago, and in the 



THE EIGHTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 331 

fall of 1865, was elected County Clerk of Cook County, a position 
he still holds. 



EIGHTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 83d regiment was mustered into the sciwice at Monmouth, on 
the 11th of August, 1862. The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Abner C. Harding ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Arthur A. Smith ; Major, Elijah 
C. Brott; Adjutant, Wesley B. Casey ; Quartermaster, John B. Cotton ; Surgeon, 
Esaias S. Cooper ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John P. McClanahan ; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Richard Morris ; Chaplain, Adam C. Higgins. 

Co. A — Captain, Philo C. Reid ; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Palmer ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Davis M. Clark. 

Co. B — Captain, John McClanahan ; 1st Lieutenant, James Moore ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William W. Turnbull. 

Co. C — Captain, Lyman B. Cutler; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Gamball; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Samuel L. Stephenson. 

Co. D — Captain, Joshua M. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, Hugh M. Robb ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Francis M. Sykes. 

Co. E — Captain, James M. Gilson ; 1st Lieutenant, Erastus H. Pierce ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John L. Parsons. 

Co. F — Captain, John T. Morgan ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Boyington ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James W. Morgan. 

Co. G — Captain, James G. Hammick ; 1st Lieutenant, Horace Jones ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Jones. 

Co. H — Captain, William G. Bond ; 1st Lieutenant, Walter N. Bond ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James C. Johnson. 

Co. I — Captain, Joseph B. Dowley ; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel D. Shoop ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William S. Latimer. 

Co. K — Captain, ■ George W. Reynolds ; 1st Lieutenant, Richard D. Russell; 2d 
Lieutenant, John S. Garrett. 

On the 25th of August, 1862, the 83d left Monmouth for Cairo, 
938 strong. From Cairo it proceeded to Fort Donelson, where 
it was placed on garrison duty. In October the regiment was 
ordered out, with other forces, in pursuit of rebel cavalry under 
General Morgan and Colonel Woodard. A fight took place at Gar- 
rettsburg, Kentucky, in which the rebels were completely routed. 
On the 3d of February, 1863, Colonel Harding made his heroic 
defence of Fort Donelson, of which we have given an extended 
account in Vol. I. (p. 496 et seq.) of this work. For gallantry in 
this fight Colonel Harding was promoted to Brigadier-General, and 



333 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Smith to the Colonelcy of the regiment Gener- 
al II. Boon after lefl the service i i I ike a seat in Congress. During 
L868 and L864, the regiment was almost constantly engaged in 
skirmishes with detached rebel commands and guenillaa — in the 
latter year participating in the campaign which expelled Wheeler 
and his forces from Tennessee, and afterward in the pursuit of For- 
rest. It was the fortune of the 83(1 to fight almost al ways against 
superior numbers, and no body of men could have exhibited more 
determined courage than did this regiment. It arrived in Chicago 
on the 30th of June, 1865, where it was mustered out and disbanded. 
The 83d went out 1,050 strong, and returned with 640 men. 

eighty-fourth: Illinois infantry. 

The 84th regiment was organized at Quincy, and mustered into 
the service on the 1st of September, 1862. The following is the 
original roster : 

Colonel, Louis H. Waters ; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas Ilamer ; Major, Charles 
H.Morton; Adjutant, Charles E. Waters ; Quartermaster, Samuel L. Roe; Surgeon, 
James B Kyle ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, David McDill ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Elijah 
L. Marshall ; Chaplain, Ralph Harris. 

Co. A — Captain, John P. Higgins ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Wisdom ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William F. Stearns. 

Co. B — Captain, Vincent M. Grewcll ; 1st Lieutenant, Lemuel L. Scott; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James A. Russell. 

Co. C — Captain, William Erwin ; 1st Lieutenant, Epaphroditus C. Coulson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William P. Pearson. 

Co. D — Captain, Moses W. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas D. Adams; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Walter Scaggan. 

Co. E — Captain, Miron G. Tousley ; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram P. Roberts ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Henry V. Lewis. 

Co. F — Captain, Caleb B. Cox; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Nelson; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel Frost. 

Co. G — Captain, Frederick Garternicht ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Fuller ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Russell W. Caswell. 

Co. H — Captain, John C. Pepper; 1st Lieutenant, Luther T. Ball; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry E. Abercrombie. 

Co. I — Captain, Albert J. Griffith ; 1st Lieutenant, William Scott; 2d Lieutenant, 
Thomas F. Kendrick. 

Co. K — Captain, John B. McGaw ; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander P. Nelson: 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Hiram II. Mills. 

The regiment left camp for Louisville, September 22d, and was 
assigned to the " Fighting Fourth " Corps. On the 29th it marched 



THE EIGHTY- SIXTH INFANTRY. 333 

in pursuit of Bragg, and was present at the battle of Perryville, 
though not engaged. It then made the march to Nashville, being 
on half rations for a considerable portion of the time. From thence 
it started for Murfreesboro, and was engaged at the battle of Stone 
River, December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863, losing 228 men. 
From Manchester it started across the Cumberland Mountains to 
Chickamauga, where it engaged in the battle of September 19th and 
20th, and lost 172 men. On the 24th, 25th and 26th of November, 
it was engaged in the battles of Lookout Mountain, Missionary 
Ridge and Ringgold. February 22, 1864, it took part in the battle 
at Dalton. It then joined in the Atlanta campaign, and engaged in 
the battles of Buzzard's Roost, May 10th ; Dalton, May 13th; Res- 
aca, May 14th; Burlet Hickon, May 26th to June 3d; Kenesaw 
Mountain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. During 
this campaign it lost 125 men. Then began the retreat to Nashville. 
At Franklin and Nashville the 84th did excellent service. During 
the spring of 1865 the regiment was stationed at Nashville, where it 
was mustered out on the 8th of June. On the 12th it arrived at 
Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged. During its 
term of service the 84th lost 558 men in battle ; had but one man 
taken prisoner ; lost but ten men by desertion ; had but one man sent 
to military prison, and but four tried by court martial. On going to 
the front, in 1862, it crossed the Ohio with 936 men. On its return, 
in 1865, it crossed that river with 326 men — making a total loss, 
from all causes, of 610 men. It was constantly in the front, in the 
Department of the Cumberland. 

EIGHTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. • 

The 86th Illinois Infantry, was mustered into the service on the 
27th of August, 1862, at Camp Lyon, Peoria, Illinois, at which time 
it numbered 923 men, rank and file. The original roster was as 
follows : 

Colonel, David D. Irons ; Lieutenant Colonel, David W. Magee ; Major, James S. 
Bean; Adjutant, James E. Prescott; Quartermaster, Charles H. Dean; Surgeon, 
Matsena M. Hooton ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John Gregory ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
Israel J. Gruth ; Chaplain, George W. Brown. 

Co. A — Captain, William S. Magarity ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Major ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Samuel T. Rogers. 



334 PATRIOTISM OB ILLINOIS. 

Oo 15 — Captain, Eliaa 0. Breaaley; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan 0. Kingsley ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Nelson HcVicker. 

ph K. Thomas ; 1st Lieutanant, John II. Bachclder ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Reuben B. Beebe. 

Co. I) — Captain, Prank Hitchcock; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Faulkner; 2d Licu- 
•, William H. Ball 

Co. E — Captain, Orlando Fountain; 1st Lieutenant, Malchi Grave; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Solomon M. Williams. 

(■,, ]' — Captain, James L. Buckhaltcr ; 1st Lieutenant, Nelson D. Combs ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John Hall. 

Co. G — Captain, William B. Bogardu3 ; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon L. Zinser ; 2d 
Lieutenant, .Martin Kingman. 

Co. U — Captain, John LT. llall ; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin E. Peters; 2d Lieutenant, 
Bavilla W. Merwin. 

Co. I — Captain, Allen L. Fahnestock ; 1st Lieutenant, Abner A. Lee ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jacob L. Fahnestock. 

Co. K — Captain, John F. French ; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Peet ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry F. Itvin. 

On the 7th of September, the regiment embarked for Louisville, 
Kentucky, where it remained till the 1st of October, when it 
joined in the pursuit of Bragg, under the command of General Bu- 
ell. On the 8th of October, was fought the battle of Perryvillc, in 
which the 86th had the advance. In December the brigade was 
stationed at Nashville, Tennessee, where it remained, with a 
brief interim, until August 20th, 1803. The regiment was assigned 
to the Reserve Corps, Gordon Granger's, and on the 19th and 20th 
of September participated in the battles of Chickamauga, without 
sustaining any very material loss. After garrisoning Columbia, 
Tennessee — General Rosecrans at this time being in command of the 
Army of the Tennessee — the 86th mached to Huntsville and Bridge- 
port, and thence to Chattanooga. From this time until November 
26th, the regiment was engaged in marching and skirmishing, at 
which date it had a sharp fight with Bragg at Sheppard's Run. 
It next accompanied Sherman in his march to relieve Burnside, 
at Knoxville. When- near that place, it was ordered to retrace 
its steps to its former camping-ground, on the North Chieka- 
mauga. On the 26th of December it moved down to McAfee 
Church, seven miles from Chattanooga, where it went into win- 
ter quarters. In February it joined in a reconnoissance, going as 
far as Buzzard's Roost, where it took part in the engagement of 



THE EIGHTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 335 

that name. On the 4th of May the 86th marched to Ringgold, 
where General Sherman was concentrating his grand army for the 
march upon Atlanta. In this memorable campaign it bore an 
honorable part, being engaged in the battles at Rome, Dallas, Lost 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, &c, and in the siege of Atlanta. 

The 86th took part in " Sherman's March to the Sea," sharing in 
all its perils and privations, reaching Savannah with the loss of one 
man wounded and six captured. Then followed the Carolina cam- 
paign, in which the 86th gave the rebels exhibitions of Illinois pluck 
at Averysboro and Bentonville. 

On the 1st of May, 1865, the 86th left Raleigh, North Carolina, 
for Richmond, and participated in the grand review of the national 
armies at Washington. On the 21st and 22d of June, the regiment 
was paid off and disbanded at Chicago. 

The number of miles marched on foot by the 86th is 3,500 ; num- 
ber of miles traveled by rail, 2,000 ; number of commissioned officers 
killed in battle, 1 ; number of officers who died from wounds, 2 ; 
number of officers wounded in battle, 6 ; number of officers who 
died from disease, 1 ; number of officers who resigned, 1*7 ; number 
of officers discharged, 5 ; number of officers dismissed, 1. The 
number of men killed in battle is 52 ; number died of wounds, 25 : 
number died of disease, 85 ; number wounded in battle, 160 ; num- 
ber accidentally wounded, 16; number captured, 33; number de- 
serted, 28. The number of men who returned is 359, and 29 officers, 
making a total of 388. 

EIGHTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 89th regiment was organized at Chicago, under the auspices 
of the several trunk railroads centering there, from which it re- 
ceived its well-known cognomen of " The Railroad Regiment of 
Illinois." The first company was mustered into the United States 
service on August 25th, and the last on August 27, 1862. The early 
organization of the regiment was under the care and supervision of 
Robert Forsyth, Esq., of the Illinois Central Railroad, and W. D. 
Manchester, Esq., of the Michigan Southern Railroad. On the 4th 
of September, the officers of the nine companies then composing the 
regiment elected the field officers, and completed the following mus- 
ter-in roster : 



33G PATRIOTISM 01 ii.i.1X"IS. 

tain John Christopher, of tl 3. Infantry, Colonel; Capt . 

T. Botohkiss, formerly of the litli Illinois Infantry, Lieutenant-Oolonel ; Dnm i J. 
Hall, Maj..,-; s. F. Hance, Bnrgeon ; II. B. Tuttle, Assistant Burgeon; Id. f ' 
op, Adjutant; Fred !■ Fake, Qnartermaater ; Rev, J. II. Dill, Chaplain. 

A.— Captain, L. A. Smith j 1st Lieutenant, William H. Bice ; 2<J Lieutenant, 

Jacob N. Eopper. 

Co. B — Captain, T. 0. Spencer ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. Smith ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Borace W. Adams. 

1 C — Captain, Henry L. Rowell ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel A. Ellis; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Joho L. Dorscy. 

Co. H — Captain, John W. Spink; 1st Lieutenant, George F. Robinson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, W. L>. Clark. 

Co. E — Captain, Bruce H. Kidder; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Watkins ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George W. White. 

Co. F — Captain, William D. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, Ebcnezer T. Wells; 2d 
Lieutenant, L. F. Dimick. 

Co. G — Captain, Thomas Whiting ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Copley ; 2d Lieutenant, 
William H. Howell. 

Co. B — Captain, Henry S. Willett; 1st Lieutenant, Franklin If. Hobbs; 2d Lieu- 
tecant, William Harkness. 

Co. I — Captain, Samuel Comstock ; 1st Lieutenant, William II. Phelps; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Jesse Bale. 

Co. K — Captain, Berbert M. Blake ; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Sampson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James A. Jackson. 

The regiment left Camp E. IT. Williams, Chicago, on September 
4th, and arrived at Louisville September 7th. In and near there it 
remained on outpost duty, in General Woodruff's brigade, Crufts' 
division, until October 1st, at which date it was assigned to the Gth 
brigade (Willich's), 2d division (R. W. Johnson's), right wing, Army 
of the Ohio, General Buell commanding. It took part in all the 
wearisome marches and skirmishes in pursuit of Bragg' s army, from 
Lawrenceburg to Bowling Green, where it arrived October 31st. 
Here Company F, Captain Williams, joined the regiment. Here 
also the joyful tidings reached the army that Buell had been super- 
seded by the hero of West Virginia and Iuka, General Rosecrans. 
A few days later, at Tyree Springs, Tennessee, " Old Rosie " became 
the guest of the regiment, and from that time onward he was held in 
high esteem by the boys of the 80th. 

The regiment remained eleven days at Tyree Springs, with a sec- 
tion of Goodspeed's (A, 1st Ohio) Battery, doing picket and forage 
duty, when, being relieved by Rousseau's command, it rejoined Mc- 
Cook's corps at Nashville, November 17th. A few days afterward, 



THE EIGHTY-NINTH AT STONE RIVER. 337 

General August Willich assumed command of the brigade, which 
consisted of the 32d Indiana (German), 15th and 49th Ohio, 39th 
Indiana, and 89th Illinois. Brigaded with what were then consid- 
ered veteran troops — for all the other regiments had come out of 
Shiloh with brilliant records, especially the 32d Indiana, which had, 
under Willich's orders, gone through the manual of arms under 
heavy volley fire on that fatal field — the associations of the 89th with 
its sister regiments were anything but harmonious and friendly 
during the first three months. To Colonel Hotchkiss, the ablest 
drill master and shrewdest disciplinarian in the division, is due the 
honor of keeping up the spirits of his men and perfecting them in 
that drill which afterward made them an honor to their state and the 
pride of their several commanding generals. 

On the 31st of December, 1862, the regiment took a prominent 
part in ihe blundering disaster to the right wing of Rosecrans' army 
in the decisive battle of Stone River. On the opening day of the 
battle, Willich's brigade occupied the extreme right of the line, its 
front slightly refused from the main line. The 89th lay in double 
column, en masse, in immediate rear of the 49th and loth Ohio. 
The rebel General McCown (Kirby Smith's corps), in his advance, 
drove in the pickets of Kirk's and Willich's brigades, while hard- 
ly firing a shot, and both brigades, after a few minutes of irregular 
firing, fell back. To deploy the 89th was impossible, as the fugi- 
tives from other regiments were crowding the narrow opening occu- 
pied by Willich's men; but Colonel Hotchkiss managed to rally four 
or five companies around the colors, and by a few deliberate volleys 
checked the advance and inspired his own men. Captain Henry S. 
Willett, of Company H, was killed at this moment. From this 
time until reaching Rousseau's position, two hours later, the regi- 
ment " fought on its own hook," the coolness of its officers and the 
pluck of its men showing that veterans can be made in a day with 
the right material. Sergeant-Major Farquhar and Sergeant E. O. 
Young, of Company A, were both promoted for bravery in this bat- 
tle, the former to a captaincy and the latter to a lieutenancy. At 
nightfall of the 31st, the regiment became the nucleus of re-organi- 
zation for the brigade, and, some would say, for the division. "Dur- 
ing the following days of rain, hunger and skirmishing, nothing of 

22 



336 PATRIOTISM OP [LUHOI8. 

particular moment occurred to the regiment until Friday eight, 
when Breckinridge attempted to turn Roseorans 1 lefl dank, but suf 
fered a ra »8l disastrous repulse. That afternoon and night the B9th 
was the infantry Bupporl of Stokes' (Chicago Board of Trade) Bat- 
tery, when it again showed the reliable and stubborn qualities of the 
gloomy closing day of 1862. After this battle, the 89th was put in 
the front line of WlUich's brigade, in company with the82d Indiana. 

Stone River being won, the army rendezvoused in and around 
Murfre isboro until June 24th, During this time many changes oc- 
curred in the regiment. Colonel John Christopher, who had never 
joined the regiment, resigned January 7th, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hotchkiss succeeding as Colonel, Major Duncan J, Hall (taken pris- 
oner at Stone River), as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain William 1). 
"Williams, of Company F, as Major. Sergeant-Major John .M. Far- 
quhar became Captain of Company 13, Captain T. O. Spencer hav- 
ing accepted the Chaplaincy, vacated by the decease of the noble, 
generous-hearted Mr. Dill, who died while on a mission for the re- 
lief of the wounded and sick of the regiment. Heavy battles and 
hard work at "the front" change muster-in rosters of new regi- 
ments wonderfully, and the 89th was no exception to the rule. Up 
to June 25th, the following resignations took place : Surgeon S. F. 
Ilance; Captain E. A. Smith and Lieutenant J. X. Hopper, Compa- 
ny A; Lieutenant II. W. Smith, Company B; Lieutenant Samuel 
A. Ellis, Company C ; Lieutenant \V\ D. Clark, Company D ; Lieu- 
tenants ,f. P>. Watkins and George W. White, Company E; and 
Lieutenant Isaac Copley, Company G. 

In Kosecrans' advance against Bragg at Tullahoma, the only en- 
gagements worth official notice were at Shelbyville, Liberty Gap, 
and Hoover's Gap. At Liberty Gap the 89th again distinguished 
itself, receiving Mattering mention in general orders. Here, among 
others, fell Captain Herbert M. Blake, of Company K — a noble 
Christian soldier. 

Rosecrans, by masterly strategy, having now driven Bragg across 
the Tennessee, began his celebrated movement against Chattanooga, 
General Johnson leading off on the extreme right, on August 16th. 
The march from Tullahoma to the Tennessee river, and over the Sand 
and Lookout Mountain ranges of Northern Alabama, until reaching 



THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 339 

Chickamauga Creek, Georgia, September 1 7th, presented no remark- 
able feature but hard marching and countermarching. On the morn- 
ing of September 19th, Johnson's division was rapidly marched 
from near the right of Roseerans' main line, to the extreme left, 
where it became hotly engaged about noon, and steadily gained 
nearly two miles of ground, until five P. M., when the rebels aban- 
doned their attempt to turn the left flank. It is shown by reports 
captured since Lee's surrender, that Johnson's division (handled by 
Willich, as Johnson was sick), fought and drore back, successively, 
in these five hours, Bates' and Cheatham's rebel divisions, capturing 
all then- artillery engaged, and on the last charge fighting against 
the odds of J. K. Jackson's, Maney's, Strati's, Wright's and Pres- 
ton Smith's rebel brigades. This day was the glory of the 89th, al- 
though its losses were fearful. On Sunday, the 20th, the regiment 
was again in the hottest fighting on the left, and, with the brigade, 
was the last body of organized Federal troops to leave the bloody 
field. General Thomas chose Willich's brigade as the rear guard 
in the fall back of our army to Rossville, and Willich, in turn, 
assigned the 89th to the post of honor — Captains Farquhar and 
Sampson commanding the skirmishers. In the two days' fighting, 
the regiment lost in officers killed, Lieutenant-Colonel D. J. Hall, 
Captains Rice, Spink and Whiting, and Lieutenant Ellis (Company 
B) ; wounded, Adjutant E. A. Bishop, Captain J. M. Farquhar, and 
Lieutenant J. W. Warren; prisoner, Lieutenant H. W. Adams. 

In the engagements at Orchard Knob and Mission Ridge, Novem- 
ber 23d and 25th, the 89th displayed its Chickamauga vim in its new 
organization — Willich's brigade, Thomas J. Wood's (3d) division, 
4th Army corps. Here fell the brave Captain Rowell, of Company 
C, and Lieutenant E. O. Young, of Company A. 

From November 28, 1863, to May 3, 1864, the regiment, with the 
division, campaigned in East Tennessee against Longstreet's forces. 
In May commenced the celebrated Atlanta campaign, under Sher- 
man, in the prominent battles of which the 89th took an honorable 
and oftentimes foremost part, losing two hundred and eleven officers 
and men, killed and wounded, in the campaign. At Peach Tree 
Creek, Lieutenant Nathaniel Street, of Company D, was killed; and 
at Kenesaw Mountain, Captain William Harkness, of Company A, 



340 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

was killed, and Lieutenant O. C. Pease, Company E, wounded. At. 
New Elope Church, Maj 27th, Captain Dimick and Lieutenant Arens- 
, Company F, Captain Samuel Comstock, Company I, and 
Lieutenanl II. C. Wood, Company B, were wounded. 

When Sherman divided his army for the "March to the Sea," 
regiment returned with the 4th corps to the oampaign against 
Hood in Tennessee, and took an active part in the engagements at 
Columbia, Franklin and Nashville. In the last named battle it cap- 
tured more than its own number in prisoners, losing Peter G. 
Tait, of Company G, killed, and Major B. II. Kidder, and Lieuten- 
ant E. P. Walker, Company A, wounded. 

After participating in the skirmishes in the retreat of Hood to the 
Tennessee river, the regiment marched to Huntsville, Alabama, 
thence took railroad transportation to East Tennessee, to aid in re- 
establishing communication through to Virginia. On Lee's surren- 
der, further movements in that section were abandoned, and the 
regiment returned by cars to Nashville for final muster out. On the 
10th of June, in the field, the 89th was mustered out of the United 
States service, left Nashville the same day, arrived in Chicago on 
June 12th, and was discharged and received final payment on June 
24, 1865. 

The following is the muster-out roster : 

Colonel, Charles T. Hotchkiss, entered as Lieutenant-Colonel, since brevetted 
Brigadier-General ; Lieutenant-Colonel, William D. Williams, entered as Captain 
Co. F; Major, John M. Farquhar, entered as private Co. B, then Sergeant-Major, 
then Captain Co. B ; Surgeon, Henan B. Tuttle, entered as Assistant Surgeon ; 
Ass'stant-Surgoon, Pembroke R. Thombs, joined March, 18G3 ; Adjutant, Jerrie M. 
Grosh, entered as private Co. K, then Sergeant-Major ; Quartermaster, George W. 
Deering, joined January 16, 1864. 

Co. A— Captain, E. P. Walker, entered asCorporal ; 1st Lieutenant, Bryan O'Con- 
ner, entered as private Co. K, then Sergeant-Major. 

Co. B— Captain, Hardin C. Wood, entered as Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant, Ilorace 
W. Adams, original rank, long a prisoner; 2d Lieutenant, Emory H. Howell, enter- 
ed as Corporal. 

Co. C— Captain, James M. Rigney, entered as Corporal, then 1st Lieutenant; 1st 
Lieutenant, W. II. Kinney, entered asCorporal. 

Co. D— Captain, George F. Robinson, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, 
Alexander Beecher, entered as private, then 2d Lieutenant. 

Co. E— Captain, John W. Warren, entered as Sergeant ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert 
Miller, entered as Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar C. Pease, entered as Corporal. 



THE NINETIETH INFANTRY. 34:1 

Co. F — Captain, James F. Copp, entered as Sergeant ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. 
Arenscliild, entered as Sergeant. 

Co. G — Captain, William H. Howell; entered as 2d Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, 
J. M. Swickard, entered as Corporal. 

Co. H — Captain, John A. Beeman, entered as Sergeant ; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron 
M. Boomer, entered as Corporal. 

Co. I — Captain, William H. Phelps, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, 
Charles M. Carnahan, entered as Sergeant. 

Co. K — Captain, William A. Sampson, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, 
James A. Jackson, entered as 2d Lieutenant ; 2d Lieutenant, Horace G. Greenfield, 
entered as Corporal. 

The following official statement is the best encomium of the 89th's 
hard service and gallantly that can be pronounced: In* 1863, 440 
recruits were added to the regiment, making a total borne on the 
rolls of 1,403. It left in the field 202 recruits (transferred to the 
59th Illinois ), and mustered out on its rolls 381 officers and men, 
leaving 820 men killed in action, died from Avounds, or discharged 
on account of disability contracted in service. The official reports 
of Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Atlanta and Nash- 
ville show a casualty list of 536 officers and men. By official 
authority the names of twenty-three battle fields are inscribed on the 
regimental colors. 

NINETIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 90th regiment was recruited and organized at Camp Doug- 
las, Chicago, and was christened the " Irish Legion," by Father 
Dunne, who was largely instrumental in its organization. At the 
date of its muster into the service, September 22, 1862, its roster 
was as follows : 

Colonel, Timothy O'Meara ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Smith McCleavy ; Major, Owen 
Stewart; Adjutant, Edwin S. Davis ; Quartermaster, Redmond Sheridan ; 1st Assist- 
ant Surgeon, John B. Davidson ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Darwin Hinckley ; Chaplain, 
Thomas F. Kelley. 

Co. A — Captain, Patrick Flynn ; 1st Lieutenant, James Conway ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Daniel Corcoran. 

Co. B — Captain, Michael W. Murphy; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Gray; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles Billingale. 

Co. C — Captain, Patrick O'Marah ; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Harrington; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Murray. 

Co. D — Captain, David O'Conner ; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Kelley ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Peter O'Brine. 



3 1- r.\ I &IOTISM "i hi [NOI8. 

Co. E — Captain, Matthew Leonard; 1st Lieutenant, John McAasej ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lawn oc< B tfcl larthy. 

Co. F — Captain, Richard 0. Kelley; l-i lieutenant, Patrick Feenej ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William White. 

i G Captain, .ichn Murphy; 1st Lieutenant, David Duffy; 2d Lieutenant, 
Patrick Campion. 

Co. II — Captain, Peter Casey ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Liddle ; 2d Lieutenant, 
maid. 

Co [ — Captain, William Cunningham; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Teahon ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant. John J. < I'Lcary. 

Co. K — Captain, Thomas K. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Real ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Larkin. 

On the 27th of September, 1862, the regiment left Camp Douglas 
for Lagrange, Tennessee, 980 strong. After remaining four days at 
the latter place it was sent to Coldwater, Mississippi, where it was 
first engaged with the rebel General Van Dorn's cavalry on the 20th 
day of December. After capturing Holly Springs, he attacked the 
pickets of the 90th, but was repulsed. In June, 1863, the regiment 
took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and on the 13th, 14th and 17th 
of July participated in the battle of Jackson. On the 11th of Octo- 
ber, the 90th assisted in driving the rebels from Collierville, and 
saving the town from falling into the hands of the enemy. On the 
25th of November it participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge 
[Vol. L, p. 314], with a loss of 143 killed, wounded and missing, 
including Colonel Timothy O'Meara among the killed. Then fol- 
lowed the battles of Resaca on the 13th and 14th of May, 18G4; 
Dallas, Georgia, May 28th ; before Atlanta, July 22d and 28th, and 
August 3d; Jonesboro, Georgia, August 31st; Lovejoy Station, 
September 2d ; Gadsden, Alabama, October 25th ; Fort McAllister, 
December 7th, In 18G5, Ave find them with Sherman in the march 
to Savannah and through the Carolinas. After the surrender of 
Johnston to Sherman, the 90th marched to "Washington, where they 
took part in the grand review before the President. On the 10th of 
June, 1865, the regiment reached Chicago, where it was mustered 
out and discharged. 

The 90th regiment sustained an aggregate loss of 300 men in bat- 
tle, and returned home with only 221 men, of whom forty-one were 
crippled beyond carrying a musket. 



THE NINETY-FIRST INFANTRY. 343 

NINETY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 91st regiment was organized at Camp Butler, Springfield, 
and mustered into the service on the 8th of September, 1862. The 
following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Henry M. Day ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Harry S. Smith ; Major, George A. 
Day ; Adjutant, William Grant ; Quartermaster, Eugene M. Wiswell ; Surgeon, 
David LeRoy ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Edgar L. Phillips; 2d Assistant Surgeon, 
William T. Day ; Chaplain, John C. Sargent. 

Co. A — Captain, Isaac Skillinan ; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Pack ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James T. Renbart. 

Co. B — Captain, Joseph A. James ; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Marrah ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Matthew Shaw. 

Co. C — Captain, John McKinney; 1st Lieutenant, Caswell Hanna ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jonathan P. Long. 

Co. D — Captain, Edwin I. Fosha ; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Seelback ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Daniel N. Van Antwerp. 

Co. E — Captain, Thomas B. Hanna ; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Brown ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Q. A. Rider. 

Co. F — Captain, Elmers Ryan ; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred II. Grass ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Nathan B. Hoff. 

Co. G — Captain, James D. Roodhouse ; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Wilson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Isaac N. Oaks. 

Co. H — Captain, Jordan Lakin; 1st Lieutenant, James Coates ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Jones. 

Co. I — Captain, Slocum H. Culver ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Dennis ; 2d Lieuten. 
ant, Theodore P. Hackney. 

Co. K — Captain, Benjamin Newman; 1st Lieutenant, John F. Collins ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Alexander S. Denton. 

The regiment left Camp Butler on the 1st of October for Louis- 
ville, from whence it went to Shepherdsville, where it guarded the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad. On the 27th of December it was 
attacked at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, by the rebel General Morgan, 
and captured. It was paroled, and sent to Benton Barracks for 
exchange. The exchange was effected June 3, 1863, when the regi- 
ment was ordered to Vicksburg, arriving on the 14th of July. It 
was next sent to Port Hudson, and thence to Carroll ton, arriving 
August 16th. Here it remained till September 6th, when it moved 
to Morganzia, thence to the Atchafalaya River, where it had a brisk 
engagement with the enemy, who were routed with heavy loss. 
October 10th the regiment returned to Morganzia, thence to Carroll- 



344- PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

ton, ana on the 22d embarked for Brownsville, Texas, where it was 
determined to break up the illicit traffic between the rebels and 
Mexico. The troops landed dn the 3d of November at Brazos San- 
tiago, and were entirely successful in capturing and occupying 
Brownsville. The 91sl remained here till July, 18G4, guarding the 
Texas frontier, when it was stationed at Brazos Santiago. Here it 
remained till late in December, when it was sent to New Orleans. 
In February, 18G5, it joined the 13th Army Corps at Fori Morgan, 
where the expedition for the capture of Mobile was made up. The 
91st took an active part in this campaign, participating in the taking 
of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley. After the surrender of the 
city, it pursued the Hying rebels to Eight Mile Creek, where it 
attacked them, driving them in confusion from the field at the point 
of the bayonet. This engagement was probably the last one of the 
war east of the Mississippi. After remaining in this vicinity for 
some time, the regiment returned to Mobile, where it was mustered 
out of the service on the 12th of July, 1865. On the 22d it arrived 
at Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged. 



<** 1 §\ 



4rv 



CHAPTER XX. 

INCIDENTS AND SKETCHES. 

Scarcity of Material — Seventy-fourth and Eighty-eighth at Franklin — Charge 
— Stampede — Colonel Smith — Captain Barnard — Corporal Newman — Captures 
— Thanks of General Wood — General Thomas — Casualties — The Seventy-sec- 
ond — Charged by Rebels — Driven — Retake Their Line — Lieutenant-Colonel 
Stockton — Major James — Loss — The Seventy-fifth — Charge Through an Open 
Fif.ld — Irs Captures — The Eighty-eight at Stone River — On Front Line — 
"Fire and Fire Low" — At Mission Ridge — Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler — 
Colonel John W. Shaffer. 

THE author regrets that there is not more of personal incident 
preserved in the ana of the war. He has- sought them diligently, 
but such has been the magnitude of the issues and extent of the 
campaigns that little space has been accorded to personal prowess, 
personal self sacrifice and devotion. And yet that grand army was 
made up of persons, sons of mothers to whom each son was a hero, 
brothers, husbands, fathers ! 

THE SEVENTY-FOURTH AND EIGHTY-EIGHTH AT FRANKLIN. 

From a soldier's letter we give the following describing the 88th 
and 74th at the battle of Franklin : 

" Our brigade held the advance, the 88th (with which, for the purposes of field 
operations, is consolidated with the 74th Illinois) composing the rear of the column. 
A mile before reaching Spring Hill news came that Forrest, who had crossed Duck 
River during the night, was moving upon the town. Instantly, and not a moment 
too soon, we were put on the double quick. Reaching town we could see the 
enemy's cavalry moving across the fields from the right in most gallant and confident 
style. Without halting or unslinging knapsacks the 88th was moved out of column 
by the right flank, and deployed as skirmishers in Forrest's front. We pushed back 
the enemy steadily and surely, driving him a mile, when we formed our skirmish line 



34G ]'.\ l BIO] IBM OF ILLINOIS. 

f< rtlic night Meanwhile he had massed heavily on the right of the division, mak- 
ing a series "I desperate charges in fronl of t lie 2d and : '"l brigades, which Buffered 
Bome temporary disaster. (Tight closed in booh afterwards, and the fighting ceased. 
Meanwhile the trains were all getting in. and the other divisions of our cor] 
the 28d corp up. By 2 o'clock A. M. of the 80th the last "ii the 

■ Franklin ; by -l o'clock tin' aiinv wu< in motion, ami at 6 o'clock this regi- 
ment, which was again designated for the post of honor, was in position as skirmish- 

tin' rear of the army. Bood's cavalrj followed us pretty closely, getting 
round on our Bank whenever tin- wooded hills jutted out sufficiently close to tin' road 
to enable tlc-.m to give us a volley. We had several Bharp bouts with them during 
the march, but kepi them at a respectful distance. At noon we reached Franklin, 
which Cox's division nf the 28d Corps had already intrenched. The •_'<! and 8d 
brigades of our division wore posted half a mile in advance of the works, as a sort 
of column of observation, with orders to retire to the main line in the event, of the 
appearance of any considerable rebel force, while our brigade was massed in reserve 
three or four hundred yards in rear of the works for the purpose of rest and refresh- 
ment. Thus matters stood until about halt past :i o'clock, when the 2d and 8d brig- 
ades, being flanked by largely superior numbers, retired upon the main line in con* 
siderable haste and disoider. At the same time the rebel charging columns were set 
in motion, and when our outposts reached the works the rebels were close behind 
them, and all things were mixed up like confusion worse confounded. As our forces 
clambered over the breastworks they communicated a panic to that portion of the 
23d Corps which occupied that part of the works, and then began a scene which beg- 
gars all description. Backward, in affrighted stampede, came men and artillery; 
the rebel yellsof triumph rang in our ears, and we all knew that, unless, on our part, 
there was instant fighting as furious ami desperate as last hope could make it, noth- 
ing but irretrievable disaster could possibly result. In the twinkling of an eye, 
therefore, our brigade was under arms. There was no time to form brigade front : 
we charged by regiments, the consolidated 88th leading and clearing the way. Col. 
Smith, Major Eolden and Adjutant Realf were on horseback ; there was indeed no 
time to dismount had we desired to do so. In all my life I never saw, in all my 
readings I never read of, a more knightly scene than that of Colonel Smith, at the 
head of the charging column, cap in hand, dashing hither and thither, c/r»-fr in the 
white heat of the fray, nerving the brave, shaming the coward, an unconscious hero 
in every inch of him. Presently his horse was shot, presently the Major's; the Ad- 
jutant's escaped being hit. Well, an awful time, for a while, we had of it. I never 
saw hand-to-hand fighting before. Captain Barnard shot two rebels with his revolv- 
er; Corporal Newman, of Company <r. nearly severed a rebel captain's had with an 
ax; somebodv actually pinned a rebel soldier to the breastworks by t/ie stroke of a 
pick-ax. I saw a rebel color-bearer knocked flat with the. butt end of a musket, and 
there were bayonetings without number. But. thank God, we stayed all the rebel 
tide. Then, when we had things safe, we L r "t up the stragglers, and by and by affairs 
again assumed order and shape. But Hood was not content ; again and again, until 
the eleventh time, he charged us with desperate frenzy. The slaughter was perfect- 
ly horrible ; the ground was actually slippery with blood and gore. The 88th Illinois 
captured one division and four regimental flags; the 74th Illinois captured two, 
making seven in all, and we took from 200 to 300 prisoners. 



SEVENTY-SECOND AT FRANEXIN. 347 

"At midnight, when the troops withdrew, we were left to cover the movement of 
our brigade, and for an hour and a half opposed our thin skirmish line to the solid 
rebel columns. Some of us confess to have been a little nervous, and certainly you 
will admit it to have been a critical and ticklish position. But we got off safely, 
rejoined our brigade, and moved with it to the outer defenses of Nashville. 

" Arrived there, Gen. Wood (who in the absence of Gen. Stanley, wounded, com- 
mands the corps), accompanied by Wagner and Thomas, paid the regiment a visit. 
Gen. Wood sought out Col. Smith and addressed him thus : ' Colonel, I desire to 
repeat to you, in the presence of Gen. Thomas and of your regiment, that which 
Gen. Stanley said to me respecting yourself and the troops you command, that with 
the exception only of Col. Opdyke, commanding your brigade, with whom you share 
the honor — to your special gallantry and special exertions more than to those of any other 
man, is owing the repulse of the rebel column, the safety of the army and the victory of 
the day. In his name and in mine I thank you.' Thereupon Gen. Thomas desired 
to see our captured flags, when, turning to Gen. Wagner, he desired him to make an 
official report relative to Col. Smith, and to the regiment, assuring the men that 
their services were most thoroughly appreciated. 

" Our casualties were, 2 killed, 7 wounded, and 6 missing — 15 in all. The 74th 
suffered more, and it is due to the officers and men of that regiment to say that every 
word of commendation honestly earned by ourselves, was earned by them also. No 
soldiers could be cooler, more courageous or more enduring than they. Side by side 
we fought, and,, as sometimes in whist, ' honors are easy' between us." 

THE SEVENTY-SECOND. 

Anothei* thus describes the 72d : 

" The 72d was placed at the center of the lines surrounding the city, and upon a 
gentle slope, at the bottom of which and outside of the line was a small grove of 
young trees. On our right was a depression an eighth of a mile wide, on our left 
the ground was higher than that occupied by our regiment. The men were not in 
the best condition for an engagement, but nevertheless they all took their positions in 
the pits, with an evident willingness, if not eagerness, and so confident were officers 
and men that we should hold our line, that nothing was taken by them except their 
arms and accoutrements. The regiment was working on the breastworks when it 
was ordered to the pits, where it stood in silence some time previous to taking 
part. Some were watching the advancing foe and the dimly descried contest in the 
distance, some intently engaged in thinking over the probabilities of the impending 
battle, while not a few were silently but fervently offering up a prayer to Heaven. 

" On rushed the maddened foe. When they came in range the cry went up, 
' Open on them, boys ; give it to them.' And the boys did open on them, and, when 
once commenced, the firing did not cease for ten long hours. 

"But the enemy were too powerful and numerous, and, forcing the line at our left, 
opened a cross-fire, which event, together with our skirmishers, rushing over our 
works, caused our regiment to fall back to the second line of works. But our line 
was soon after retaken, principally by our boys, and held till after dark, when the 
rebels, after repeated assaults, and from their position on the left, compelled us to 
leave it. 



348 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

" Tho offl bi ive, and 

both of our field i BBcera were rounded while heroically facing 1 1 1 • - tremendous fire 
of the onemy and directing with coolneas the lire of the men. Thus, in the ?ery 
first pari of our energetic resistance, fell our noble and brave Lieutenant-Colonel 
■ hi aud Kajor Jamea Bui we can hope for their Bpeedy recovery and return. 
The command of the regiment then devolved upon the gallant Captain James A. 
Sexton, whose exertions upon various parte of the field will not be forgotten, 

"The coolness and self-possession of the officers was truly encouraging to the 
men, and the determination of both was very effective in making Buch 
nee in the face of so many embai i 

"Charge upon charge was made by the rebels, and repulse upon repulse followed 
which brought forth yells and cheers from our lines. Tip- proportion of our loss to 
that of the whole rebel loss shows plainly the part they took in the battle of 
Franklin." 

The 75th in the same battle suffered severely. In the battle of 
Nashville on the second day it charged through an open corn-field 
on the double quick for the distance of a half mile, the enemy being 
under partial cover on the brow of a little hill ; he was driven by 
the 75th, leaving twenty-six in our hands. The regiment kept up fire 
from that point for two hours. A second charge was made by the 
whole corps, by brigades en echelon / the 75th was in the front 
charging line and captured 223 prisoners, with quantities of 
stores, etc. 

The 72d lost nine officers out of sixteen engaged and 152 men 
killed and severely wounded. Such is an honorable record. 

THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH AT STONE RIVER. 
We quote from the MSS.of one on the field : 

"The morning of the 31st of December, 1802, broke cold and cheerless. The men 
were stiff with ihe cold, having lain, without fires, in a muddy cotton-field in front 
of Harding's house during the night. The position of the regiment was on the left 
of the brigade and division, aud in the first line of battle. Day had scarcely dawned 
before the pickets opened fire all along the lines, and ere the sun had risen, the 
rebels advanced in force on the right wing under Gen. McCook. 

"Four regiments of the enemy marched directly on the position held by the 88th. 
Col. Sherman gave orders that not a gun should be fired until he gave the word, and 
was obeyed. A brigade of four regiments in column were coming steadily on with 
their battle flags displayed. The regiment waited until the first line was within 
seventy-five yards of where it lay. With a yell the enemy took the double quick 
for the charge, and then our Colonel gave the order to 'fire, and fire low 1' A sim- 
ultaneous discharge of all the muskets in his command answered, and as that volley 



MISSION EIDGE. 349 

went tearing through the rebel ranks, it shook them as if an earthquake were 
rumbling beneath their feet. So unexpected was the volley that the whole column 
came to a dead halt giving the 88th time to reload. Again the rebel officers suc- 
ceeded in getting the column to advance, and again another volley, more terrible 
than the first, swept through their ranks from the heavy guns with which the regi- 
ment was armed. This they could not face and the remnant of the brigade sank to 
the ground to find shelter. The Colonel now ordered file firing upon them as they 
lay, and soon drove them from their front in utter confusion. 

"For six hours we were under heavy fire without cessation, and with empty car- 
tridge boxes were forced from the field, when Sheridan's division fought so nobly 
against overpowering numbers and saved the day. One hundred and fifty-one men 
out of 416, which was the effective force of the regiment in the morning, lay on 
the field at night and in the hands of the enemy. 

"At Chickamauga it lost 106 out of less than 300 with which it went into action." 

MISSION RIDGE. 

The lamented Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler says in his report of 
the storming of Mission Ridge : 

" We advanced on quick time until we reached the edge of the timber, when we 
took the 'double quick' across the plain, a distance of half a mile to the first line 
of works, the enemy firing into our ranks from the first line, and pouring grape and 
canister from the batteries on the crest of the ridge. Here, under the little shelter 
afforded by this first line of works, the men sank from exhaustion. We remained 
here only a few moments, and advanced to the second line, driving the enemy in 
confusion before us. The men were now so completely exhausted, and there wa3 
kept up such a galling fire from the enemy, that a further advance seemed out of 
question. A few moments of rest, however, and they followed the colors which 
were ordered forward. The advance, which was slow, but sure, having to contend 
not only with the direct fire, but enfilading fire from the right. When near the 
upper works of the enemy we halted, waiting for the troops on our right to move 
forward and draw from us the fire, which wa3 enfilading our line of advance. This 
fire, not in any way diminishing, I ordered the colors forward on the works, which a 
moment after were carried, and the ' stars and stripes ' waved triumphantly on Mis- 
sionary Ridge, the enemy being in full retreat and great confusion. 

"The distance from where the charge was begun to the top of the ridge was at 
least one and a half miles across a wide open plain, and up a long steep hill, protect- 
ed by three lines of rifle-pits, one at the foot, the second about half way up, and the 
third on the crest of the ridge, with artillery at the top. The time occupied was 
about one and a half hours. The regiment rested on the ridge until about one o'clock 
the next morning, when, with the brigade, we moved to the front a mile and a half, 
and halted until about ten o'clock, when we moved forward to Chickamauga Creek. 
In the afternoon we returned to camp. 

"I desire to make honorable mention of the officers of this regiment, all of 
whom did their duty most gallantly. Captain George W. Smith, of Company A, 
acting field officer, was conspicuous for his bravery while urging on the almost ex- 



.'».'.<» I' LTBI0TI8W OF n.T.lM'is. 

1 men, until about two thirds of the tray up the hill, ho fell, severely wound- 
ed, l-'ii'-' Lieutenant, Dean K. Chester, commanding Company 0, was ■ j li<>t through 
uing ill" plain, but gallantly led his company to the second line of 
i 

Lieutenant Henry I.. Bingham, commanding Company IT, tras k i 1 1 «-<l 
re reached the second line, but proved himself entirely worthy the Btrapa 
he had so recently mounted. First Lieutenant Edward B. Tucker, commanding 
Company D, was conspicuous for his daring, in moving among the men, urging them 
forward. Sergeant Richard Realf was everywhere, urging on those who fell behind 
of other regiments, as well as those ol our own. It affords me great satisfaction to 
mention our brave color-bearer, Sergeant John Cheever, who gallantly carried our 
banner, planting it always in the advance for the regiment to rally on. never letting 
it trail in the dust, but waving ii encouragingly to those behind, and defiantly to the 
enemy before him, never faltering until he waved it over the top of Missionary 
Ridge. Tt is difficult to select any one from the ranks and irive him special mention 
where all behaved so well; but I must mention Corporal Ihonufl Lacy, of Company 
K, and private William Isbester, of Company C, who seemed to vie with the colors 
for the advance." 

In this engagement the regiment lost forty-seven men and seven 

officers. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GEORGE W. CHANDLER. 

The unsuccessful attack upon Kenesaw cost the State many valu- 
able lives among whom woe none more precious than that of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel George W. Chandler of the 88th. He was born in St. 
Armand East, Messisquoi County, Canada Bast, and, although born 
in Queen Victoria's domain, he was of patriotic stock, his grand- 
sire having been a soldier of the Revolution from Hartford, Conn. 
Receiving a respectable education and a thorough training as an ac- 
countant, he came to Chicago in 1855 and entered the banking-house 
of George Smith, in which he remained until 1859 when he accept- 
ed a clerkship in the office of the City Comptroller. 

When war came he threw himself entirely in the cause of the 
country, assisted actively in enlisting two companies of the 88th, 
and was chosen Captain of the " Kimbark Guards." When the 
regiment was organized he was unanimously chosen as its Major 
and so commissioned, ranking from September 4, 1862. He was 
presented by personal friends with a handsome outfit. 

The Major was untiring in the performance of his duties through 
the campaigns of Buell, Rosecrans and Sherman. After the battle 



MAJOR CHANDLER. 351 

of Stone River General Rosecrans designated him to command the 
Brigade of Honor, which he decided to form, to be composed of 
men selected from different regiments engaged in those battles, who 
had made themselves most conspicuous for deeds of bravery and 
gallantry, in honor of their services, and as an incentive to his army's 
future acts of courage and daring. It was not deemed advisable 
to carry out the formation of the "Brigade of Honor," although 
the Roll of Honor was completed, by designating the names of the 
brave men who would compose the brigade, whenever it might be 
thought proper to organize it. 

He distinguished himself for intrepidity and coolness on the 
field, and for personal morality, being entirely free from profanity, 
and other vices too common in the army. 

Subsequently to Stone River, Colonel Sherman being in command 
of a brigade and the Lieutenant-Colonel absent, from illness and on 
detached duty, he was iu command of his regiment. He was a 
rigid disciplinarian, but a tender-hearted, humane commander. After 
the battle of Chickainauga the Lieutenant-Colonel resigned and 
Major Chandler was promoted. He distinguished himself greatly 
at Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. At midnight, after the 
storming of Mission Ridge, he wrote to a friend : 

" I am cheating myself out of the sleep I ought to have, to do some writing, and 
will steal time to say a word. 

" We have this day accomplished that which the nation ought to feel proud of, 
and grateful to us for doing. I do not write this in any boasting spirit, but I feel 
that the blow has been struck that will cause the tottering to its very foundation of 
the so-called ' Southern Confederacy.' God grant that it may be so. 

" You will have read ere this reaches you, in the city papers, the telegrams of 
good news, and also the detail of the storming of ' Mission Ridge,' a position con- 
sidered by the enemy as impregnable to any assault. 

" It was glorious to see the ' old flag ' — the stars and stripes — that proud emblem 
of Liberty and Freedom, cross the upper line of the rebel rifle-pits and wave tri- 
umphantly on the top of the ' Bald Hills of Mission Ridge.' It was all the more 
glorious to me to know that the 88th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was 
the first to carry her colors across that line of works, and wave them defiantly to 
the retreating enemy." 

His letters home expressed the most intense loathing of cowardly 
Northern sympathizers, but in this they only resembled those of al- 
most the whole army rank and file. 



352 PATRIOTISM OP Illinois. 

From Mission Ridge bo Kenesaw his regiment was in the advanoe 
:uul day after day in the skirmish line, sustaining and brightening its 
reputation, and receiving commendations from its commanding Gen- 
eral. Winn the bursl upon Kenesaw came, Howard's corps, which 
was to have been held in reserve, was placed in advance, and in the 
charge Colonel Chandler fell, shot through, .Major (J. \Y. Smith 
thus wrote : 

" I.v the Field, rear Marietta, Ga., } 
"June 28, 1864. \ 

"Geo. M. Kimuark, Esq., Chicago, III : 

"Dear Sir : — I am pained to write to you of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel George 
W, Chandler, who was killed yesterday in a charge upon the enemy's works at this 
point, by a musket shot through the body. Deatli followed the wound almost in- 
stantly. It is unnecessary for me to express to you the sorrow which his loss occa- 
sions inc. for you know my high estimation of his character (shared by all who knew 
him here and at home), and the warm friendship which has existed between us. The 
service has, in him, indeed, lost a capable, efficient officer, his regiment a brave and 
gallant leader, and his brother officers a comrade with whom they have been proud 
to do battle, and to whose efficiency and continued faithful performance of duty, 
much of the reputation of the 88th is due. It is strange and mysterious that one 
should have escaped so many perils and dangers to fall at last in the closing struggle 
of the war, but I know that, on his part, the sacrifice of his life for the cause of the 
ni lion was willingly and cheerfully made; his patriotism was untainted, un 
and rare. He died as he would have wished — on the field — without pain or suffer- 
ing, saying only — ' Give me some water and let me die.' * * * * 

" All that 1 can offer in aid of his friends, will be gladly done. We are still in 
the midst of the campaign, when to end, no one knows. The work before us is yet 
hard, but will be accomplished. Very truly yours, 

" George W. Smith, 
" Major Commanding 88th Illinois Volunteer Infantry." 

A letter from Colonel F. T. Sherman, chief of General Howard's 
staff — dated " near Marietta, Georgia, June 27th," giving an account 
of the repulse at Kenesaw Mountain — says : 

" Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Chandler, of the 88th, was almost instantly 
killed at the head of his regiment — one more has been added to the list of the noble 
and pure of our land who have laid down their lives in defending the right. May 
he rest in peace." 

Upon the announcement of his death, the Board of Trade passed 
resolutions of respect, of condolence with his relatives and appoint- 



chandler's funeral. 353 

ed a committee to receive and bury with fitting honor the body of 
the deceased. 

The funeral was one of solemn pomp. The old members of the 
88th acted as guard of honor. The remains arrived in charge of 
Captain H. H. Cushing, Quartermaster 4th Corps, July 6th, and on 
the *7th were borne to Bryan Hall where they lay in state. The cas- 
ket was wreathed with flags and covered with rare flowers and across 
it lay his sword inscribed, 

Presented to Major George W. Chandler, after the battle of 
Stone River, by the line officers of his regiment, on the occasion of 
his being appointed by Major -General Rosecrans to command his 
"Brigade of Honor,'''' in consideration of his- gallant service* in 
the field. 

Thousands came to the hall with saddened, thoughtful step. At 
half past three P. M. detachments of the 8th and 15th Veteran Re- 
serve Corps under Major Skinner, the guard of honor, associations 
of the city and citizens filled the hall, where appropriate religious 
services were held and the procession moved to the depot, and the 
body was sent to the mother and sisters of the deceased in Canada. 

And so went to his grave a pure, brave soldier without reproach. 

COLONEL JOHN W. SHAFFER. 

Colonel John Wilson Shaffer was born in Union County, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 5th of July, 1827. His father died in 1838, leaving 
seven children, four sons and three daughters. John was the oldest 
of the boys; his sisters were all older than himself. Within two 
months after his father's death, he started to earn his own living, and 
aid his widowed mother, with whom and the family, in the spring of. 
1849, he started west. On the road the emigrant family buried one 
of the sisters, who died of cholera. In May, 1849, he reached Free- 
port, Illinois, with less than five dollars in money, but with a stout 
heart. With the exception of one year in Califoi-nia, and his army 
life, he has continued to reside there. He engaged in mercantile 
life until elected Sheriff of Stephenson County in 1856, at which time 
he first took part in politics, in which he manifested at once rare 
ability. In 1860, he was elected clerk of the Circuit Court, and 
Recorder for Stephenson County. When, in April, 1861, President 
23 



354- PATRIOTISM OF li.uxuis. 

Lincoln issued his firs! call for 75,000 troops, Governor fates tele- 
graphed Mr. Shaffer to repair al once to Springfield for consultation, 
where he remained until after the first six regiments were senl into 
the field. When the ten additional regiments were called for '>n the 
part of the State, Mr. Shaffer was requested by Governor Fates to 
return to Freeport, and arrange to take care of one of those regi- 
ments—the i">th Illinois Volunteers. During its organization Mr. 
Shaffer was constantly associated with Captain John I'"!"', the mus- 
tering officer, and when Captain Pope was appointed a Brigadier- 
,] he imme liately telegraphed to Washington asking thai Mr. 
Shaffer be appointed his Quartermaster. His appointment was scut 
to him by telegraph, and he went with General Pope to Missouri. 
When General Hunter was appointed a Major-General, Captain Shaf- 
fer was relieved by order of the Secretary of War, from duty with 
General Pope, ami ordered to report to General Hunter, and when 
General Hunter relieved General Fremont, at Springfield, Missouri, 
Captain Shaffer became chief Quartermaster of the army in the field. 
When General Hunter was sent to Kansas, Captain Shaffer accom- 
panied him, but was subsequently sent to Port Royal, as Chief 
Quartermaster Department of the South. When General Butler 
Left Ship Island, the War Department selected Colonel Shaffer (Presi- 
dent Lincoln having, without solicitation from Captain Shaffer, pro- 
moted him to the rank of Colonel ), as the proper officer to perform 
the responsible duties of Chief Quartermaster Department of the 
Gulf. He arrived in New Orleans about two weeks after General 
Butler had taken possession, ami assumed direction of the Quarter- 
master's Department. His services during L 862, were of the most 
extraordinary, responsible and harassing nature, so completely 
breaking down his health that he was compelled, in January, 1863, 
to send his resignation to Washington, which was returned by the 
■etary of War, not accepted, but granting him leave of absence 
until he should recover his health. In the fall of 1863, he again 
reported for duty, and was ordered to report to General Butler, then 
in Washington, on bis way to assume command of the Department 
of Virginia and North Carolina. He was assigned to duty, by Gene- 
ral Butler, as Chief-of-Staff, and in addition to the duties of his posi- 
tion took charge of the correspondence connected with the exchange 



COLONEL SHAFFER. 355 

of prisoners, and, under the direction of General Butler, managed 
the entire office work of that bureau. In May, 1864, when the 
Army of the James was preparing to make that most remarkable 
movement up James River, into an enemy's country, in unarmed 
boats, Colonel Shaffer, in addition to his ordinary duties as Chief-of- 
Staff, assumed entire charge of the shipping, and to his indomitable 
energy General Butler acknowledged himself, in a great part, 
indebted for the success of the expedition. Every movement of the 
Army of the James bore evidence of his energy and courage, until 
he was compelled to resign, in September, 1864, being again com- 
pletely broken down in health, and the War Department reluctantly 
accepted of his final resignation. 

Governor Yates, at several different times, tendered to Colonel 
Shaffer the command of a regiment, which he declined at the com- 
mencement of the war because he felt he had not the experience 
necessary; and, later, because he considered it due to the junior 
officers of the regiments that they should have the promotion. No 
more generous soldier than Colonel Shaffer was in the army ; and 
while in the West, in the South, and on the Potomac he was ever 
zealous of the rights and interests of the officers and soldiers of the 
Illinois regiments — fighting their battles for them in the departments 
at Washington, and insisting on the promotions due to their gallantry 
in the field. Says an officer, " His care for the Illinois troops is a 
bright page in his military history, and all over the State there are 
regimental and line officers, who, with gratitude, remember ' Wilse,' 
and who will wish him a long and happy life." We cannot better 
close our sketch of Colonel Shaffer, than by quoting the touching 
letter of Major-General Butler to him on his finally leaving the ser- 
vice with broken health : 

" Head-Quarters Dep't of Virginia and North Carolina.) 
" In the Field, September 25, 1864. j 

" My Dear Shaffer — 

"As now our long and pleasant personal relations in the camp and in the field are 
severed, probably never to be renewed under their former conditions, I will not 
refrain from saying to you with my pen, what each was too much moved when we 
parted — either to speak or to hear. 

"I have to thank you, in behalf of the country, with earnest gratitude for the 
unwearied vigilance with which you have always done your duty as an officer, with 



35G PATEI0TI8M OF ILLINOIS. 

the single purpose of her service and her Interests. True patriot mi by 

acta and thoughtful devotion to public interests. Nothing but shattered health 

against which you have • d struggling during the whole campaign, has taken you 

unwillingly from the army — and not till long after every friend thoughl it :i duty to 
yourself thai you should go — and I hope, and reverently praj the Disposer of all 
events thai iii Eis wisdom you may be restored to the greatesl of :ill bles 

" Bui i( is not of the performance of your public duties thai I desired to speak — 
of thai voui military record, and the opinion of all youi iff will 

There is a warmer and nearer tie which has been yo our official 

intercourse, which fills the heart as I write, and makes the pen tame in utte 
The truest and most unselfish personal friendship — your country first — myself next 
— yourself last was the chart of duty to you. That your devotion to duty and friend- 
ship is most gratefully appreciated by me — and your sentiments of personal i I 
fully reciprocated — why need 1 write? That we shall be divided, except by space, 
is impossible, and I shall always be happy to subscribe myself, 

" Most truly, your friend, 
"(Signed) Bknj. F. Butler. 

"Colonel J. W. Shaffer, 
" ( Late ) Chief-of-Staff, Army of the James." 



CHAPTER XXI. 

ONWARD FROM SAVANNAH. 

January, 1865 — Columns in Motion — Grant and Sherman — Logan — Right Wing — 
A Skirmish — Chaplain's Letter — Logan's Corps — Kilpatrick — Williams — Ex- 
tracts from Sherman's Report — Swollen Waters — Sherman's Report — Edisto 
Bridges — The Divided Rebel Force — Kilpatrick — Atkins — Sherman and the 
Right Wing — Orangeburg — Hardee — Crossing of Congaree — Columbia — Sher- 
man's Report — The Conflagration — Who was to Blame ? — Sherman on Wade 
Hampton — Soldiers' Love for South Carolina — Left Wing — Marches for Winns- 
boro — Right joins It — Barnwell — Ninety-second Illinois — Blackville — Aikin 
— Atkins' Brigade — Kilpatrick's Movements — Exciting Situation — Joe John- 
ston in the Field — Rocky Mount — Sherman's Report — Cheraw — Kilpatrick 

narrowly escapes capture schofield and terry fort flsher wllmington 

Our Men in Wilmington Prison — What a Correspondent saw — Forward — Cav- 
alry Skirmish — Hardee tries to " hold " Sherman — Don't Succeed — Hard Fight- 
ing — Hardee Abandons His Works — Retreats to Averysboro. 

THE regiments of Sherman's army obtained such rest as they 
might until January 15, 1865, when the columns were again set 
in motion, this time heading northward. Lieut. Gen. Grant had sent 
orders to Sherman to embark his troops and carry them to James 
River to give direct aid in the overthrow of Richmond and Lee. 
Sherman represented the difficulties of such transportation and prom- 
ised to get them sooner and in better condition where Grant wanted 
them, beside destroying the .enemy as he went. Grant yielded to 
his request to be permitted to march them thither by land ; Golds- 
boro being the first objective point. 

Logan had returned from the North and, relieving Osterhaus, had 
assumed command of the 15th Corps which greeted him with enthu- 
siasm. The right wing moved thus: the 17th Corps by transports 
from Humboldt to Beaufort, and thence marched to the Charleston 
and Savannah railway near Pocotaligo. 



358 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

The chaplain of the 6 nh [llinoia thus describes the skirmish at this 
Btation : 

" With Captain J, 1. Reynolds commanding we moved oat from Beaufort on the 
il January buoyant and confident. Marching toward Pocotaligo we were op- 
posed an 1 found it held by a small rebel force who, as we approached, was heard to 
Bay. 'Ah! there they come,' 'they are Poster's niggers.' Whiz, bang, eomi 
shell, our boys drop on seeing the flash and are up unharmed and <>a with double 
fury. The thing is repeated but on go the hoys in blue A rebel officer looks 

through his glass and is heard to say 'I'll ho if they ain't Sherman's soldiers. 

Then and there was hurrying to and fro. An officer moves up the road and disap- 
- ii grows dark and our troops entrench and hear movements of wagon- and 
troops all night, at daybreak the enemy is gone, the fort is ours. 

"We plant the stars and stripes there and change the name to Poke -em-till- i-go in 
honor of the plan of the rebel general in leaving a small force to hold us at bay till 
he could get out of the way. 

"We remained there several days to complete an outfit or a farther movement, 
but in the meantime we were not idle." 

Logan's Corps went partly by transports and partly by land ; 
Sloeum was instructed to move tbe left wing as follows : Kilpatrick 
was to move with his mounted force against Coosawhatchie, South 
Carolina, on (he Charleston and Savannah railway and Robert ville 
on the Columbia road. Williams, in command of Jackson's and 
Geary's divisions of the 20th corps, marched to Hardeeville, on the 
Charleston railway where it was in communication with Howard's 
command at Pocotaligo. Heavy rains, however, isolated these divis- 
ions from the rest of the wing and they were compelled to move up 
toward Sister's Ferry. 

General Sherman says : 

" On the 18th of January I transferred the city and forts of Savannah to Major- 
General Foster, commanding the department of the South, imparted to him my plans 
of operation, and instructed him how to follow my movements inland by occupying 
in succession the city of Charleston and such other points along the sea coast as 
would be of any military value to us. The combined naval and land-forces under 
Admiral Porter and General Terry had, on the 15th of January, captured Fort Fish- 
er and the rebel forts at the mouth of Cape Foar River, giving me an additional 
point of security on the sea coast. But I had already resolved in my own mind, and 
had so advised General Grant, that I would undertake at one stride to make Golds- 
boro and open communication with the sea by the Newbern railroad, and ordered Col. 
W. W. Wright, superintendent of military railroads, to proceed in advance to New- 
bem and to be prepared to extend the railroad out from Newbern to Goldsboro by 
the 15th of March. 



SALKEHATCHIE LINE. 359 

"On the 22d of January I embarked from Savannah for Hilton Head, where I held 
a conference with Admiral Dahlgren, U. S. N., Maj.-Gen. Foster, commanding 
the Department of the South, and next proceeding to Beaufort." 

Awaiting the subsidence of swollen streams and the concentration 
of his force the grand advance began on the first of February, though 
some of the divisions had moved out of camp the day previous. 

Says General Sherman : 

"All the roads northward had been for weeks held by Wheeler's cavalry, who had 
by details of negro laborers felled trees, burned bridges, and made obstructions to 
impede our march. But so well organized were our pioneer battalions and so strong 
and intelligent our men that obstructions seemed only to quicken their progress. 
Felled trees were removed and bridges rebuilt by the heads of columns before the 
rear could close up. On the 2d of February the 15th corps (Logan's) reached 
Loper's cross-roads and the 17th was at River's Bridge. From Loper's crossroads I 
communicated with General Slocum, still struggling with the floods of the Savannah 
at Sister's Ferry. He had two divisions of the 20th corps, General Williams on the 
east bank and was enabled to cross over on his pontoons the cavalry of Kilpatrick. 
General Williams was ordered to Beaufort's Bridge by way of Lawtonville and 
Allandale, Kilpatrick to Blockville via Barnwell and Gen. Slocum to hurry the cross- 
ing at Sister's Ferry as much as possible and overtake the right wing on the 
South Carolina railroad. General Howard with the right wing was directed to cross 
the Solkehatchie and push rapidly for the South Carolina railway at or near Mid- 
way. The enemy held the line of the Salkehatchie in force, having infantry and artil- 
lery intrenched at River's and Beaufort's Bridge. The former position was carried 
promptly and skillfully by Mower's and Giles A. Smith's divisions of the 17th corps, on 
the 3d of February, by crossing the swamp nearly three miles wide with water varying 
from knee to shoulder deep. The weather was bitter cold and Generals Mower and 
Smith led their divisions in person on foot, waded the swamp, made a lodgment below 
the bridge and turned on the rebel brigade which guarded it driving it in confusion 
toward Branchville. Ourcasualties was one officer and seventeen men killed and 
seventy men wounded. The line of the Salkehatchie being thus broken, the enemy, 
retreated at once behind the Edisto at Branchville, and the whole army was pushed 
rapidly to the South Carolina railroad at Midway, Bamberg (or Lowery's Station) 
and Graham's Station." 

The 17th corps forced the rebels to burn two important railway 
bridges over the Edisto. On the 16th the railway was cut at Bau- 
brey and at Midway, and the whole army worked at destroying the 
road and cutting the rebel array in twain, one wing being at Branch- 
ville and Charleston, the other at Aikin and Augusta — each expect- 
ing " the vandals " who were cutting their way between them 
marching to their destination, resistless as destiny. 



IH'.l.l PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOI8. 

On the i Ith Kilpatrick brought up his cavalry to threaten Augusta, 
with orders not to be drawn into a battle. Be managed to avoid it, 
bul had some serious skirmishing at Blackville, Wllliston and Aikin. 
At this point Brevel Brig-General Atkins was in advance with the 2d 
!.■. 92d 111. mounted infantry and 9th Michigan cavalry and 
confronted Wheeler's massed force. The General made a gallant 
Sghl bul was compelled to fall back to Kilpatrick's main line, near 
Johnston Station. On the 13th Kilpatrick moved toward the South 
Edi 

On the 9th the 55th 111. — of proud record — did good service cross- 
ing the South Edisto above Holman's Bridge, to strike the enemy's 
Hank. To secure the crossing, the men made their way over floating 
and fallen trees, until they reached a miserable swam)) through 
which they waded near a mile before striking solid ground, but they 
did their work and secured their position despite the enemy. 

While the left wing continued railroad destruction west of Branch- 
ville, Sherman, with the right, moved against Orangeburg. The 
17th Corps, on the 12th, found a rebel force in front of Orangeburg 
Bridge, but routed it, and crossed the bridge though partly consumed. 
The whole corps was in Orangeburg by 4 P. M. destroying the road. 
It wrecked it as far as Lewisville, and compelled the enemy to burn 
the bridges across the Oongaree. 

Hardee now saw whither Sherman was heading, and evacuated 
Charleston, and retreated to Florence. General Gilmore's men 
occupied the cradle of the rebellion on the 18th, and made it rock 
with their shouts. 

And now for Columbia. The 17th Corps marched gaily along 
the State road; Logan's corps crossed the North Edisto at Schilling's 
bridge, and moved by a county road, entering the State road atZeig- 
lcr's. February loth Logan found the enemy in strong position at 
a bridge crossing the Little Congaree, with a tete-du-pont on the 
south side, while on the north was a sturdy fort, defended with 
artillery commanding the bridge. Stone's brigade was ordered into 
a cypress swamp, to the left, to turn the left Hank of the tete-du-pont; 
the 111th was in the skirmish line — the cypress was threaded, the 
flank turned, the bridge seized, though partly in flames, and the fort 
captured. The bridge was repaired for the ]i>assage of artillery, and 



INTO COLUMBIA. 361 

that delay made it nightfall before the head of the column reached 
the bridge leading- across the Congaree into Columbia. Daylight 
found the bridge in Haines, and the army halted for the pontoons. 

There was commotion in the streets, but no large force, though 
there were cavalry squads, at which one shot was fired by a battery, 
and only one. On the 16th Howard crossed the Saluda three miles 
above the city, skirmishing with rebel cavalry ; the same night he 
threw a bridge over Broad River, and crossed Stone's brigade. 
General Sherman says : 

" Under cover of this brigade a pontoon bridge was laid, on the morning of the 
17th. I was in person at this bridge, and at 11 A. M., learned that the mayor of 
Columbia had come out in a carriage, and made a formal surrender of the city to 
Colonel Stone, of the 25th Iowa, commanding 3d brigade, 1st division, 15th corps. 
About the same time, a small party of the 17th corps had crossed the Congaree in a 
.skiff, and entered Columbia, from a point immediately west. In anticipation of the 
occupation of the city, I had made written orders to General Howard, touching the 
conduct of the troops. They were to destroy absolutely all arsenals and public 
property not needed for our own use, as well as all railroads, depots and machinery 
useful in war to an enemy, but to spare all dwellings, colleges, schools, asylums and 
harmless private property. I was first to cross the pontoon bridge, and in company 
with General Howard, rode into the city. The day was clear, but a perfect tempest 
of wind was raging. The brigade of Colonel Stone was already in the city, and was 
properly posted. Citizens and soldiers were on tiie streets, and general good order 
prevailed. General Wade Hampton, who commanded the rebel rear-guard of cav- 
alry, had, in anticipation of our capture of Columbia, ordered that all cotton, public 
and private, should be moved into the streets and fired, to prevent our making use 
of it. Bales were piled everywhere, the rope and bagging cut, and tufts of cot- 
ton were blown about in the wind, lodged in the trees and against houses, so as to 
resemble a perfect snow-storm. Some of these piles of cotton were burning, es- 
pecially one in the very heart of the city, near the court-house, but the fire was par- 
tially subdued by the labor of our soldiers." 

The upshot was, during the night those smoldering fires burst 
into flame, and in spite the efforts of Sherman and his corps com- 
manders, much of the beautiful city was laid in ashes. It caused a 
bitter correspondence between Hampton and Sherman. Sherman 
says, with Jimius-like severity : 

" And without hesitation, I charge General Wade Hampton with having burned 
his own city of Columbia, not with a malicious intent, or as the manifestation of a 
» silly ' Roman stoicism,' but from folly and want of sense, in filling it with lint, cot- 
ton and tinder.' 



362 PATRIOTISM <>l* II. 1. 1'-' 

During ill" l^ih and 19th the arsenal, depots, machine Bhops, 
foun leri< s, etc., were destroy ed, and the railway broken up to Ki 

and Wateree Bridge. Thai General Sherman and his com- 
manders <li'i their atmosl to Bave the private property of Columbia 
from ruin, is trm . bul it. is as true thai in the army there was perfect 
resignation to the fate that thus came upon the capital of the fire- 
eating State of Calhoun, and the more because Columbia had b sen 
one of the prison pens of tlie cruel, heartless rulers of (lie Confeder- 
acy. The rank and file believe. 1 that nothing so well became the 
city a< its robes of flame. South Carolina was associated with ram- 
panl State Rights hen sy, with defiance of law, contempt of authority 
and defiance of the constitutional prerogatives of the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

Slocum came within two miles of Columbia, and was to march by 
the let'i againsl Winnsboro, and moved at once. On the 18th lie broke 
up the railroad from Alston, fourteen miles northward including the 
Broad River Bridge. He reached Winnsboro on the 21st. 

The right wing joined it there. Kilpatrick moved to Robertville, 
February 3d, and making Lawtonville on the 4th, Allandale on the 
5th, on the Oth threatened Augusta, driving a rebel brigade, then 
turned squarely to the right, and crossed the Salkehatchie a little 
below Barnwell. Here the enemy, about 300 strong, had cho 
strong position behind heavy earthworks, commanding the bridge 
already blazing. With a shout the 92d Illinois, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Van Buskirk, and the Oth Ohio cavalry dashed into the 
swam]., waded water up to their arm-pits, and despite the rebel 
artillery, carried the works, and scattered the enemy toward Barnwell. 
The bridge, only partly burned, was repaired, and at 4 P. M. Kil- 
patrick rode into the town. The next day a brigade of Wheeler's 
was driven from Blockville on the Charleston and Atlanta railroad. 
For a short time there was a halt for the "weary horsemen, sp nt, 
however, in destroying railway. On the evening of the 8th Colonel 
Spencer's brigade had a sharp and successful engagement with a 
portion of Wheeler's cavalry. On the 11th General Atkins was 
reconnoitering in the vicinity of Aikin; be rode unharmed into the 
town, but was suddenly attacked by Wheeler's entire force. It 
made the attack boldly, but the little brigade, though aware that it 



WINNSBOEO. 363. 

was outnumbered heavily, bravely stood its ground, and slowly fell 
back, grimly fighting, determined to hold the foe in check until Kil- 
patrick could make his disposition to check his advance. The end 
was attained, and after a sharp and bloody rencounter Wheeler fell 
back to Aikin. Our cavalry remained at Johnston's threatening 
Augusta and destroying track until the 12th, when it crossed the 
South Edisto, and encamped above it. It continued its ceaseless 
movements ; on the 15th struck the Lexington and Augusta road, 
on the 17th crossed the Saluda, and found that "Wheeler was head- 
ing for the Broad River railroad bridge at Alston's ; on the 18th it 
held along its way parallel to the rebel General Cheatham's corps, 
sometimes within three miles, and only prevented by a deep, tangled 
water-course from striking him a swift blow in flank ; it cut the rail- 
way at Pomaria Station, destroyed the depot, " fixed " the track, and 
destroyed several bridges ; on the 18th reached Alston's Station ; on 
the 19th crossed Broad River, and on the 20th reached Monticello 
to learn that Wheeler was across the river moving on Chesterfield. 
It had done a full share of hard fighting, and rough campaigning. 

The position was an exciting one. Our infantry was being concen- 
trated in the vicinity of Winnsboro, on the Charlotte and South 
Carolina Raih-oad, and, until now, the campaign from Columbia had 
indicated a purpose to go into Virginia by the inland route, via 
Charlotte. Sherman had again confused and misled his enemy, but 
now a point was nearing when a battle seemed unavoidable, and this 
time under his old adversary, Joe Johnston, who had superseded 
Bragg in chief command. 

Slocum reached Winnsboro on the 21st of Februaiy. The 20th 
Corps reached Rocky Mount on the 2 2d, and laid a pontoon bridge 
over the Catawba, which it crossed on the 23d. The same night Kil- 
patrick crossed in a drenching rain, and marched up to Lancaster, 
as though leading a grand demonstration against Charlotte, North 
Carolina, to which Beauregard had gone with a strong cavalry force 
'from Columbia. Sherman says, " I was also aware that Cheatham's 
corps of Hood's old army was aiming to make a junction with Beau- 
regard at Charlotte, having been cut off by our rapid movement on 
Columbia and Winnsboro." 

The progress for some days is clearly told by General Sherman in 
his report : 



IU\\ r.Vi RI0TI8M 01 ELLIK 

\ 

••From the 28d to the 26th we badheavj rains, Bwelling the rivera wad making 

the roadfl almost impassable. The 20th corps reached Hang Rock on the 20th, and 

Ith corps, to get across the Catawba. The heavy rain- had 

Hen the river that the pontoon bridge broke and General Davis had very hard 

work to restore it, and get his command across. Atla ded, and the left 

wing was put in tion for the Cheraw. 

" in the meantime the right wing had broken up the railroad to Mindoro, and then 
turned for Pea's Ferry, where ii crossed over the Catawba before the heavy ra 
in, the 17th corps moving straight on to Cheraw, via Xoung'e Bridge, and the 15th 
corps! i! "l Killer's Bridges. From this latter corps detachmenl 
into Camden to burn the brides over the Waterec, with the railroad depot, stores, 
\ small force of mounted men under Captain Duncan, was also dispatched to 
make a dash and interrupt the railroad from Charleston to Florence, but it met 
Butler's division of cavalry, and after a sharp skirmish al Mount Elon, was com- 
pelled to return unsuccessful. Much bad road was en intered at Lynch's Creek, 

which delayed the right wing about the same length of time as the left wing had 

i the Catawba. 

the '-''I of March the leading division of the 20th corps entered Chesterfield, 

skirmishing with Butler's division of cavalry, and the tic i daj aboul noon the 17th 

corps entered Cheraw, the enemy retreating across the Pedee and burning the bridge 

at that point. A.1 Cheraw we found much ammunition and many guns, which had 

been brought froni Charleston, on the evacuation of that city. These were destroyed, 

. the railroad trestlesand bridges as far down as Darlington. An expedition 

of mounted infantry was Bern down to Florence, but it encountered both cavalry and 

infantry, and returned, having □ up, in part, the branch road from Florence 

to Cheraw. 

" Without unnecessary delay, the columns were put in motion, directed on Fay- 
etteville, North Carolina, the right wing crossing the Pedee at Cheraw, and the left 
id eavalrv at Sneedsboro. General Kilpatrick was ordered to keep well down 
the Left flank, and the 14th corps, movii ras given the right to 

enter and occupy Fayetteville first. The weather continued unfavorable, and the 
roads bad, but the 14th and 17th corps reached Fayetteville by the 11th of March, 
skirmishing with Wade Hampton's cavalry, thai covered the rear of Hardee's re- 
treating army, which, as usual, had crossed Cape Fear River, burning the bridge. 
During the march from the Pedee, General Kilpatrick had kept his cavalry well on 
the left and exposed flank. During the nighl of March 9th, his three brigades were 

divided to picket the r Is. < leneral Hampton detecting this, dashed in al daj light, 

gained possession of the house in which General Kilpatrick and Colonel Spencer had 
tle-ir quarters. The surprise was complete, but General Kilpatrick quickly succeed- 
ed in rallying his men on foot in a swam]) near by, and by a prompt attack, well 
followed up, regained his artillery, horses, camp, and everything, saving some pris- 
oners, which the enemy carried off, leaving their dead on the ground. 

"The 12th, 13th and 11th corps were passed at Fayetteville, destroying absolutely 
the United States arsenal and the vast amount of machinery which formerly be- 
longed to the old Harper's Ferry United States arsenal. Every building was 
knocked down and burned, and every piece of machinery utterly broken up and 



WILMINGTON. 365 

ruined, by the 1st Regiment Michigan Engineers, under the immediate supervision 
of Colonel 0. M. Poe, Chief Engineer. Much valuable property of great use to the 
enemy was here destroyed or cast into the river. 

"Up to this period I had perfectly succeeded in interposing my superior army be- 
tween the scattered parts of my enemy. But I was then aware that the fragments 
that had left Columbia under Beauregard, had been reinforced by Cheatham's corps 
from the west, and the garrison of Augusta, and that ample time had been given 
them to move to my front and flank about Raleigh. Hardee had also succeeded in 
getting across Cape Fear River ahead of me, and could therefore complete the 
junction with the other armies of Johnston and Hoke, in North Carolina. And the 
whole, under the command of the skillful and experienced Joe. Johnston, made up 
an army superior to me in cavalry, and formidable enough in artillery and infantry 
to justify me in extreme caution in making the last step necessary in the march I 
had undertaken. Previous to reaching Fayetteville, I had dispatched to Wilming- 
ton from Sorrel Hill Church, two of our best scouts, with intelligence of our po- 
sition and my general plans. Both of these messengers reached Wilmington, and 
on the morning of the 12th of March, the army tug Davidson reached Fayetteville 
From Wilmington, bringing me full intelligence of events from the outer world. 
On the same day this tug carried back to General Terry, at Wilmington, and General 
Schofield, at Newbern, my dispatches to the effect that, on Wednesday, the 15th, we 
would move for Goldsboro, feigning on Raleigh, and ordering them to march straight 
for Goldsboro, which I expected to reach about the 20th." 

Here we may pause and trace the line of the troops thus ordered 
to co-operate. After Fort Fisher was captured by Terry and Por- 
ter, Wilmington was next to be taken. Schofield had been put in 
charge of the Department of North Carolina, and was in com- 
mand. By a series of brilliant movements, he gained the main de- 
fenses of Cape Fear river and Wilmington, capturing ten heavy guns 
and much ammunition, with little loss. With his gallant subordi- 
nates, Cox and Terry, he continued to gain important advantages 
until the 22d of February, when General Terry entered Wilmington, 
capturing fifty-one heavy, fifteen light guns, stores, ammunition, &o. 

Then, as we have seen, he pushed on to join his old commander 
at Goldsboro, fought his way gallantly and successfully, and justified 
the choice of Lieutenant-General Grant, of the commander, for this 
important and difficult command. 

A correspondent of the Chicago Tribune thus describes what he 
saw after the capture of the city. It is one of the many chapters of 
loyal suffering and rebel barbarity — a barbarity worse than the quick 
cruelty of Thugs : 

" In the opinion of eminent engineers, Cape Fear .river, from Wil. 



866 PATEIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

mington to the oci an, is more Btrongly fortified than any one of our 

northern harbors, or any river in the world — nineteen forts and bat- 

- line its approaches within the short distance named, all of the 

heaviest character, most scientifically constructed, ami thoroughly 

armed — three lines of formidable obstructions, consisting of piles, 
torpedoes, sunken ships and cribs, chain cable, and rafts of heavy 
timber securely fastened together. The entire front of this line, was 

covered by succession of lakes and deep swamps, stretching from 
theriver to the ocean, and only crossed by two narrow causeways. 
Then three miles outside of these works was a second Btrong line. 
Theoity -was capable of stronger defense than any we hive taken dur- 
ing the Avar. Its only lack was in men. 

" Scholield was most heartily congratulated on all sides for this 
flattering result of his combination. Only one division, the 3d, and 
one brigade, Moore's, of the 2d Army Corps, were engaged. The 
remainder of the 23d Corps did not arrive. The total loss on both 
sides of the river after Schofield took command, will fall a trifle be- 
low 200. This was owing to the fact that the position assaulted 
could be turned. But few citizens left the city, except such as the 
enemy forced to enter the ranks. All able-bodied men hid them- 
selves and thronged the streets as soon as our forces entered. The 
ladies were also out in force, and the negroes crowded all the ave- 
nues. Not a symptom of animosity was displayed by man, woman 
or child throughout the day. Early in the morning a large class of 
citizens began to help themselves to goods in various stores, but a 
provost guard soon stopped this traffic, so peculiar to rebel towns. 

" The city contains a number of very fine church edifices and pub- 
lic buildings, and many beautiful private residences, but these serve 
to make the general shabbiness of the rest more conspicuous. The 
Union prisoners had been confined at Camp Lamb, about nine miles 
from the city, and their treatment was worthy of fiends from hell, 
Though agreements for a general exchange had been completed at 
Richmond, the starving process goes on. For three days before the 
evacuation, these prisoners had not received a mouthful to eat. 

" To the credit of citizens, many attempts were made to relieve 
them, but food in all cases was taken away from them by order of 
the officer in command, and trodden into the ground before the eyes 



ILLINOIS PRISONERS. 367 

of prisoners and citizens. It was thought that 700 were recovered, 
but many in a dying condition. All which has appeared in the pub- 
lic prints in regard to this matter, utterly fails to prepare one for the 
awful reality. 

" After nerving myself for the visit, and trying to picture all its 
horrors, while riding slowly over a mile to the house where they had 
been collected, my brain reeled for a moment as the sickening reality 
burst upon me. An officer came in, and those who had never quailed 
on the field of death, whose cheeks had never blanched, stood 
aghast with tears in their eyes, grinding their teeth, clenching their 
hands, and thanking God that there was a hell. Pale, haggard and 
emaciated skeletons glared on us from glassy eyes, whose light of 
reason was just expiring. With matted hair, and skin blackened 
with smoke, scai-cely covered with the filthiest shreds of cast-off* 
rebel clothing, without blankets, and most of them without coats 
and shoes, they gazed on us with almost idiotic stare, while the ma- 
jority could with difficulty be roused from their listlessness. 

" Many had forgotten their names. Some could be aroused by 
asking them of home, wives and children ; these magic words bring- 
ing them back from the grave into which they were sinking with 
hands clutching the bread our soldiers brought. As they lay there 
dying, an old negro woman passed from one to another, tenderly 
smoothing their awful passage to the grave, knowing that the authors 
of all this misery had escaped. How consoling to repeat, ' Ven- 
geance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord.' 

" The following are the names of the Western soldiers in this build- 
ing, and as many more are scattered through the town : 

" Joseph Elmrich, 1st Ohio artillery ; John H. Ashmend, 80th In- 
diana ; George Oswald, Company F, 5th Ohio, Cincinnati ; G. H. 
Clark, 1st Wisconsin ; William T. Collins, Company G, 18th Mis- 
souri ; Albert McCarter, Company I, 7th Indiana ; James Cochrane, 
Company H, 8th Iowa cavalry ; William F. Everman, Company H, 
8th Iowa cavalry ; James W. Hays, Company F, 8th Iowa cavalry ; 
Thomas Rhodes, Company I, 3d Illinois cavalry ; John Taylor, 12th 
United States; Taylor Worded, Company II, 14th Illinois cavalry; 
F. Ronodent, Company D, 20th cavalry; William D. Mingor, 2d 
Kentucky cavalry; Gottert Sting, 14th Illinois cavalry; Joseph At- 



PATRIOTISM OP ILLINOIS. 

1. l-t Indiana: John W. Lee, Company G, l Ith Illinois caval- 
John Z rveirson, Company [, 16th Wisconsin; Croyden Pierce, 
\ .''.nil [ndiana; Thomas < '. Groves, Company K, 90th 
Illinois ; William Plumb, Company K. 1 nli Illinois cavalry; Wil- 
liam Munshaw, Company II, 5th Michigan." 

It was honible traveling, bul Sherman se1 forward March 1 5th. 
Kilpatrick was in Slocum's advance, moving up the river or plank 
'-. and had a sharp encounter with the rebel cavalry in 
the vicinity .if Taylor's Hob Creek. II >ward sent his trains t<> the 
right toward Faison's depot and Goldsboro, keeping four divisions 
in lighl order, ready to go to the aid of Slocum, if needed. 

Hardee had attempted an imitation of the policy of General Grant 
toward Lee, and halted in force in a swampy, narrow neck, lying 
between South an<l Cape Fear Rivers, hoping to hold Sherman in- 
active unt ; l Johnston could concentrate Ins whole force at some 
point in Hardee's rear, such as Goldsboro, Raleigh or Smithfield. 
It was necessary to dislodge him, and tic- enterprise was formidable, 
as he commanded 20,000 men veteran troops, with artillery, infan- 
try and cavalry, ami a position of his own choosing. Sherman 
wanted the Goldshoro road, ami he aNo wished to keep up the ap- 
pearance of moving on Raleigh. 

Slocum was ordered to rout him. Williams' 20th corps was first, 
and it was led in turn by Wood's division. Rhett's brigade of Con- 
federate artillery, armed as infantry, were stationed across the road, 
protected by a slighl parapet, with a strong battery fairly sweeping 
the approach. Case's brigade was sent to the left, turned Rhett's 
line, and by a quick charge, broke it. The rebels fell back to a sec- 
ond and stronger line. Three guns and 217 prisoners, of whom C8 
were wounded, were captured. The main rebel line extended from 
Black River on their left, to Cape Fear River on the right, covering 
fairly the roads to Goldsboro, Smithfield and Raleigh. On the 16th, 
Carlin and Morgan brought up their men, and a desperate, but un- 
successful effort was made to clear the Goldsboro road, but the en- 
emy held his position, though severely punished. During the nigh* 
he abandoned the line and fell back to Averysboro, chased by 
Wood's division, leaving his dead and wounded. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

REGIMENTAL SKETCHES. 

The Ninety-second — Rebel Treatment of Prisoners — Brevet Major General Smith 
D. Atkins — Color Bearer " Gedee " Scott — " For God's sake Save the Flag " — 
The Ninety-third — From Atlanta to Savannah — The Ninety-fifth — Regimental 
Statistics — Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey — The Ninety-eighth — A Fatal Acci- 
dent — The Ninety-ninth — The Assault upon Vicksburg — The One Hundred and 
First — Running the Blockade — The One Hundred and Second — Capture of a 
Bank — The One Hundred and Third — Death of Colonel Dickerman — The One 
Hundred and Fifth — The One Hundred and Eighth — Port Gibson and Champion 
Hills — The One Hundred and Ninth — A brief but Disgraceful Record — The 
One Hundred and Tenth — Heavy Losses — The One Hundred and Eleventh — Gal- 
lant Charge at Resaca — The One Hundred and Twelfth — Sanders' Raid — The 
One Hundred 3nd Thirteenth — Colonel Geo. B. Hodge — The Rankin Family. 

NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

THE 92(1 infantry was organized at Rockford and mustered into 
the service September 4, 1862. It was composed of five com- 
panies from Ogle, three from Stephenson and two from Carroll Coun- 
ties. The following is the original roster : 

Colonel, Smith D. Atkins ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin F. Sheets ; Major, John 
H. Bohn ; Adjutant, I. C. Lawver ; Quartermaster, George W. Marshall ; Surgeon, 
Clinton Helm ; 1st Assistant, Thomas Winston ; 2d Assistant, Nathan Stevenson; 
Chaplain, Rev. 0. D. W. White. 

Co. A — Captain, William J. Ballinger; 1st Lieutenant, Harvey Simms ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Cox. 

Co. B — Captain, Wilbur W. Dennis; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Crowell; 2d 
Lieutenant, E. F. Bander. 

Co. C. — Captain, William Stouffer ; 1st Lieutenant, Robert M. A. Hawk ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Norman Lewis. 

Co. D — Captain, Lyman Preston ; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Skinner; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Oscar F. Sammis. 

Co. E — Captain, Matthew Van Buskirk ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph L. Spear; 2d 
Lieutenant, Jeremiah Vorhis. 

Co. F — Captain, Christopher T. Dunham; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred G. Dunham ; 3d 
Lieutenant, William C. Dove. 
24 



370 PATRIOTISM OF II.I.TXOtS. 

Co. Q — Captain, John If. Schermerhorn ; 1st Lieutenant, John Gfahwiller; 2tl 
Lieutenant, Justin N. Parker. 

Co. H — Captain, James Brice ; 1st Lieutenant, .lames Dawson; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edward Mason. 

Co. I Captain, Egberl T. E. Becker; 1st Lieutenant, David B. Colehour ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Alexander If. York. 

Co. K — Captain, Albert Woodcock ; 1st Lieutenant, Horace J. Smith; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Horace C. Scoville. 

The regiment lefl Ro<3kford on the 11th of October, 1862, for Cin- 
cinnati, and passed through Chicago on the afternoon of the same 
day. The time spent in Rockford had been well employed in drill, 
and the soldierly appearance of the regiment attracted the atten- 
tion of our citizens who thronged the streets along the line of its 
march. Arriving at Cincinnati it was assigned to General Baird's 
Division, Army of Kentucky. It marched immediately into the in- 
i rior of the State, and was ordered on the last of Oetober to Mt. 
Sterling, K\\, to guard the place from rebel raids. It soon gained 
a reputation throughout Kentucky and was known as "The Aboli- 
tion R sgiment." Its anti-slavery sentiments were fully tested, even 
at the point of the bayonet. Its Colonel was sued antl indicted in 
several of the civil courts of the State for stealing, as was alleged, 
'•men chattels." At the solicitation of prominent slaveholders, the 
regiment was finally relieved at Mt. Sterling and ordered to Dan- 
ville, Ky. Here the brigade was reorganized and the command giv- 
en to Colonel Atkins, who continued to hold it until the regiment 
was mounted. On the 26th of January, 18G3, the 92d with General 
Baird's division was ordered to the Army of the Cumberland. Dur- 
ing its stay in Kentucky, it lost nearly two hundred by death and 
discharge. The regiment was not permitted to leave Kentucky 
without a renewal of its difficulties with slave masters. The com- 
mand was followed to Louisville, where General Gordon Granger 
issued an order, to appease the wrath of slave hunters, to the effect 
" that all slaves who had found their way into our lines during our 
stay in Kentucky, should be delivered to their masters or be left at 
Louisville." This order was in direct conflict Avith orders from tho 
War Department, and was openly disobeyed. 

.Many amusing scenes occurred during these troubles, one of 
which is here mentioned, as illustrating the earnest zeal of the slave- 



THE NINETY-SECOND INFANTRY. 371 

holders. At Harrodsburg, during the march to Louisville, a well- 
dressed lady entered the ranks and collared a robust man, claiming 
him as her chattel, and endeavoring to drag him from the ranks. 
" Sam " did not seem to appreciate the beauties of the " sacred in- 
stitution," and refused to go. The lady called her neighbors to 
help her, but they stood in fear of bayonets in the hands of aboli- 
tionists, and refused their aid. Colonel Sheets, viewing the scene 
from the head of the regiment, ordered the band to play " Kingdom 
Come," and the regiment, joining in the chorus, sang with a genuine 
anti-slavery zeal. 

Arriving at Nashville, the command moved to Franklin, Tennes- 
see, and immediately started in pursuit of Van Dorn,who had a few 
days before captured the command of Colonel Coburn. When the 
Army of the Cumberland advanced from Murfreesboro, the 92d had 
a prominent part with the right wing of the army. With a portion 
of the cavalry, it occupied Shelby ville on the 27th of June. On the 
5th of July it was ordered to rebuild a permanent wagon-bridge 
over Duck River, Bragg having in his retreat burned all the bridges. 
With no tools but axes and shovels, Colonel Sheets marched the 92d 
from Wartrail to the river, and in forty-eight hours a permanent 
bridge was completed, over which the trains of the army crossed 
and recrossed during the war. On the morning following this work, 
General Rosecrans ordered that the regiment be mounted and armed 
with the Spencer Repeating Rifle, and attached to Colonel YVilder's 
brigade of General Thomas' corps, in which corps it remained while 
General Rosecrans commanded the army. Horses and horse equip- 
ments were scarce. A few were obtained through the quartermas- 
ter's department, and, mounted on captured saddles of every grade 
and style, a portion of the regiment started out, with orders to press 
all the serviceable horses, mules and colored men they could find, 
and bring them into camp. In three days they reported to Colonel 
Wilder, at Dechard, with three hundred and fifty negroes and thir- 
teen hundred horses and mules. The colored men fought for the 
flag, and the horses and mules were worn out in the government 
service. 

From this date the greater part of the time was spent in the sad- 
dle, and with its Spencer rifles the regiment became a terror to the 



373 PATRIOTISM OF [LLIH 

rebel cavalry, and gained a reputation si oond to no regimenl in our 
army. Daring some forty battles and skirmishes, in which it, was 
afterward engaged, it was nol once driven from the field. For its 
thorough discipline, much is due io Lieutenant-Colonel (now Brevet 
Brigadier-General) Benjamin F. Sheets. The regimenl for many 
months was in command of this excellent officer. 

Crossing the mountains from Dechard, Tennessee, it had pari in 
movements opposite and above Chattanooga, which deceived 
_• a to the poinl where the army was to cross the river. Hav- 
ing accomplished this, it recrossed the mountains via Bridgeport, 
and joined General Thomas a1 Trenton, Alabama. On the morning 
of the 9lk of September, it led the advance to Chattanooga, drove 
the rebels from Point Lookout, and entered the rebel stronghold, 
unfurling from the Crutchfield House the first Union banner since 
Tennesse • had attached herself to the Confederate cause.* As soon 
as General Crittenden's troops came up, the 92d started in pursuit 
of the rebels. At Ringgold, Georgia, it came upon a brigade of 
Forrest's cavalry, and drove them from the town, killing and wound- 
ing a large number. 

During this engagemenl an amusing incident occurred. As onr 
line was pressing the rebels back, a German, from Company F, 
came down from the rebel ranks, horseless and hatless. Approach- 
ing Colonel Sheets, he cried out, " O Colonel, they shoots mine 
horse; they shoots mine coat here and there; they shoots mine 
pants; they spoils mine gun, and I isli almost dead." And sure 
enough, he had dashed up to their lines, and had his horse killed, 
and himself escaped on foot, with three bullet-holes through his cloth- 
ing, and the half of the breech of his gun shot away. 

In April, 1864, the regiment appeared once more at Ringgold, 
Georgia. Here it lost itsfir^t prisoners. On the morning of the 23d 
of April, Lieutenant (afterward Captain) Scovill, in command of a 
picket post at Nickojack Gap, nine miles from Ringgold, was at- 
tacked by an overwhelming force, and after a gallant fight himself 
and twenty-one men were captured, and one man killed. Of the 

* J. S. C. Ahbott, in his Ilistory of the War, erroneously mentions the 97th Ohio 
as the first regiment in Chattanooga. The official records show the 92d there nearly 
two hours before other troops arrived. 



CRUEL TREATMENT OF PRISONERS. 373 

men thus captured, twelve were shot down and murdered. Six of 
these were taken from the field dead, and six died of the wounds 
inflicted. The men who escaped this inhuman treatment were 
doomed to a more cruel death. They suffered the tortures of Ander- 
sonville, and most of them lie buried there. 

From Ringgold, Georgia, on the 7th of May, 1864, the regiment 
entered upon the Atlanta campaign, leading the advance of General 
Sherman's army. From Kingston, Georgia, in this campaign, it was 
commanded by Major (brevet Lieutenant-Colonel) Albert Woodcock, 
a faithful, efficient, Christian officer. It had been assigned to Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick's command, and is entitled to a large share of the 
honor won by Kilpatrick's division. 

Tts march was the scene of constant battles and skirmishes, the 
most important of which were Resaca, the raid around Atlanta, 
Bethsaida Church, Flint River Bridge and Jonesboro. The charge 
at Flint River was witnessed by Major-General Howard, who 
complimented the men by telling them he had never witnessed u 
more brilliant charge. In the fight near Jonesboro, the regiment lost 
one-fifth of the men engaged. From Mount Gilead Church, west of 
Atlanta, it moved out, on the 1st of October, to take part in the op- 
erations against Hood's array. At Powder Springs it had a severe 
engagement, losing a large number in killed and wounded. Return- 
ing to Marietta, it commenced preparation for the march to the sea. 
It was commanded, during its subsequent service, by Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Matthew Van Buskirk, and assigned to General Atkins' brigade 
of Kilpatrick's division. During this march it was often engaged 
with Wheeler's cavalry, and added new laurels to its reputation. 
An engagement demanding especial mention was at Macon, Avhere 
the regiment fought three or four times its number, driving the reb- 
els from their works, capturing, killing and wounding quite a num- 
ber. On the following morning it was attacked by a brigade of 
rebels, who seemed furious, and determined to capture the regiment. 
Reserving its fire until the rebels were within easy range, it opened 
on them with its Spencer rifles, and scattered them. At Waynes- 
boro, on the 4th of December, it was ordered to charge Wheeler's 
cavalry, who were strongly posted in a well-selected position, and 
inaccessible except by front attack. At daylight the order of battle 



."■71 PATRIOTISM OS ILLINOIS. 

wad formed, and, 'ill being ready, the charge was Bounded. The 92d 
dismounted and moved forward in Bplendid order. Climbing the 
eminence before it, ander a very heavy fire, it halted nol for ;i mo- 
ment, bul drove the rebels from three successive lines Of barricades, 
scattering them in confusion, and killing and capturing more than 
its own number. From Savannah to North Carolina, Kilpatriok's 
command kept the extreme left flank of the army. Its battles and 
skirmishes with Wheeler's and Hampton's cavalry were numerous. 
At Aiken, South Carolina, the 92d was completely surrounded by a 
division of rebel cavalry, and in a hand-to-hand encounter cut its 
way out-. At the crossing of the Salkehatchie River, near Barn- 
well, the 92<l charged the rebels from behind earthworks on the op- 
posite side. Colonel Bowman, of General Sherman's stall', writing 
of this, says ; " The 92d Illinois Mounted Infantry, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Van Buskirk, dashed through the swamp, the men wading 
in the water up to their armpits, crossed the stream on trees felled by 
the pioneers, ami, under cover of a rapid fire of artillery, gallantly 
carried the works, driving the enemy in confusion towaid the town 
of Barnwell." 

Tin- 92d had part in the fight at Bentonville. This was its last 

M'lneiit with the rebels. Here Captain Hawk, Company C, was 

severely wounded, losing his leg. The people of Carroll County 

have shown their appreciation of him by electing him to the office of 

County Clerk. 

This regiment lost in the aggregate more men than the average of 
regiments. Its ranks were kept well tilled by constant enlistments. 
Its record is one that dots honor to the state and credit to its mem- 
bers. It was engaged in some forty battles and skirmishes, num- 
bering some of the most sanguinary of the war. It was mustered 
out at Concord, North Carolina, and discharged at Chicago, July 
10, 1865. 

The following is the muster-out roster : 

General, Smith D. Atkins : Lieutenant-Colonel, Matthew Van Buskirk ; Major, Al- 
bert Woodcock ; Adjutant, Charles C. Freegard ; Quartermaster, Lieutenant Philip 
Sweeley ; Surgeon, Clinton Helm ; Assistant Surgeon, Nathan Stevenson ; Chap- 
lain, Barton H. Cartwright. 

Co. A — Captain, Harvey Simms ; 1st Lieutenant, William Cox ; 2d Lieutenant, 
William H. Frost. 



BREVET MAJOR-GEXERAL S. D. ATKINS. 375 

Co. B — Captain, Horace J. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Cooling; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Miles B. Light. 

Co. C — Captain, Robert M. Hawk; 1st Lieutenant, Norman Lewis; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George P. Sutton. 

Co. D — Captain, Lyrua-n Preston ; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Skinner ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Oscar F. Samniis. 

Co. E — Captain, Joseph L. Spear ; Lieutenant, Robert J. Huie. 

Co. F — Captain, William B. Mayer. 

Co. G — Captain, John M. Schermerhorn ; 1st Lieutenant, Harry G. Fowler; 2d 
Lieutenant, William McCammons. 

Co. H — Captain, John F. Nelson; 1st Lieutenant, John F. Nettleton ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Crawford B. Bowles. 

Co. I — Captain, Egbert T. E. Becker ; 2d Lieutenant, Joshua S. McRea. 

Co. K — Captain, Horace C. Scovill ; 1st Lieutenant, Peleg R. Walker; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James D. White. 

Brevet Major-General Smith D. Atkins was born June 9, 1835, 
near Elmira, Chemung County, New York, and removed to Illinois 
with his father's family in 1848, and lived on a farm till 1850, when he 
went to learn printing in the office of the Prairie Democrat, the first 
paper published in Freeport. He was educated at Rock River Semi- 
nary, Mt. Morris, Illinois, working in the printing office and attend- 
ing school, and in 1852 had control as foreman of the Mt. Morris 
Gazette, still attending school. In June, 1853, he bought out the 
paper with C. C. Allen, late Major on the staff of Major-General 
Schofield, and established the Register, at Savannah, Carroll County. 
In the fall of 1853 he entered the law office of Hiram Bright, in Free- 
port, as student at law, and was admitted to practice on the 27th of 
June, 1855. After admission to the bar he read law a short time in 
the office of Goodrich and Scoville, Chicago, and began practice in 
Freeport, September 1, 1856. In 1860 he canvassed for Lincoln, 
making a speech in review of the Dred Seott decision, which went 
through several editions. He was elected State's Attorney of the 
14th Judicial Circuit. On the 17th of April, 1861, he was trying a 
criminal case in the Stephenson Circuit Court when a telegram 
brought news that Lincoln had called for volunteers , and sitting 
dowm in the court room, General Atkins wrote an enlistment roll and 
signed it — the first man in his county to enlist as a private soldier — 
and telling the jury that he would be a soldier, if spared, until the 
stars and stripes again floated on the ramparts of Fort Sumter, and 



376 PATRIOTISM OF Illinois. 

acknowledged throughoul the laud, he lefl the case in the 
charge of another attorney, half tried, and marched through the 

tsof Fr< eporl with a baud of music, and by dark had a hundred 
men enlisted. He was unanimously elected Captain, and went at 
on •«• to Springfield, and was mustered as Captain Company A, l Ith 
Illinois Volunteers. He enlisted for three years again as a private, 
and was again mustered as Captain Company A, nth Illinois Volun- 

. at Bird's Point, for three years. Captain Atkins had the 
onlj maxim mui company in that regiment. II«' wisal Donelson with 
an unexpired leave of absence in his pocket, sick, but in command 
of his company, taking sixty-eighl men into the fight, and coming 
out with but twenty-three. He was promoted to Major of the 1 1th 
for services at Fort Donelson, Colonel Wallace being promoted I o 
Brigadier-General. lie went on the staff of General Hurlbut as A. 
A. A. G. by special assignment of Major-General Grant, immediately 
after the battle of Donelson, and as such was engaged with General 
Hurlbut in the battle of -Pittsburg Landing, receiving special mention 
for gallantry. Compelled by illness to resign after the battle of 
Pittsburg Landing, he spent a couple of months on the sea coast. 
R vering in time to take the stump to raise troops under the call 
of 1862, he raised the 92d Illinois, and was mustered as Colonel at 
Rockford, September t, 1862. The Colonel was in command of the 
regimenl until January 17, 1863, when he was placed in command of 
a brigade. While the regiment was at Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, it 
being the first Yankee regiment that had visited that part, very many 
slaves flocked to it, begging for protection, saying that they would 
work, fight, or do anything for their freedom. The owners of the slaves 
soon followed, and demanded that the Colonel should give up their 
property. The Colonel replied that neither he nor his boys were 

•nsible for the action of their slaves in leaving them ; that Illi- 
nois troops had proved their nobility on too many bloody battle fields 
to be used as slave hounds in driving back to them their human chat- 
tels. They then laid their grievances before the Colonel command- 
ing the brigade, a Kentuckian. He ordered Colonel Atkins to 
deliver up the slaves. Colonel Atkins refused to obey the order. 
The fugitives were never given up. The Colonel was sued for 
human chattels appropriated by his regiment, and there are judg- 



kilpatrick 1 s cavalry. 377 

ments against him now in the Kentucky courts amounting to about 
$50,000. 

On the 17th day of January, 1863, the Colonel was placed in com- 
mand of the 2d Brigade 3d Division Army of Kentucky, which he 
commanded while in the Department of the Ohio. When the 92d 
was removed to the Department of the Cumberland he was placed 
in command of the 1st Brigade 1st Division Reserve Corps. When 
the regiment was mounted, and transferred to Wilder's brigade of 
mounted infantry, he accompanied and commanded it until trans- 
ferred to Kilpatrick's cavalry division. When General Kilpatrick 
reformed his division, preparatory to the great march with Sherman, 
he gave command of the 2d Brigade to Colonel Atkins. As Sher- 
man was advancing southward from Atlanta, it was his aim to throw 
his army between the rebel forces and Savannah. The task of deceiv- 
ing the enemy and holding them while this movement was being 
made by Sherman was, by General Kilpatrick, assigned to Colonel 
Atkins and his brigade. Skillfully he accomplished this difficult task. 
From Clinton with his brigade he charged the rebels, driving them 
fourteen miles to Macon ; he dashed upon their outer lines, driving 
them into their main works about the city, and held them there while 
Sherman swept majestically around to the eastward, leaving the 
enemy in the rear, and having nothing in front to impede his progress. 

The Colonel distinguished himself in the different engagements in 
which his brigade took part, especially at Waynesboro, where 
Wheeler and his cavalry were defeated. While leading the charge 
made by his brigade in this fight, his color bearer was shot down by 
his side ; his brigade flag attracting the attention drew the fire of 
the enemy, but amid the iron shower he wore a charmed life while 
he cheered on his men to victory. At Savannah he was brevetted 
Brigadier- General for his skill and gallantry as a commander. As a 
regimental commander he infused into the men his own ardent spirit 
of patriotism ; he had their entire confidence as to his judgment and 
skill as a leader, and, 'perhaps, no Colonel was more popular with his 
men up to the time of his being removed from them to command 
a brigade. As a brigade commander* he was exceedingly popular; 
his courteous manner and gentlemanly deportment, and his calm, cool 
judgment and skill as a leader amid the strife of battle, gave him the 



378 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

hearts of hif command, At the close of the war he was mustered 
out of the service with his old' regiment, and for his faithful se 
he was brevetted Major-GeneraL Be has again resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession al Freeport, where he was appointed Post- 
master—a position from which he has been removed to make room 
for one of President Johnson's bread-and-butter appointees. 

Darid Scotl (nicknamed "Gedee") was a joyous-hearted printer 
boy in Polo, Ogle County. Fur many months he struggled between 
his affection for his aged parents, which restrained him al home, and 
his inclination to fight for the dear old flag. He finally enlisted in 
Company I), 92d Illinois, and on General Atkins, taking command 
of a brigade, he was made oolor-bearer. In one of the numerous 
engagements in which the 92d had part (it was at Waynesboro, we 
believe), it was ordered with an Ohio regiment to make a charge. 
Fearing thai the latter regiment was about to falter, young Scott 
rule forward, exclaiming, " Come on, boys !" In his eagerness lie 
had ridden some distance in advance of the brigade, when :i rebel 
bullet struck him in the breast, liaising his arms, he cried out, 
" Boys, I'm shot. For God's sake, save the flag!" and fell dead — 
a uohle sacrifice lor the country he loved better than his life. 

NINETY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 93d regiment was mustered into the service at Chicago, 
October 13, 1SG2. Six companies were from Bureau County, two 
from Stephenson, one from Whiteside and one from Rock Island. 
The following is the original roster: 

Colonel, Holdeu Putnam ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Nicholas 0. Buswell ; Major, James 
M. Fisher; Adjutant, David W. Sparks; Quartermaster, Edward S. Johnson ; Sur- 
geon, Joseph Huyett; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel A. Hopkins; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Charles A. Griswold ; Chaplain, Thomas II. Hagerty. 

Cn. A — Captain, Lewis S Ashbaugh; 1st Lieutenant, William Iff. Morris; 2d 
Lieutenant, Samuel F. Mi-Donald. 

Co. B — Captain, John W. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, David Deselms ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James W. Lee. 

Co. (' — Captain, William J. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, William Yonson ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas I. Loolovood. 

Co. I) — Captain, Charles F. Taggart; 1st Lieutenant, Alpheus P. Goddard ; 2d 
Lieutenant, George S. Kleckner. 

Co. E — Captain, Alfred F. Knight; 1st Lieutenant, John Dyer; 2d Lieutenant, 
William A. Payne. 



THE NINETY-THIRD INFANTKT. 379 

Co. F — Captain, Orrin Wilkinson ; 1st Lieutenant, Lyman J Wilkinson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William C. Kinney. 

Co. G — Captain, Joseph P. Reed ; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Hartsough ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Jeremiah J. Piersol. 

Co. H — Captain, John A. Russell ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Dorr ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Gad C. Lowrey. 

Co. I — Captain, Ellis Fisher ; 1st Lieutenant, Elijah Sapp ; 2d Lieutenant, Mills 
C. Clark. 

Co. K — Captain, David Loyd ; 1st Lieutenant, Clark Gray ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Harrison I. Davis. 

The 93d left Chicago on the 9th of November, 1862, for Memphis, 
where it remained until early in December, when it joined in the 
expedition to Tallahatchie until the project was abandoned. It was 
engaged in scouting duty until March 1, 1863, when it started on the 
Yazoo expedition to Fort Greenwood. When this undertaking was 
abandoned, the 93d marched to Helena, Arkansas, then to Milliken's 
Bend, and on the 27th of April left the latter point on the Vicksburg 
expedition. While thus engaged it fought a severe battle with the 
rebels, at Raymond, May 12, 1863, another at Jackson on the 14th, 
a skirmish at Fort Gibson, and on the 16th participated in the terri- 
ble battle at Champion Hills. On the 19th of May the 93d reached 
Vicksburg,where it remained till the fall of the rebel stronghold, on 
the 4th of Jnly. The regiment was then sent into the city, and 
remained there, on provost duty, till September 12th. It then 
returned to Helena, thence to Memphis, thence to Corinth, Missis- 
sippi, and from thence to Chattanooga on the Missionary Ridge expe- 
dition. It reached Chattanooga on the 21st of November, and on 
the 25th participated in the bloody battle of Mission Ridge, where 
the gallant Colonel Holden Putnam was killed. From the battle 
field the 93d marched to Bridgeport, Tennessee, thence to Larkins- 
ville, Alabama, and from there, in January, 1864, to Huntsville, Ala- 
bama, where it went into camp until February 12th. On the 25th 
of this month it took part in the battle of Dalton. Next we find it 
in various duties until August 2d, when it started for Allatoona, 
Georgia, where it fought a most sanguinary battle with the rebels, 
losing eighty-three men. From Allatoona, November 12th, it started 
on the Georgia and Carolina campaign. In this campaign it bore its 
full share of honors, and in May, 1865, left Rolla for Washington, 
where it participated in the grand review. In June it was mustered 



380 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS, 

out, and on the 24th of thai month reached Chicago, where it was 
paid < >1t* and discharged. 

The 93d originally mustered 976 men ; when it reached Chicago 
it numbered but 258 men and 23 officers. From the time it entered 
the service till mustered oul at Louisville, it marched 2,554 miles, 
traveled 2,296 miles by water and 1,237 by rail— a total of G,087 
miles. 

NINETY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 95th regimenl was composed of seven companies from Mc- 
Henry County and three from Boone. It was mustered into the ser- 
vice at Rockford on the 4th of September, 1862, with the following 
list of officers : 

Colonel, Lawrence S. Church; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas W. Humphrey ; Major, 
Leander Blanden; Adjutant, Wales W.Wood; Quartermaster, Henry D. Bates ; 
Surgeon, George X. Woodward; 1st Assistant Surgeon, A. D. Merritt ; id Assistant 
Surgeon, Walter F. Suitor ; Chaplain, Thomas R. Satteriield. 

Co. A — Captain, William Avery ; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander S. Stewart ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James E. Sponable. 

Co. B — Captain, Charles B. Loop; 1st Lieutenant, Milton E. Keeler ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Aaron F. Randall. 

Co. C — Captain, Jason 15. Manzer; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Wedgewood ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Otis II. Smith. 

Co. 1) — Captain, Edward J. Cook; 1st Lieutenant, John E. Beckley ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William II. Heiffman. 

Co. E — Captain, John Eddy ; 1st Lieutenant, Asa Farnam ; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar 
E. Dow. 

Co. F — Captain, William II. Stewart ; 1st Lieutenant, Sabine Van Curen ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Phineas H. Kerr. 

Co. G — Captain, Elliott X. Bush ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Bush ; 2d Lieutenant* 
Joseph if. Collier. 

Co. H — Captain, Charles H. Tryon ; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Wetmore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Walker. 

Co. I — Captain, James Xish; 1st Lieutenant, Gardnier S. Southworth ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Converse Pierce. 

Co. K — Captain, Gabriel E. Cornwell; 1st Lieutenant, Almon Schellenger ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Alonzo Brooks. 

On the 4th of November, 1802, the regiment left Rockford for 
Grand Junction, Mississippi, via Cairo, Columbus, Kentucky, and 
Jackson, Tennessee, and took an active part in General Grant's 
campaign through Northern Mississippi in the ensuing winter, and 



THE NINETY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 381 

afterward in the march to Memphis, Tennessee, thence clown the 
river against Vicksburg. It participated in the numerous battles 
fought in the rear of Vicksburg, and was on the noted march from 
Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, to Grand Gulf, Mississippi. During the 
entire siege of Vicksburg the 95th performed gallant duty, and in 
the two famous charges made by Grant's army of the 19th and 22d 
of May, 1863, this regiment lost twenty-five killed, one hundred and 
twenty-four wounded and ten missing. On the day of the surrender 
of the rebel stronghold, July 4, 1863, the regiment was one of the 
first to enter the city, and remained there and at Natchez until March, 
1864, when it went on General A. J. Smith's Red River expedition, 
and was present in all the important actions of the expedition, includ- 
ing the capture of Fort De Russey, and the battles of Old River, 
Clouterville, Mansouri and Yellow Bayou. Upon its return to Vicks- 
burg in the early part of May, 1864, the regiment proceeded with 
the Sturgis expedition, and participated gallantly in the disastrous 
battle of Guntown, fought on the 10th of July. In this battle the 
95th suffered fearfully, losing Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey, then 
in command, and a large proportion of officers and men. After the 
battle the boys were sent to Memphis, where they remained in camp 
until August, when they went with General Mower up White River, 
then marched from Brownsville through Arkansas to Missouri, in 
pursuit of the rebel invader, Price. After participating in all the 
subsequent marches of General A. J. Smith's army, during that cam- 
paign, the regiment, in the early part of November, 1864, rendez- 
voused at Benton Barracks, Missouri. In the latter part of Novem- 
ber, it embarked on transports at St. Louis, with General Smith's 
forces, and proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, to reinforce General 
Thomas, then operating against the rebel General Hood. It took 
part in the great battles around Nashville, of December 15th and 
16th, and the subsequent pursuit of Hood's defeated army to the 
Tennessee River ; arrived there January 2, 1865, and a few days 
afterward ascended that river to Eastport, Mississippi, when Gene- 
ral A. J. Smith's corps went into winter quarters. While at this 
point an expedition was sent out to Corinth, which the regiment 
accompanied, and was absent only a few clays. Early in February, 
the troops were ordered to embark on steamers at Eastport and pro- 



382 PATRIOTISM 01 ll. I. iv 

oeed i" New Orleans, to operate in the campaign against Mobile, 
arriving in theCrescenl City February 21 at. On the 1 4th of March, 
the regiment embarked for Dauphin Island at the mouth of Mobile 
Bay, and on the 18th of the month landed on the west side of the 
bay, at Cedar Point, with Colonel Moore's brigade. There the boys 
commenced the firsl offensive operations against Mobile City. The 
regimenl took active part in the grand forward movement of Gene- 
ral Canby's army from Fish River Landing, March 25th, against 
Mobile, and was one of the first regiments to advance to close posi- 
tion in the investment of Spanish Fort. During that siege the 95th 
carried its trendies to within thirty yards of the enemy's works, 
under a most terrible fire of artillery and musketry, and participated 
in the storming and capture of the fort, April 8th, being the first 
regiment to occupy what was known in the rebel line as the " Red 
Fort." Upon the fall of Mobile, the 95th Illinois marched with the 
16th Army Corps from Blakeley to Montgomery, Alabama, where it 
arrived April 25th. Leaving Montgomery, the regiment proceeded 
to Opelika, Alabama, about seventy miles to the northeast, on the 
line of the Montgomery and West Point Railroad, with general 
orders to attack guerillas, collect Confederate property, and clear the 
district of the many marauders. On the 18th of July started for 
Montgomery on its way home to muster out of the service. It 
arrived at Vicksburg, Mississippi, August 3d, via Selma, Meridian 
and Jackson, and then received orders to proceed at once to St. Louis, 
Missouri, for muster out. On reaching that place, August, 10th, the 
regiment was sent directly to Camp Butler, Springfield, Illinois, 
where, on the 10th day of August, 18G5, it was mustered out, paid 
off, and discharged from the United States service. 

In addition to the foregoing, the regiment, during the summer of 
1864, had a detachment of several officers and about 100 enlisted 
men in General Sherman's Georgia campaign. These were in charge 
of Major Charles B. Loop (then Captain), Captain James Nish, of 
Company I, and Captain Alexander S. Stewart, of Company A ; 
were engaged at the battles of Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochee 
River, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, and took active part 
in all the important events of that campaign, which resulted in the 
capture of the " Gate City " of the South. 



THE NINETY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. 383 

The following figures form an interesting record of the 95th dur- 
ing its term of service in the armies of the Republic : 

Aggregate number of' officers and men during service 1,355 

Aggregate number on entering service 983 

Old soldiers belonging to the regiment when it was mustered out 490 

Number of recruits on mustering out 118 

Nunfbcr discharged during service 240 

Died in battle and of wounds received in action 84 

Died of disease 276 

Number of recruits transferred on muster out of regiment 162 

Number transferred during service to Invalid Corps, etc 47 

Number missing 38 

Miles traveled 9,960 

MUes marched 1,800 

Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey was horn at Knoxville, Ohio, April 
4, 1835, but passed the greater part of his life at Franklin, De Kalb 
County, Illinois. He was a graduate of Beloit College, Wisconsin, 
ami afterward a clerk in the Recorder's office in DeKalb County. 
Subsequently he was a candidate for Sheriff of that county. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1862, he raised a company for the war, and on 
the organization of tha 95th regiment was chosen its Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, and later promoted to the command of the regiment. As related 
above, he was killed at the battle of Guntown, Mississippi, while at 
the head of his regiment. His remains were conveyed to his home 
in DeKalb County, where they were interred with appropriate reli- 
gious and Masonic ceremonies, the latter being conducted by Major- 
General Stephen A. Hurlbut. 

NINETY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 
The 98th regiment was organized at Centralia, and mustered into 
the service on the 3d of September, 1862. Its original roster was 
as follows: 

Colonel, John J. Funkhouser ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edward Kitchell ; Major, Wm. 
B. Cooper; Adjutant, John H. J. Lacy; Quartermaster, Finney D. Preston; Sur- 
geon, Robert M. Lackey ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel W. Vortrees ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Allen T. Barnes ; Chaplain, William Cliffe. 

Co. A — Captain, Enoch P. Turner; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Foster; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph C. Gadd. 

Co. B — Captain, David D. Marquis ; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Hoffman ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William C. Rickard. 



384 PATRIOTISM "l li. I. iv 

To.'' C " ken; Let Lieutenant, Stephen L Williama ; 2<1 

nant, .1 c > 1 1 1 1 r r. 

D Captain, William W 1; 1st Lieutenant, James II. Watts ; 2d Lieutenant, 

William < '•. Young. 

Co I i Cox; Isl Lieutenant, Era A. l'l 1; 2d Lieutenant, 

Charles Willard 

ptain, Albert W. Lacrone ; Isl Lieutenant, Wiol Cook; 2d Lieutenant, 
. Hobbs. 

iptain, Frederick A. Johns; 1st Lieutenant, Lindsy I). Laws; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William •' 

Co. H — Captain, Thomas Johnson ; 1st Lieutenant, Ephraim Martin ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, George Mbutray. 

Co. I — Captain, William II. Wade; 1st Lieutenant, Simon s. Foster; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lawrence Banta. 

Co. K— Captain, Orvilla L. Kelley ; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander S. Moffitt; 2d 
Lieutenant, William Torrent. 

The regiment left camp on the 8tb of September, for Louisville. When 
tli'' train reached Bridgeport, Illinois, on the evening of the Stli, it was 
precipitated down an embankment by the displacement ofa switch,and 
several cars « recked, and five persons killed and seventy-five wounded, 
several of whom afterward died. The regiment resumed its journey 
the next morning, and arrived at " Camp Joe Holt," at Jeffevsonville, 
where it remained till the 13th, when it went to Camp Ward, at 
Louisville. It then engaged in campaigning in Kentucky and Ten- 
e till January 4, 1863, when it reached Nashville. On the 5th 
it marched to Murfreesboro, escorting a supply train. Here it was 
stationed duiing the months of January and February, on picket, 
foraging and guard duty. On the 14th of March, a part of the regi- 
ment was mounted, and from this date till September L6th was 
constantly engaged in scouting and foraging. On the 17th the bat- 
tle of Chickamauga was begun, and the 98th did excellent service. 
In this fight Colonel Funkhouser was wounded in both thmhs. At 
Shelbyville, October 7th, it charged upon the enemy and drove them 
in confusion. It next engaged with them at Farmington, with alike 
result. It then pursued Wheeler until he crossed the Tennessee 
River. From the 17th of October to the 17th of November it was 
in camp at Maysville. On the 21st it moved to Chattanooga. Dur- 
ing the ensuing wint a* it was actively engaged in scouting, and took 
pari in the Atlanta campaign, in like duties. At Dallas it did excel- 
lent service, materially assisting in driving the enemy from the field. 



TIIE NINETY-NINTH INFANTRY. 3S5 

After the capture of Atlanta it took part in Kilpatrick's raid, and 
participated in the engagement at New Hope Church in October, 
1864. At Rome, October 12th and 13th, it behaved with great gal- 
lantry, defeating the rebels. It was constantly employed in scout- 
ing till November 1st, when it dismounted, turning over its horses 
and equipments to Kilpatrick's cavalry, to be used in the march to 
the sea. On the 13th the regiment reached Nashville, and on the 
16th arrived at Louisville, where it was encamped until December 
28th. It was then ordered to Bardstown to intercept the rebel Gene- 
ral Lyon, and on the 31st moved to Elizabethtown. On the 12th of 
January, 1S65, being again mounted, it marched through Nashville, 
reaching Gravelly Springs, Alabama, on the 25th. Here it remained 
till March 22d, when it began the sprjng campaign. On the 2d of 
April, our forces attacked and routed Roddy's command at Selma, 
Alabama, suffering severely. On the 12th of April it was present 
at the surrender of Montgomery, Alabama. On the 16th, Columbus, 
Georgia, was captured, with 1,500 prisoners and many pieces of 
artillery, and the public buildings and arsenal destroyed. On the 
20th the forces entered Macon and took possession. This was at 
the virtual ending of the war, and on the 27th of June the 98th was 
mustered out of the service at Nashville, and on the 1st of July 
arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid and discharged. 

NINETY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 99th regiment was organized at Florence, Pike county, and 
mustered into the service ou the 23d of August, 1862. The follow- 
ing is the original roster : 

Colonel, George W. K. Bailey ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lemuel Parke ; Major, Ed- 
win A. Crandall ; Adjutant, Marcellus Ross ; Quartermaster, Isaac G. Hodgen ; Sur- 
geon, Joseph H. Ledlie ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Archibald E. McNeal ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Abner T. Spencer ; Chaplain, Oliver A. Topliff. 

Co. A — Captain, George T. Edwards ; 1st Lieutenant, James K. Smith ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James F. Stobie. 

Co. B — Captain, Benjamin L. Matthews ; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Fee ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, James A. Elledge. 

Co. C — Captain, Asa C. Matthews ; 1st Lieutenant, Joshua K. Sitton ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Lucien W. Shaw. 

Co. D — Captain, John F. Richards ; 1st Lieutenant, Francis M. Dabney ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William T. Mitchell. 

25 



3S0 Pi i BIOl MM OF li. i !\"is. 

Oo. B — Captain, John 0. Din nun.'; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph G. Colvin; 2d Licu- 
tenant, Allen l». Rii hards. 

Co. I' Captain, Eli li. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Leonard Greaton ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Daniel McDonald. 

c... Q Captain, Benry I). Bull; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Crane; 2d Lieutenant, 
Lew i- Dul ton. 

Co. il Captain, Lewis Bull; 1st Lieutenant, Melville 1>. Massie; 2d Lieutenant, 
Gottfried Weuzcll. 

Co. I -Captain, Joseph G. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, John G. Sever; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert E I rilleland. 

Co. K — Captain, Isaiah Cooper; 1st Lieutenant, William Gray; 2d Lieutenant, 
Thomas J. tinman. 

The regimeni lefl camp immediately upon its muster, and on the 
following day arrived at Benton Barracks, being the first regiment 

to leave the State under tht call of 1802. It was immediately 
placed on duly in Missouri. It was in a skirmish at Beaver Creek, 
and in the engagement at Ilartsville, Missouri. It remained in Mis- 
souri until March 15, 1863, when it embarked for Milliken's Bend. 
On the 11 tli of April it entered upon the campaign against Vicks- 
burg, and on the 1st of May took an active part in the engagement 
at Port Gibson, where it lost 37 in killed and wounded. It then 
pursued the enemy to Jackson. On the 16th it participated in the 
battle of Champion Hills, and on the 17th at Big Black River. On 
the 19th our forces were closely around Vicksburg, and on the 22d 
began the grand assault upon the enemy's works, in which the 99th 
took part, losing 103 men out of 300 who went into the action. 
Among the wounded were the Colonel and Major of the regiment, 
leaving Captain Matthews in command. The 99th planted its colors 
upon the rebel breastworks, and did not retire till relieved by an- 
other regiment. It remained in front of Vicksburg, taking an active 
part in the siege, until its surrender, July 4th, losing, in that time, 
253 in killed and wounded. On the 5th it started in pursuit of 
Johnston, returning to Vicksburg on the 24th. On the 21st of Au- 
gust, it embarked for Xew Orleans, and was engaged in the Teche 
campaign, a portion of the regiment taking part in the battle of 
Grand Coteau. On the 16th of November it embarked for Texas, 
arriving at Mustang Island about the 25th. It immediately marched 
up to the attack upon and capture of Fort Esperanza, which gave 
complete possession of the coast from the mouth of the Rio Grande 



ONE HUNDKED AND FIRST INFANTRY. 387 

to Matagorda. On the 16th of June, 1864, it evacuated the Island, 
and reported to General Reynolds, at Algiers, Louisiana. Durino- 
the entire summer of 1864, it was engaged in a kind of garrison duty 
on the Mississippi River. In November it went to Memphis, where 
it was consolidated into a battalion of five companies. In Decem- 
ber General Grierson made his famous raid, and was supported by 
the 99th, until he reached Wolf River. The battalion then guarded 
the railroad till December 28th, when it was ordered to Memphis. 
On the 1st of January, 1865, it again embarked for New Orleans, 
and on the 1st of February ordered to Dauphin Island. It took part 
in the movements against Mobile, until its surrender. It then went 
up the Red River to receive the surrender of Kirby Smith. It ar- 
rived at Shrevesport, Louisiana, in June, and Colonel Matthews was 
immediately sent with an escort to the Indian Territory, to negotiate 
with the Indians, returning to Shrevesport July 3d, having traveled 
the entire distance — 1,000 miles — on horseback. On the 19th the 
battalion was ordered to Baton Rouge, where it was mustered out 
on the 31st. It arrived at Springfield on the 7th of August, where it 
was paid off and discharged. 

ONE HUNDRED AND FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 101st regiment was organized at Camp Duncan, Jacksonville, 
and mustered into the service on the 2d of September, 1862. The 
original roster was as follows : 

Colonel, Charles H. Fox ; Lieutenant-Colonel, William J. Wyatt ; Major, Jesse T. 
Newman; Adjutant, Harrison 0. Cassell; Quartermaster, John M. Snyder ; Surgeon, 
Clarke Roberta ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James Miner ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Alon- 
zo L. Ember ; Chaplain, Wongate J. Newman. 

Co. A — Captain, John B. Lesage ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Heinz ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Nimrod B. McPherson. 

Co. B — Captain, Napoleon B. Brown ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Mos3 ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas B. Woff. 

Co. C— Captain.Horace E. May; 1st Lieutenant, C. Augustus Catlin ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Joseph H. Belt. 

Co. D— Captain, Henry C. Coffman; 1st Lieutenant, J. Newton Gillham ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Robert C. Bruce. 

Co. E— Captain, Charles Sample ; 1st Lieutenant, Myron H. Lamb ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Liberty Courtney. 

Co. F— Captain, George W. Fanning; 1st Lieutenant, James L. Wyatt; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John W. Shelton. 



3S3 PATRIOTISM OP ILLINOIS* 

Co G Captain, Robert McKee ; I I Lieutenant, Will a; 2d Lieutenant, 

irdin. 

b M. Fanning; 1st Lieutenant, William 8. Wright; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Will am K. Seymour. 

Oo [ Captain, John A. Lightfoot; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick E. Shafer ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas M . Guy. 

Co. K— Captain, Sylvester L. Moore ; 1st Lieutenant, TliomasB. O'Rear; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, David 15. Henderson. 

The regiment left Jacksonville on the 6th of October for Cairo. 
Here it remained until the 26th of KTovemb r, when it proceeded 
to Colambus, l\y., and thence to Davis' Mill<, Mis<., where it joined 
the Army of the Tennessee. On the 28th of November ii started 
on its first march, and on the 30th reached Lumkin's Mills. Three 
days later it was sent to Holly Springs for provost and garrison 
duty. December 13th, Company A was sent to Cairo in charge oi 
rebel prisoners, and on the 21st Holly Springs was captured, with 
five companies of the 101st, who were taken prisoners an 1 paroled. 
They were sent to Benton Barracks until exchanged, in June, l 363. 
When Holly Springs was captured, the remaining four companies 
of the 101st scattered along the line of* the railroad, fell back to 
Coldwater, where they met the 90th Illinois (Irish Legion) and 
greatly assisted in repelling Van Dora's subsequent attack upon that 
place. They were afterward formed into a battalion and temporari- 
ly assigned to the 14th Illinois Volunteers. The battalion Mas en- 
gaged in scouting service in Tennessee, finally arriving at Memphis 
in February, 1863 ; there it was joined by Company A. On leaving 
Holly Springs with prisoners, Company A had proceeded to Cairo, 
and thence to Vicksburg, but General Sherman then investing that 
place, it was sent back up the river, and finally got rid of the prison- 
ers at Alton, 111., but not until the Company had been fearfully de- 
creased by the sickness they had contracted by contact with the 
prisoners. Often it could not muster half a dozen men for duty, 
and that, too, when it had over a thousand prisoners in charge. 
Early in March the battalion was ordered to Vicksburg, where it 
was broken up and the companies assigned to various independent 
duties, Companies A, G, D and II, being assigned to the naval fleet. 
From this date each company had its separate history of scouts and 
skirmishes up and down the Mississippi. Company G, had the hou- 



THE MARCn TO KNOXVILLE. 389 

or of running the blockade at Vicksburg, on the ram Switzerland, 
for which, after the fall of the city, General Grant furloughed the 
whole company. On the 7th of June the other part of the regi- 
ment was exchanged, and on the 11th of July arrived at Columbus, 
Ky., whence it started out on a series of scouts and expeditions 
which only terminated about the 25th of August, at Union City, 
Tenn. Here the regiment was reunited, and it thenceforth remained 
a unit. September 24th it was transferred to the Department of the 
Cumberland, and on the 27th arrived at Louisville, and on the 30th 
proceeded via Nashville to Bridgeport, Ala., where it remained till 
October 27th. On the 28th it participated in the night battle of 
Wauhatchie. It lay in Lookout Valley until November 22d, when it 
proceeded to Chattanooga, and participated in the battle at that 
place. It then took part in the famous march to the relief of Burn- 
side at Knoxville, returning to Lookout Valley December 17th. 
During this march many of the men were barefooted, and thus 
marched over the frozen ground, leaving traces of their march in 
blood. On the 17th of December the regiment returned to Look- 
out Valley, and after a few days' rest was set to work building cor- 
duroy roads. On the 1st of January, 1864, it was sent to Kelly's 
Ferry to relieve the 16th Illinois, then about to return home on vet- 
eran furlough. After the completion of the railroad to Chattanooga, 
the 101st was sent to Bridgeport, and remained there until May 2d. 
It then set out upon the Atlanta campaign, in which it participated 
until its close. It took part in the battles of Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw, Pine Mountain, Kulp's Ferry, Peach Tree Creek 
and Atlanta, being the first regiment to enter the captured city, on 
the second anniversary of its muster. In this campaign the regiment 
won imperishable glory. On leaving Bridgeport it had 365 effect- 
ive men ; on the morning following the battle of Peach Tree Creek 
this number had become reduced to 120. On the 15th of Novem- 
ber the 101st started on the grand march to the sea, and participat- 
ed in all its glories, trials and triumphs. It took part in the Caroli- 
na campaign, and was in the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville. 
On the 24th of May it participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington, and went into camp at Bladensburg. Here it was mustered 
out on the 7th of June, and on the 21st it was paid off and disband- 
ed at Springfield. 



390 PATBIOTI8M OF [LLIN0l8j 

ONE HUNDRED AM) SECOND [LLINOI8 INFANTRY. 

The 102(3 regiment wasraised in Knox, Mercer, Warren and Rock 
Island oounties, by Colonel William McMurtrey, and was mustered 
into the service at Cnoxville, on tlie 2d of September, 18G2. The 
original roster waa as follows : 

Colonel, William IfcMurtrey ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank C. Smith ; Major, James 
M. Mannon ; Adjutant, John W. Pitman; Quartermaster, Francis II Rugar; Sur- 
geon, David B. Bice; 1st Assistant Surgeon, William Hamilton; 2d Assistant Sur- 
geon, Thomas S. Stauway ; Chaplain, Amos K. Tullis. 

Co. A — Captain, Roderick It. Harding; 1st Lieutenant, Levi F. Gentry; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles M. Harnett. 

Co. B — Caplain, Elisha 0. Atehison ; 1st Lieutenant, William Armstrong ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James C. Beswick. 

Co. C — Captain, Frank Shedd ; 1st Lieutenant, Almond Shaw; 2d Lieutenant, 
Watson C. Trego. 

Co. D — Captain, Horace n. Welsie ; 1st Lieutenant, Highland H. Clay ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John B. Nixon. 

Co. E — Captain, Thomas Likely; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel W. Sedwick ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas G. Brown. 

Co. F — Captain, Charles II. Jackson ; 1st Lieutenant, Orlando J. Sullivan ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Ethan A. Cornwell. 

Co. G — Captain, Joseph P. Wycoff; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac McManus ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William II. Bridgeford. 

Co. H — Captain, Lemuel D. Shinn; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram Elliott ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Thomas. 

Co. I — Captain, George H. King; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin H. Congon ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John L. Bonnell. 

Co. K — Captain, Sanderson H. Rogers; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Wilson; 2d 
Lieutenant, Van Willits. 

Early in October, 1862, the regiment arrived at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, where it was brigaded with the 105th Illinois, 70th Indiana, 
and 79th Ohio regiments, General "Ward commanding. From Lou- 
isville it marched to Frankfort, where it fought and whipped John 
Morgan. It was next placed at guarding the railroad between Mur- 
freesboro and Nashville, where it remained from November, 1862, 
till February, 1864. In the latter month it was garrisoned in the 
Wauhatchie Valley, and there remained till May 2d, when it joined 
the 20th corps. When this corps advanced on Kenesaw Mountain, 
the 102d was in the advance skirmish line, and did effective service; 
and after the rebels fell back upon Marietta, Wheeler's cavalry being 



ONE EIJNDRED AND THIRD INFANTRY. 391 

in the rear, the 102d fell upon about 3,000 of them and drove them 
up the valley. At the battle of Resaca the regiment was desperate- 
ly engaged, losing 109 men killed and wounded. The 102d partici- 
pated in the march to Atlanta, losing in this campaign 170 men. 
Then followed Sherman's grand march across the land, in which the 
102d was detailed as a foraging regiment, which, to the boys, was 
capital sport. On this march two men of the regiment surprised 
and captured the Bank of Camden, South Carolina, from which they 
took $900 in gold and $500,000 in Confederate and South Carolina 
state bonds. At the battle of Averysville, North Carolina, on the 
16th of March, 1865, the 102d was under fire all day, and lost nine- 
teen men killed and wounded. 

After the conclusion of the Carolina campaign, the regiment 
marched to Washington and participated in the national review, when 
it proceeded to Chicago, where it arrived on the 9th of June, for 
final muster and discharge. 

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 103d regiment was raised and organized in Fulton County, in 
the fall of 1862. It was mustered into the service at Peoria, Octo- 
ber 2d, with the following roster : 

Colonel, Amos C. Babcock ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Parley C. Stearns ; Major, 
George W. Wright; Adjutant, Samuel S. Tipton; Quartermaster, Willard A. Dick- 
erman ; Chaplain, William S. Peterson ; Surgeon, Thornton H. Fleming ; 1st Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Sydney S. Buck ; 2d Assistant Surgeon, James W. Van Brunt. 

Co. A — Captain, Asias Willison ; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Bishop ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Isaiah C. Worley. 

Co. B — Captain, Onamel D. Carpenter ; 1st Lieutenant, John S. Gardner ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William Walsh. 

Co. C — Captain, Sidney A. Stockdale ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry L. Nicolet; 2d 
Lieutenant, John S. Smith. 

Co. D — Captain, John S. Wyckoff; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Wyckoff; 2d 
Lieutenant, Isaac A. McBean. 

Co. E — Captain, Frank G. Post ; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Johnson; 2d Lieu- 
teaant, Charles H. Suydam. 

Co. F — Captain, William Yandevander; 1st Lieutenant, Bernard Kelly; 2d Lieu- 
tenant. William Mellor. 

Co. G — Captain, Charles W. Wills; 1st Lieutenant, Charles F. Matteson; 2d 
Lieutenant, John H. Dorrance. 

Co. II — Captain, James J. Hale ; 1st Lieutenant, William Boyd; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel D. Woodsen. 



392 PATBI0TI8M OF II.I.IXOIS. 

C... I Captain, Philip Medley; 1st Lieutenant, Nathaniel I\ Montgomery; 2d 
Lieutenant, Samuel II. Brown. 

Co. K — Captain, .James C. King ; 1st Lieutenant, Augustus B. Smith ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, A. iron Am- 

On the L8th of October the Colonel and Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the r igim snl resign sd. Lieutenant Dickerman, Quartermaster, was 
elected Colonel; Major Wright promoted to the Lieutenant- 
Colonelcy; Captain Willison, Company A, to Major, and Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Mellor, Company F, to Quartermaster. On the 30th 
of October, the regiment left Peoria for Bolivar, Tenn., and thence 
to Jackson, Miss., where it joined Sherman. At Lagrange, Tenn., 
it remained until November 30th, when it was placed in garrison at 
Waterford, Miss., and on the 3Lst of December it went to Jackson, 
Tenn., then threatened by Forrest. Until June 8th it was engaged 
in harassing the enemy, when it was ordered to Vicksburg, and 
there remained until the surrender, doing effective service. Then 
the hoys were put upon the track of Johnston's hordes, fighting them 
all the way to Jackson, Miss., where the 103d left its mark in fiery 
letters of blood. This work was continued until the 24th of Novem- 
ber, 1863, when the 103d participated in the fearful battle of Mis- 
sionary Ridge. From this time until May, 1864, the regiment was 
in winter quarters at Scottsborough, Ala., whence it marched to Dal- 
ton, Ga., where it opened the summer campaign. Following this, it 
participated in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro and Gadsden. At Dallas, Colonel Dickerman 
was killed while at the head of his regiment. At Kenesaw Moun- 
tain Lieutenant-Colonel Wright was seriously wounded and three 
commissioned officers and sixty men were killed. When the grand 
march to the sea was begun, the 103d took part in it, as also in the 
Carolina campaign, and in the review at Washington. It then re- 
ported at Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out and partially 
paid. On the 24th of June, 1865, it arrived in Chicago for final 
payment and discharge. Of the 800 men who left Fulton County 
under its banners, less than 400 remained on its arrival in Chicago. 

ONE nUNDRED AND FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 
The 105th refniuent was organized and mustered into service at 



ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTH INFANTRY. 393 

Dixon, Lee County, on the 2d of September, 1862, with the follow- 
ing roster : 

Colonel, Daniel Dustin; Lieutenant-Colonel, Henry F. Vallette ; Major, Everett 
F. Dutton ; Adjutant, William N. Phillips ; Quartermaster, Timothy Wells ; Sur- 
geon, Horace S. Potter ; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Alfred Waterman ; Caplain, Levi 
P. Crawford. 

Co. A — Captain, Henry D. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, George B. Heath; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robert D. Lord. 

Co. B — Captain, Theodore S. Rogers ; 1st Lieutenant, Lucius B. Church ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Willard Scott, Jr. 

Co. C — Captain, Alexander L. Warner; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Field; 2d 
Lieutenant, Henry B. Mason. 

Co. D — Captain, Amos C. Graves ; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Jeffers ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Luther L. Peaslee. 

Co. E — Captain, Thomas S. Terry, 1st Lieutenant, Martin V. Allen; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Albert C. Overton. 

Co. F — Captain, Seth F. Daniels; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Adams ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Porter Warner. 

Co. G — Captain, John B. Xash ; 1st Lieutenant, Richard R. Woodruff; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John M. Smith. 

Co. H — Captain, Eli L. Hunt ; 1st Lieutenant, Jame3 S. Forsythe ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles G. Culver. 

Co. I — Captain, Enos Jones ; 1st Lieutenant, William 0. Locke ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Augustus H. Fisher. 

Co. K — Captain, Horace Austin • 1st Lieutenant, Nathan S. Greenwood ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Almon F. Parke. 

From Dixon the regiment was sent to Chicago, mustering 954 
men, rank and file. On the last day of October, it left Chicago for 
Louisville. Here it was brigaded and under General Ward marched 
to Frankfort, where the boys first " smelled powder " in a skirmish 
with a regiment of rebel cavalry. From Frankfort the regiment 
marched to South Tunnel, where it remained in garrison until June, 
1863, when it returned to Frankfort, and from there marched to 
Murfreesboro, and thence to Nashville, where the winter of '63-4 
was spent. In the latter part of February the regiment left Nash- 
ville for Wauhatchie Valley, five miles from Chattanooga, where it 
remained till April, when it was placed in Ward's brigade of But- 
terfield's division of the 20th corps, then commanded by Joe Hook- 
er. When General Sherman took command of the Army of the 
Cumberland, the 105th began war in earnest. Its first pitched bat- 
tle was at Resaca, where it was one of the regiments which stormed 



394. PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

and captured the hights. It was next engaged at Wesl Allatoona, 
and then followed in quick succession the bard-fought battles of Al- 
latoona, rTenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and Jonesboro, in 
all of which the 105th bore a prominent part. After our army had 
recuperated, the 105th joined in the glorious march to the sea and 
the Carolina campaign. Following this was the grand review at 
bington, and then — "homeward bound." The 1. 05 th arrived in 
Chicago on the 10th of June, 1865, for muster and discharge — re- 
turning, however, with only 460 of the 954 braves who started out 
in 1862. 

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 108th infantry was organized at Peoria, where it was mus- 
tered into the service on the 28th of August, 1862. The original 
roster was as follows : 

Colonel, John Warren ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles Turner; Major, Reuben L. 
Bidwell; Adjutant, Benjamin T. Foster; Quartermaster, George W. Raney ; Sur- 
geon, Richard A. Cor.over ; Chaplain, George W. Gue. 

Co. A— Captain, William It. Lackland; 1st Lieutenant, Philo W. Hill; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John W. Plnmmer. 

Co. B — Captain, Richard B. Howell ; 1st Lieutenant, Garrett G.Ruliaak; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Wilber F. Henry. 

Co. C — Captain, Sylvester V. Dooley ; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Moore ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas Lynch. 

Co. D — Captain, David R. McCutchen ; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Stewart; 2d 
Lieutenant, George II. Megguire. 

Co. E — Captain, Winefiehl M. Bullock ; 1st Lieutenant, Francis F. Briggs; 2d 
Lieutenant, William A. Davidson. 

Co. F — Captain, Isaac Sai-ff; 1st Lieutenant, James Tippett ; 2d Lieutenant, John 
H. Selmlte. 

Co. G — Captain, George K. Hazlitt; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Hartz ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Henry C. Sommers. 

Co. H — Captain, William M. Duffy; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac C. Brown ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William W. Nelson. 

Co. I — Captain, John W. Carroll ; 1st Lieutenant, Richard Scholes ; 2d Lieuteu- 
ant, Daniel Dulaney. 

Co. K — Captain, Lyman W. Clark ; 1st Lieutenant, James F. Davidson ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Philander E. Davis. 

On the 6th of October, 1862, the 108th left Peoria for the front, 
900 strong, and joined the division of General Garrard at Coving- 
ton, Ky., in the advance guard of the army of Kentucky, in pursuit 



ONE HUNDRED AND NINTH INFANTRY. 395 

of Morgan. It next went to Nicholasville, Lexington and Louisville, 
and from there went to Memphis, with the army of General A. J. 
Smith. It next joined Sherman, and participated in the expedition 
to Chickasaw Bayou, at which place it was engaged for two days 
with the rebels. At the conclusion of this affair it proceeded to 
Arkansas Post, where it remained until after the capitulation, when 
it was ordered to Young's Point. Here the men were employed in 
digging canals for a length of time, after which they proceeded to 
Milliken's Bend. On April 15, 1863, the regiment left the Bend 
and passed through the swamps of Louisiana to Port Gibson, at 
which place it participated in the fight of May 1st. " On the 16th it 
took part in the battle of Champion Hills, after which it was sent to 
Memphis in charge of about 6,000 rebel prisoners. On June 1st it 
returned to the army, joining it at Vicksburg, before which place it 
did picket duty up to the time of the surrender. On July 28th it 
returned to Memphis, and on the 4th of August it went to La Grange 
and next to Pocahontas, at which latter place it remained until No- 
vember 10th, when it was ordered to Corinth, Miss. Again going 
to Memphis, it remained there until June 1, 1864, when it started 
with Sturgis' expedition and participated in the battles of Guntown 
and Ripley, with the loss of about fifty men. It again returned to 
Memphis and was there when Forrest made his attack on that place 
on August 21st. It remained there until February 28, 1865, and 
then went to New Orleans, where it was quartered until March 12th, 
when it started by steamer for Dauphin Island, Mobile Harbor. On 
March 21st it went to Spanish Fort, and there took an active part in 
the engagement of the 27th of March, and in the thirteen days' siege. 
After the capitulation it went to Montgomery, Alabama, and there 
did provost duty until July 1 8th, when it was ordered to Vicksburg. 
At Vicksburg it was mustered out, and on the 3d of August started 
for home, arriving in Chicago on the 9th, with 261 men, all told 

ONE HUNDRED AND NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

Of one Illinois regiment we have an inglorious record to make. 
We would gladly omit it, but the truth of history compels it, and it 
will at least serve to illustrate the wonderful strength of treason in 
our own midst, and by its contrast aid to illumine the record of the 



396 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

men who did their duty. The L09th regiment was organized al Anna, 
; i County, and mustered into the service on the l7thof Septem- 
ber, L862. It was freely charged, and generally believed, that the 
regimenl was oompos <l almost exclusively of members of the 
knights of the Gold m Circle. The following special order from the 
War Department tells as much of its history as it is necessary for 
ns to follow : 

"Lake Providence, Louisiana,) 
"April 10, 1863. J" 
" Special Order No. 6. ] 

"The officers of the 109th regiment Illinois Volunteers, except those of Company 
K, having been reported as utterly incompetent to perform the duties of their res- 
pective commissions, and evincing no disposition to improve themselves, are hereby 
discharged from the service of the United States. 

" This is the regiment which was within a few miles of Holly Springs when attacked 
by the rebels, failed to march to the support of their comrades, but drew in their 
pickets, and stood ready to surrender. From nine companies 347 men deserted, 
principally at Memphis, and but one from Company K. To render the men efficient, 
it is necessary to transfer them to a disciplined regiment, and they are accordingly 
transferred to the 11th regiment Illinois Volunteers, Company K to make the tenth 
company. 

" The officers thus discharged are ; 

"Colonel, A. J. Nimma; Major, T. M. Perrine ; 1st Lieutenant, C. B. Dishon 
Regimental Quartermaster. 

" Captains — J. C. Merustucker, Samuel P. Me.Clure, Hugh Andrews, S. A. Lewis. 

" 1st Lieutenants — James P. McLane, Jacob Milligan, B. F. Hartline, Abraham 
Merrenhen, Morgan Stokes, Charles Barringer, Jostah Toler, B. B. Bartlinson. 

" 2d Lieutenants — M. M. Gordman, T. T. Robinson, Charles Kettles, Squire Crab- 
tree, Henry Gassaway, Andrew Calvin. 

" Chaplain P. H. Crouch will, as the regiment has been consolidated, be mustered 
out of the service. 

" Surgeon T. M. Perrine, Assistant, Surgeons John W. Henly and George n. Dewey 
will be assigned by Major-General Grant to other Illinois regiments to fill vacancies. 

"By order of the Secretary of War, 
" ( Signed ) S. Thomas, Adjutant-General. 

"Adjutant General's Office, 
"Washington, April 24, 1863. 

"Official: 
"E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General." 

ONE HUNDRED AND TENTn ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 110th regiment was organized at Jonesboro, where it was 
red into the service on the 11th of September, 1862. The fol- 
lowing is the original roster : 



ONE HUNDRED AND TENTH INFANTRY. 397 

Colonel, Thomas S. Casey; Lieutenant-Colonel, Munroe C. Crawford; Major, 
Daniel Mooneyham ; Adjutant, Oscar A. Taylor; Quartermaster, Thomas II. Ilobbs; 
Surgeon, William C. Pace; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Hiram S. Plummer ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Zachariah Hickman. 

Co. A — Captain, Marion D. Hodge; 1st Lieutenant, Green M. Contrell ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Deming. 

Co. B — Captain, Charles H. Maxey; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel T. Maxey ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John H. Dukes. 

Co. C — Captain, Francis M. Norman ; 1st Lieutenant, Richard T. McHaney ; 2d 
Lieutenant, James L. Parks. 

Co. — Captain, Ebenezer H. Topping; 1st Lieutenant, Robert A. Cameron ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William J. Cameron. 

Co. E — Captain, George E. Burnett; 1st Lieutenant, Willis A. Spiller; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles Burnett. 

Co. F — Captain, Grayson Dellitt ; 1st Lieutenant, Carrol Payne ; 2d Lieutenant* 
Jesse G. Payne. 

Co. G — Captain, John F. Day ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Gibson ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Joseph B. Scudmore. 

Co. II — Captain, William K. Murphy ; 1st Lieutenant, Enos D. Hays ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James Richie. 

Co. I — Captain, William L. Britton ; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Bales ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William W. McAmie. 

Co. K — Captain, Mark Harper ; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Wycough ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John T. Barnett. 

On the 22d of September, 1862, the 110th left Jonesboro for 
Louisville, over 900 strong, remaining there till the 21st of October, 
when it joined in the pursuit of Bragg, being in the 19th Brigade ofthc 
21st Army Corps, under the command of General T. L. Crittenden. 
The corps came up with Bragg at Perryville ; but as it was on the 
extreme right of our line, it did not participate in the general battle 
at that place. Upon Bragg's retreating, the 110th continued in the 
pursuit to Wild Cat, skirmishing with him all the way, and returned 
to Nashville on the 20th of November, where it remained till the 
26th of December. At this place it was assigned to the 2d Brigade 
of the 2d Division of the 21st Corps. It started for Murfreesboro 
on the 26tb, skirmishing with Bragg's rear to their destination. 
After the battle of Stone River, in which the 110th lost seven men 
and one officer killed, and about fifty men wounded, it went into 
camp until the 6th of May, 1863, and on the 8th was consolidated 
into a battalion of four companies, and started on the Tullahoma 
campaign. It was afterward engaged in the Chattanooga campaign. 
It was assigned to the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division of the 14th 



398 PATRIOTISM OF II.I.IXOIS. 

Corps, about the 25th of October. From this time until the 20tU 
of July, L864, the regimenl was mainly i in guard duty. At 

that time it was assigned (<» its brigade, ami started <>n the Atlanta 
campaign. It met the enemy at Eutaw Creek, August 7th, and at 
Jonesboro. At tin- conclusion of this campaign, the 1 LOth remained 
a few weeks in camp, when it went in pursuit of Forrest's guerrillas, 

with wl i it skirmished at various times. On the 6th of November 

it joined Sherman's grand army at Gaylesville, and ten days later 
began the grand march for the Atlantic coast. It remained on duty 
as provost guard at General J. C. Davis' head-quarters until the dis- 
bandment of the army. On the 12th of June, 1865, it arrived at 
Chicago with fourteen officers and 290 men. During the earlier 
part of its career it lost very heavily from disease. At Nashville, 
during one month, over 200 men of the regiment died from measles, 
diarrhea and other diseases. 

ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 111th regiment was organized at Salem, Marion County, and 
mustered into the service on the 18th of September, 1862. The fol- 
lowing is the original roster : 

Colonel, James S. Martin ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph F. Black ; Major, William 
II. Mahry ; Adjutant, William C. Stiles; Quartermaster, Benjamin F. Marshall; 
Surgeon, James Phillips; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John K. Rainey ; 2d Assistant 
Surgeon, Thomas S. Ilawley ; Chaplain, Jame3 B. Woolard. 

Co. A — Captain, Amos A. Clark ; 1st Lieutenant, John K. Morton ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Jacob V. Andrews. 

Co. B — Captain, Anderson Myers; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Walker; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, George C. McCord. 

Co. C — Captain, Thomas 0. Pierce ; 1st Lieutenant, James M. Forth ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William B. Holleman. 

Co. D — Captain, John Foster; 1st Lieutenant, Robert W. Elder ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George W. Smith. 

Co. E — Captain, Joseph F. McGuire ; 1st Lieutenant, Lewellyn W. Castellom ; 2d 
Lieutenant, William J. Young. 

Co. F — Captain, Abner S. Gray ; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Dorris ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William H. Carpenter. 

Co. G — Captain, Reuben W. Jolliff; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Simpson ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John W. Stover. 

Co. H — Captain, George E. Castle ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Larimer ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Robett M. Lovell. 



ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH INFANTRY. 399 

Co. I — Captain, Alfred J. Nichols ; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Souter ; 2d Lieuten 
ant, Franklin W. Kirkham. 

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Shultz ; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac H. Berry ; 2d Lieutenant, 
James B. Pendleton. 

The regiment left Salem on the 31st of October, for Columbus, 
Kentucky, and remained there till March 12, 1863, when it was 
sent to Fort Heiman, Tennessee. Here it remained until May 28th, 
making frequent raids into Tennessee, capturing and destroying a 
large amount of rebel property. It was then ordered to Paclucah, 
Kentucky, where it remained until October 31st, when it was sent 
to Gravelly Springs, Alabama. November 7th it took up its line of 
march for Pulaski, where it remained until February 25, 1864. On 
the 8th of March it participated in the capture of Decatur, Alabama. 
On the morning of the 9th, Captain Amos A. Clark, who had been 
on detached service for twelve months, rejoined the regiment, and 
within two hours afterward was killed by the accidental discharge of 
a pistol. On the 16th the regiment marched to Iluntsville, and 
thence to Larkinsville, where it encamped until May 1st. It then 
joined General Sherman's army in the Atlanta campaign, and par- 
ticipated in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Ken- 
esaw Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro. At the battle of Resaca, 
the 111th was ordered to force the passage of Camp Creek, which 
was clone in gallant style, in the face of a heavy fire. This being 
accomplished, Colonel Martin, who commanded the brigade, ordered 
a charge on the rebel works on the hills beyond. General Logan, 
who was anxiously watching, saw the charge made, and exclaimed 

that " the 1 1 1th had gone to !" He was mistaken, for the rebel 

works were carried and occupied by the regiment. On the 25th of 
October it had a skirmish with Wheeler's cavalry, in Cherokee 
County, Alabama. In November it started on the march to the 
sea, participating in all its trials and triumphs, being the first Union 
regiment to place its colors on Fort McAllister, Georgia. It next 
took part in the Carolina campaign, and was engaged with the ene- 
my at South Edisto River, North Edisto River, and Bentonville. It 
was present in the grand review at "Washington on the 24th of May, 
1865, and on the 10th of June started for home. It arrived at Camp 
Butler on the 15th, and on the 27th was paid off and finally dis- 



400 PATRIOTISM "i [LLINOIB. 

charged. The L 11th shows a smaller casualty list than almost any 
other regimenl serving an equal Length of time. Total number 
killed in battle, 42; wounded, 143; missing, 87; died of di 
&c, 191 ; number of miles traveled, 4,7oo. 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The I 12th regiment was composed of Beven companies from Hen- 
ry County, and throe from Stark. It was mustered into the service 
at Peoria, 996 rank and file, on the 20th of September, 1S62. The 
following is the original roster: 

Colonel, Thomas J. Henderson ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Emory S. Bond ; Major, 
James M. Hosford; Adjutant, Henry W. Wells; Quartermaster, George C. Alden; 

►Surg i, John W. Spalding; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Luther S. Millike ll ; Chaplain, 

Rosnill N. Henderson. 

Co. A — Captain, Tristram T. Dow; 1st Lieutenant, Asa A. Lee; 2d Lieutenant, 
John L. Dow 

Co. B — Captain, James B. Doyle ; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan C. Dickerson ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John Cudgel. 

Co. C — Captain, John J. Biggs ; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Mitchell; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Alexander P. Petrie. 

Co. D — Captain, Augustus A. Dunn ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry G. Grifiiu ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant., Samuel L. Patterson. 

Co. E — Captain, Sylvester F. Oatman; 1st Lieutenant, Cranmer W. Brown; 2d 
Lieutenant, Elmer A. Sage. 

Co. F — Captain, William W. Wright; 1st Lieutenant, Jackson Lawrence; 2d 
Lieutenant, Robert E. Westfall. 

Co. G — Captain, Alexander W. Albra; 1st Lieutenant, James McCartney; 2d 
Lieutenant, Thomas E. Milchrist. 

Co. H — Captain, George W. Sroufe ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas T. Davenport; 2d 
Lieutenant, Elisha Atwater. 

Co. I — Captain, James E. Wilkins; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Lawrence; 2d 
Lieutenant, Henry S. Comstoek. 

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Westley ; 1st Lieutenant, Christian G. Gearhart, ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Edward II. Colcord. 

On the 8th of October, 1862, the 112th left Peoria for Covington, 
Kentucky. From thence it went to Lexington, and from thence to 
Danville, in pursuit of Pegram's cavalry. About the 1st of April, 
1863, the regiment was mounted, and soon after started in pursuit of 
Scott's cava'ry, whom it drove from Kentucky. On the 10th of June 
it made a raid into Tennessee, under General Sanders, and after 
doing considerable damage to various lines of railroads, it made a 



ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. 401 

demonstration against Knoxville, but was compelled to retire before 
superior forces. It next joined Burnside's army, and, as his advance, 
entered East Tennessee, and participated in the battles of Philadel- 
phia, Campbell's Station, Calhoun, Knoxville (where it lost 120 men), 
Bean Station, Kelly's Ford and Dandridge. It returned to Ken- 
tucky in 1864, and was dismounted. On the 6th of April it marched 
to Knoxville, and in a few days started for Tunnel Hill, Georgia, 
arriving in front of Rocky Face on the 11th of May. It took part 
in the battle of Resaca on the 14th of May, where Colonel Hender- 
son was wounded and the regiment lost fifty-six men. It continued 
in the march to Atlanta, taking part in the battles of Nicojack Creek, 
Pumpkin Vine Creek, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Chat- 
tahoochee, Utoy Creek and Rough and Ready, losing heavily in 
several of them. After the battle of Atlanta it went into camp at 
Decatur, Georgia, where it rested for a while, and then started after 
Hood. At Cedar Bluffs it parted from Sherman, and started with 
Schofield to head Hood off. While resting at Palesca, Hood 
attempted to flank it, and in order to make its position more secure, 
it had to fall back, encountering some heavy skirmishing at Colum- 
bia and Spring Hill. It continued to retreat until Franklin was 
reached, where the 112th took a conspicuous part, as also at Nash- 
ville, when it drove the rebels across the Tennessee into Alabama. 
Just before the close of the war, the regiment went to Fort Fisher 
on the 8th of February, 1865, and shortly after participated in the 
battles of Fort Anderson, Town Creek, Wilmington and Kingston. 
It then proceeded to Goldsboro, where it joined Sherman, and moved 
up to Greensboro, North Carolina, where it was mustered out of 
service on the 21st of June. The 112th participated in no less than 
twenty-five pitched battles, and one hundred and ten skirmishes, and 
* out of 996 men who originally belonged to the regiment only 424 
returned. 

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

The 113th regiment — "Third Board of Trade" — was raised in 
Cook, Kankakee and Iroquois counties, in August, 1862, but was not 
formally mustered as a regiment until the 1st of October. The fol- 
lowing is the original roster: 
26 



4-02 PATRIOTISM OF H/LINOIS. 

Colonel, George B. II" ■■ . Lieutenani Colonel, .(<>lm W. Paddock ; Major, Lucius 
U. rates; Adjutant, Daniel S. Parker; Quartermaster, William A. McLean; Sur- 
geon, Joel M. Mack; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Lucien B.Brown; 2d Assistant Sur- 
WilliamN. Bailey; Chaplain, Adam J<. Rankin. 

C . S Captain, George R. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. B. Iloyt ; 2d Licu- 
tenant, Daniel Ferguson, 

Co. 15 — Captain, Cephas Williams ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Beckett; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John Ji B 

Co. C —Captain, George W. Lyman; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Larry ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Barvej 1'. Hosmer. 

Co. 1' — Captain, Robert B. Lucae; 1st Lieutenant, David II. Metzgcr ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, I leorge B. Fickle. 

Co. E — Captain, Mason Southerland; 1st Lieutenant, U. Rial Burlingham; 2d 
Lieutenant, Charles D. Trumbull. 

Co. F— Captain, William I. Bridges ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Rogers ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William German. 

Co. G — Captain, John G. Woodruff; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Brown ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James I. Conway, 

Co. TI — Captain, Bliss Sutherland; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison Daniels; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Aquilla C. Congill. 

Co. I — Captain, George West ; 1st Lieutenant, Anderson Tyler; 2d Lieutenant, 
Aaron F. Kane. 

Co. K — Captain, Silas J. Garrett; 1st Lieutenant, Levi Sargent ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Charles Squires. 

During the month of October, 1862, the 113th was employed in 
guarding rebel prisoners at Camp Douglas, and on the 5th of Novem- 
ber left for Memphis, 840 strong. Here it was assigned to the 15th 
Corps, .General Sherman, and with him marched to Oxford, Missis- 
sippi, to join the expedition against Vicksburg. It returned with 
General Sherman to Memphis, and thence to Vicksburg by water. 
It was in the fights at Milliken's Bend and Chickasaw Bayou. The 
next move was to Arkansas Post [Vol. I., p. 444], under McCler- 
nanfflffiand Sherman. On the 3d of March, 1863, the 113th took 
transports to Vicksburg, and labored on the Butler Canal for a 
month. It was engaged in the expedition up the Black Bayou to 
relieve Porter's gunboats, where it had a smart skirmish with the 
rebels. Returning to Vicksburg, the 113th participated in the labors 
and perils of the siege until the surrender of Pembcrton, losing one 
third of its force engaged. From August, 1864, to February, 1^64 
it was engaged in scouting in the vicinity of Corinth, and then 
returned to Memphis. On the 10th of April it started on the expo- 



THE KANKIN FAMILY. 403 

dition under General Sturgis against Forrest. Returning, without a 
fight, they started out on another expedition under General Sturgis 
to Guntown, Mississippi, where it was engaged with the enemy for 
two hours, losing 135 men and five officers killed, wounded and 
missing. It returned to Memphis, where it remained on picket duty 
till October, when it embarked on an expedition under General 
Washburn up the Tennessee River. It was in the disastrous fight 
at Eastport, Tennessee, where it lost fourteen men and two officers. 
The next move was to Memphis, where it remained on provost guard 
and picket duty until ordered home to stay. It arrived in Chicago 
on the 22d of June, 1865, with 272 men and officers, leaving 242 
behind. It recruited 492 men while in the service, making a total 
of 1,332 men who served in its ranks. 

Colonel George B. Hoge was born in Alleghany County, Pennsyl- 
vania, April 16, 1834, and removed to Chicago in 1848. Five years 
later he graduated at the Western University, Pittsburg, and from 
that time was engaged in business avocations in Chicago until 1856, 
when he removed to Missouri. When the war broke out he raised 
a company for the 13th Missouri infantry (afterward 25th Missouri 
infantry), and was chosen Captain. In this capacity he was at the 
siege of Lexington [Vol. I., p. 155] and Shiloh, and was wounded 
at the latter place. In the summer of 1862 he obtained leave of 
absence and visited Chicago, where he was elected Colonel of the 
113th Illinois. 

In closing a sketch of the " Third Board of Trade " regiment, it is 
not inappropriate to mention that in each of the three Board of Trade 
regiments was a son of the well-known anti-slavery apostle, Rev. 
John Rankin, of Ripley, Ohio. One entered the first (72d) as 
wagon-master, another the second ( 88th) as 1st Assistant Surgeon, 
and the thud in the Third Board of Trade (113th) as Chaplain. 
One of the three sons — if not all of them — is a native of East 
Tennessee, where the father was frequently persecuted for bis utter- 
ances in behalf of freedom. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OUR TROOPERS. 

The Tnrrcn Cavalry — Pursuit of Prick's Army — Pea Risen — Gallantry at Fair- 
view VlCKSBURG AM) ARKANSAS POST TlIE FlFTH Cav^LRY BaTTLK OF CACHE 

River — Privation and Suffering — Expeditions to Grenada ami Jackson — Mus- 
ter-out Roster — The Twelfth Cavalry — A Magnificent Saber Fight — Escape 
from Harper's Ferry — Tiik McClellan Dragoons — The Fight at Dumerie: — 
Stoneman's Raid — Approach to Richmond — Tuns- all Station — Gettysburg — 
Efficient Service of the Twelfth — Re-Organization as Veterans — Reception 
in Chicago — Snow Storm — The Red River Campaign — Service in Texas — Mus- 
ter out Roster — General IIasbrouck Davis. 

THIRD ILLINOIS CAVALRY. 

THE Third Cavalry was organized at Camp Butler, and was 
mustered into the three years' service on the 26th of August, 
1861. The following is the original roster: 

Colonel, Eugene A. Carr ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lafayette McCrellis ; 1st Major, 
Thomas Hamar ; 2d Major, James M. Ruggles; 3d Major, John McConnell ; Adju- 
tant, William O'Conuell ; Adjutant 1st Battalion, Theodore Leland ; Adjutant 2d 
Battalion, James S. Crow ; Adjutant 3d Battalion, Burr Sanders; Quartermaster, 
Bvron 0. Carr; Commissary. James S. Crow ; Surgeon, Albert II. Lanphere ; 1st 
Assistant Surgeon, J. Spafford Hunt; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Charles Orvia ; Chaptain, 
Horace M. Carr. 

Co. A — Captain, D wight D. Johnson ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Taylor; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joshua Tuthill. 

Co. B — Captain, Joseph S. Maus ; 1st Lieutenant, Joel B. Ketchum ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Michael Fisher. 

Co. C — Captain, Charles P. Dunbaugh ; 1st Lieutenant, David Black ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Augustas W. Tilford. 

Co. D — Captain, Thomas M. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, James K. McLean; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Moses Lytaker. 

Co. E — Captain, John L. Campbell ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles C. Guard ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas B. Vaughn. 

Co. F— Captain, Thomas W. Macfall ; 1st Lieutenant, Wellington S.Lee; 2d 
Lieutenant, John Hendrickson. 



THE THIRD CAVALRY. 405 

Co. G — Captaiu, James B. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, EnosP. McPhail; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Charles L. Raymond. 

Co. II — Captain, Edward Rutiedge ; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. McClelland ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Andrew B. Kirkbridge. 

Co. I — Captain, James Nicolls; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel F. Dolloff ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edward 0. Rowley. 

Co. K — Captain, Robert H. Carnahan ; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron Weider ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, John Zimmerman. 

Co. L — Captain, David R. Sparks ; 1st Lieutenant, Norreden Cowen ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Aaron Vanhooser. 

Co. M — Captain, George E. Pease ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Condee ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James H. O'Conner. 

The 3d cavalry left Camp Butler on the 23d, 24th and 25th of 
September, and reported to General Fremont at Benton Barracks, 
St. Louis. On the 27th it left for St. Charles, and then began a 
series of marches, skirmishes, &c, in Missouri and Arkansas, which 
continued until the close of Fremont's and Curtis' campaigns. On 
the 11th of February, 1862, it had a small skirmish with the enemy's 
outposts at Marshfield. On the 13th it advanced toward Springfield, 
when Major Wright was sent forward with his battalion, and had a 
sharp fight with a regiment of rebel infantry, handsomely repulsing 
them. On the 15th the regiment started in pursuit of Price's retreat- 
ing army, and overtook them at Crane Creek, capturing seven prison- 
ers, and throwing a few shells into their camp. The pursuit was 
continued during the two days following, with frequent skirmishing, 
until Sugar Creek, Arkansas, was reached. Here the enemy made 
a stand, and a brisk engagement was had, ending with a splendid 
cavalry charge, in which one battalion of the 3d participated, rout- 
ing the enemy. On the 21st it arrived at Cross Hollows, and went 
into camp until March 5th, when it took the advance in an expedition 
to Fayetteville. The approach of the enemy caused it to fall back 
to Pea { Ridge. In the battle at the latter place it bore an honorable 
and conspicuous part, opening the engagement by a charge upon 
the advance of the enemy [Vol. I., p. 216]. On the 10th of April 
it arrived at Forsyth, in the advance, and skirmished with the enemy. 
On the 16th it marched to the mouth of the North Fork of White 
River, where it destroyed the rebel saltpeter Avorks, and marched 
thence to West Plains, and arrived on the 29th, "having been fifteen 
days without wagons, rations or forage." In May Colonel Carr 



406 PATRIOTISM OP [LLINOIS. 

receive 1 notice of his promotion to Brigadier-General, dating baoi 
to the 7Lh of March. On the I Lth of .May Captain McLelland and 
five men were drowned while crossing While River. On the 7th of 
Juno, Captain Sparks and sixty-six men were surrounded by 300 rebel 
cavalry, near Fairview, and cu1 their way through, with the 1< 
four men captured and Coin- wounded. On the L5th of July the regi- 
ment arrived at Helena, Arkansas, after weeks of scouting and skirm- 
ishing, when it, was gladden sd with a Bight of the Mississippi River, 
which it. had crossed twelve, months before. Here it went into camp, 
and Buffered greatly from the climate, sickness and the demoraliza- 
tion of oamj) life. While stationed here, detachments were sentout 
on numerous expeditions through the country. On the 23d of Decem- 
ber, Companies B, C,D, II, I and L, Captain Kirkbride commanding, 
received orders to embark for Vicksburg, under General Sherman. 
Companies E and G were at St. Louis, under < reneral Carr. On the 
28th, Captain Carnahan was relieved from duty as Provost Marshal 
General, District of Eastern Arkansas, and ordered to report with 
his battalion — Companies A, K, F and M — to General Steele, at the 
mouth of the Yazoo River, which was done by running past the rebel 
battery at Napoleon, with the loss of three men wounded. At 
Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi, the regiment was detailed for picket 
and escort duty, being the only cavalry accompanying that expedi- 
tion and did good service throughout the battle as pickets and order- 
lies. Companies A, K, L and M were the last to embark in 
transports from that ill-starred attack on Vicksburg. The regiment 
next accompanied General McClernand to Arkansas Post, where it 
did good service. It then went with General McClernand to 
Youngs Point, where Colonel McCrellis received permission to take 
his regiment back to Memphis, leaving Captain Carnahan with his 
battalion— companies A, C, K, E and L— as escort to General 
McClernand. Captain Carnahan was next ordered to report with his 
battalion to General Osterhaus, and with the 15th Army Corps took 
part in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge and the sieges of Jackson and Vicksburg. On the 13th of 
August. 1863, the battalion was sent to New Orleans, and partici- 
pated in the fights at VermiUionville, Opelonsas and Can-ion Crow 
Bayou. In December, under the command of Major O'Conuer, it 



THE FIFTH CAVALRY. 407 

was sent to Port Hudson, where it remained till July, 1864, when 
it was ordered to rejoin the regiment at Memphis. In June the main 
body of the regiment took part in the fights at Tupelo, Okalona and 
Guntown. On the 1st of July the regiment was again divided, a 
portion being sent out on a scout in Western Kentucky. During 
the month of July a large portion of the men re-enlisted as veterans, 
when the non-veterans were ordered to Germantown, to garrison 
that post. On the 21st of August, the regiment, under the com- 
mand of Captains Brice and Kirkbride, took part in the fight at 
Memphis, and contributed largely in repulsing Forrest, Major O'Con- 
ner being taken prisoner. On the 24th of that month, the non-vete- 
rans having been mustered out, the veterans were consolidated into 
six companies, and Captain Carnahan was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel. On the 29th of September the regiment left Memphis and 
proceeded to Florence, Alabama, where it confronted the rebel army, 
under Hood, and fell back, skirmishing with his advance, and took 
part in the battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbellsville 
and Franklin. December loth it was with the division which opened 
the battle of Nashville, and distinguished itself for gallantry. In 
January, 1865, it went into camp at Gravelly Springs, in General 
Wilson's cavalry corps, and three weeks later marched to Eastport, 
Mississippi. On the 12th of May it was ordered to report at St. 
Paul, Minnesota, where it arrived on the l4th of June. On the 4th 
of July it started out on an Indian expedition, returning to Fort 
Snelling on the 1st of October. On the 10th it was mustered out of 
the service, and arrived at Springfield on the 13th, where it was 
finally paid and discharged. 

FIFTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY. 

The 5th cavalry regiment was organized at Camp Butler in the 
fall of 1861, with the following roster: 

Colonel, John J. Updegraff: Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin L. Wiley; 1st Major, 
Thomas A. Apperson ; 2d Major, Speed Butler ; 3d Major, James Farnan ; Adjutant, 
Daniel M. Turney ; Adjutant 1st Battalion, Frederick A. Nichey ; Adjutant 2d 
Battalion, Osear F.Lindsey ; Adjutant 3d Battalion, Edward P. Harris ; Quarter- 
master, Robert C. Wilson; Quartermaster 1st Battalion, Charles Neeeswanger ; 
Quartermaster 2d Battalion, William N. Elliott ; Quartermaster 3d Battalion, 
Calvin A. Mann ; Commissary, Webster C. Wilkinson ; Surgeon, Charles W. Hig- 



40S PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

gins; 1st Assistant, John B. Ensey; 2d Assistant, Charles B, Kendall; Chaplain, 

John \V. \V I. 

Co. A Captain, Edward W. Pierson; 1st Lieutenant, Gordon WebBter; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Jacob M. Cullers. 

Co. B -Captain, Thomas SicKeej 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Thayer; 2d Lieutenant, 
Dennis A. Harrison, 

Co. C— Captain, William P. Withers; 1st Lieutenant, James Depcw ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James A. Lawrence. 

Co. I'— Captain, Henry A. Organ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel . I. II. Wilson; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Calvin SchelL 

Co. E— Captain, George W. McConkey ; 1st Lieutenant, John J. Adam-; 2d Lieu- 
tenant. Madison Glasco. 

Co. F — Captain, Horace I'. Mumford ; 1st Lieutenant, Franei.- If. Dorothy ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William Wagenseller. 

Co. G — Captain, John A. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, William N. Elliot; '2d Lieu- 
tenant, Amos H. Smith. 

Co. II — Captain, Joseph A. Cox ; 1st Lieutenant, Washington F. Crane ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William G. Nelson. 

Co. I — Captain, Bartholomew Jenkins ; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin S. Norfolk ; 2d 
Lieutenant, John F. Smith. 

Co. K — Captain, James Farnan ; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. Childs ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, John P. Mann. 

Co. L — Captain, Henry D. Caldwell ; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison II. Brown; 2d 
Lieutenant, William N. Berry. 

Co. M — Captain, Robert Schell ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Burrell ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Albert S. Robinson. 

The regiment left Camp Butler on the 20th of February, 1862, 
for St. L<>uis. On the 1st of March it received orders to march in- 
to the interior of Missouri. On the 1st of April it reached Doni- 
phan, where it had a considerable skirmish with the rebels, routing 
them and destroying their camp. Here it went into camp, diversi- 
fying the monotony with frequent scouting expeditions into the sur- 
rounding country. On the 12th of May it voted upon the question 
of the adoption of the new constitution in Illinois, by far the great- 
er portion of the men voting in the negative. It continued cam- 
paigning and skirmishing in Missouri and Arkansas, with little vari- 
ation, until the 7th of July, when it fought in the battle of the 
Cuche River, whipping three times its own number. Soon after, one 
of the men who had been left sick at Pocahontas joined the regi- 
ment and reported that all the sick at that place had been taken 
prisoners, and most of them paroled and sent to St. Louis. On the 
14th of July it arrived at Helena, after suffering severe privations 



THE GRENADA EXPEDITION. 409 

from lack of water and provisions. After its arrival at Helena, it 
suffered very much from bad water, hot weather, &c. On the 9th 
of September the regiment was sent out on a scout, returning on the 
13th, having made 102 miles in twenty-two hours, without stopping 
to feed. On the 27th of October seven companies were sent out in 
the direction of Grenada, Miss., where they destroyed several miles 
of railroad track and a number of bridges, and took several prison- 
ers. The regiment remained at Helena till May 29, 1863. In Jan- 
uary of that year it took part in the expedition to Duval's Bluff, and 
in April joined in the pursuit of Marmaduke in his retreat out of 
the state. On the 1st of June it reported to General Grant at Sny- 
der's Bluff, and on the 4th engaged the enemy at Mechanicsburg. 
During the siege of Vicksburg it was in the rear of General Grant's 
army, watching the movements of Johnston. On the 6th of July 
it joined in General Sherman's movement on Jackson. On the 11th 
the cavalry brigade was sent to Canton, Miss., where it destroyed 
several miles of railroad track and a large amount of rebel property, 
rejoining the main army at Jackson. On the 10th of August an ex- 
pedition started for Grenada, capturing railroad trains by the way 
and moving the rolling stock forward till it reached Grenada, where 
the rebel General Chalmers was driven out. The engines and cars 
were burned. On the 19th the regiment moved toward Memphis, 
and on the 21st, at the crossing of the Coldwater, met Blythe's cav- 
alry, and after a brief engagement defeated them. 

It reached Memphis on the 22d, having marched 325 miles in 12 
days, with but four days' rations, and closely pursued by a largely 
superior force. It moved from Memphis to Vicksburg, reaching 
Black River August 29th, where it remained till May 1, 1864, when 
it moved into Vicksburg. During this time it was engaged in fre- 
quent expeditions. On the 1st of January the command re-enlisted 
in the veteran service, and on the 3d of February joined in General 
Sherman's Meridian campaign. On this campaign several skirmish- 
es were had with the rebels, and many miles of railroad track and 
a large amount of rebel property destroyed, returning to camp 
March 3d. On the 17th the veterans were furloughcd, returning to 
their post on the 10th of May. During their absence, the non-vet- 
erans participated in General McArthur's expedition to Benton, 



410 PATEIOTI8M OF II. I. IN' <\ B. 

Mississippi, meeting and defeating ill" enemy al Mechanicsburg. 
During the spring and summer, the regimen! did a 1 irge amount of 
patrol and picket duty in and about Vicksburg. On the L'Vili of 
May, John MoConnell, formerly Major of the 3d [llinois Cavalry, 
arrived at Vicksburg, and was mustered in as Colonel of the 5th, 
a id Joshua Tuthill, formerly a Lieutenant in the 3d, was mustered 
in as Adjutant. The regiment being sadly deficient in horses and 
equipments, eight companies were dismounted, and the Isl battalion 
— Companies A, B, C and D — completely mounted and equipped. 
On the 1st of July, this battalion was sent, with detachments from 
other cavalry regiments and a brigade of infantry, on an expedition 
to Jackson. Skirmishing began on the 3d, at Big Black River, and 
continued all the way to Jackson. On the lib the rebi Is drove the 
2d Wisconsin cavalry from their camp, when the battalion of the 
5th Illinois in turn drove the rebels from the position they had 
gained. The return march was begun on the 6th, and when a few 
miles from Jackson, our forces were attacked by a large force of 
rebels, who were handsomely repulsed. The regiment reached 
the Big Black on the 8th, and from thence went to Port Gibson and 
Grand Gulf, where it had a skirmish with the rebels, returning to 
Vicksburg on the L2th. On the 29th of September, the 5th, with 
other regiments, all under the command of General E. D. Osband, 
proceeded to Port Gibson, where it had a brief skirmish with the 
rebels, driving them from the town. It moved thence to Natchez, 
where it was joined by the 4th Illinois cavalry, and a battery. It 
then went to Tornica Bend, and thence to Woodville, where it sur- 
prised and broke up a rebel camp, and captured a large amount of 
ammunition. The next morning it Avas found that the rebels had 
moved up with the intention of making an attack. General Osband 
did not wait "for manners' sake," but gave them battle, completely 
routing them. The command returned to Vicksburg on the 11th, 
with a large number of cattle and sheep, contrabands, &c. On the 
20th of November, the same command was sent to destroy the Mis- 
sissippi Central Railroad, over which supplies were being transport- 
ed to Hood's army, and accomplished the object of the expedition. 
On the 24th of January, 1865, the regiment went to Memphis. On 
the 26th it started upon a raid through. Southern Arkansas and North- 



THE TWELFTH CAVALRY. 411 

ern Louisiana, returning February 13th. It remained at Memphis, 
except when engaged in raids, &c, until July 1st, when it was 
ordered to Texas, arriving at Houston, on the 13th of August, after 
a most fatiguing march over the country. It remained here untU 
October 6th, when it was ordered home for muster out. On the 
17th it arrived at Springfield, and on the 27th it was mustered out, 
receiving final payment and discharge on the 30th. 

The following is the muster-out roster of the 5th cavalry : 



Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, John McConnell; Lieutenant-Colonel, Abel 
H. Seeley ; 1st Major, Alexander Jessup ; 2d Major, George W. McConkey ; 3d Major, 
Lyman Clark ; Quartermaster, Richard Rainforth ; Surgeon, William Watts ; Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Charles B. Kendall ; Commissary, George F. West. 

Co. A — Captain, Joshua Tuthill ; 1st Lieutenant, John D. Rawlings; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Warren Harper. 

Co. B — Captain, Charles K. Slack ; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Harrison ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Marion T. Hall. 

Co. C — Captain, Clarenden W. Wheelock ; 1st Lieutenant, A. Y. Davidson ; 2d 
Lieutenanant, Joseph Smith. 

Co. D — Captain, Alonzo G. Payne. 

Co. E — Captain, Francis M. Webb ; 2d Lieutenant, Townsend Wells. 

Co. F — Captain, James n. Wood ; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Stifal ; 2d Lieutenant, 
James G. Bennett. 

Co. G — Captain, Alexander D. Pittenger; 1st Lieutenant, William A. McAllister; 
2d Lieutenant, John W. Patterson. 

Co. H — 1st Lieutenant, William II. Pinkerton ; 2d Lieutenant, William Cox. 

Co. I — Captain, James K. Brown ; 2d Lieutenant, Ralph H. Osborne. 

Co. K — Captain, William C. Addison ; 2d Lieutenant, William Maxwell. 

Co. L — Captain, William M. Berry ; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Dow ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William Inghram. 

Co. M — 1st Lieutenant, Ridley McCall ; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel M. Ellis. 



TWELFTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY. 

In our first volume (p. 561 et seq.) we have given the original 
roster of this gallant regiment, and a part of its history. At the 
risk of repeating the story, we publish the history of the 12th from 
its leaving camp till its muster-out. 

On the evening of the 26th of February, 1862, the regiment broke 
camp and took the cars for Springfield. The command then mini- 



1 L2 l'A i BIO] i j\i OB n.i.iN"is. 

bered lesa than three hundred men, all oi whom, however, wei 
the real bone and muscle. 

When the regimenl reached Springfield, Instead of being fitted 
out for the field, as had been promised, orders were received from 
the So ••lvtnrv of Win- to equip the men as infantry and put them to 
guarding rebel prisoners al Camp Butler. It remained at Spring- 
field during the spring and until June 25, 18G2, when it was mount- 
ed and sent to Martinsburg, Virginia, 

The first time the 12th met the enemy was after the evacuation of 
Winchester by General White, of Chicago. It had become neces- 
sary, therefore, that the forces at Martinsburg should establish their 
outposts. Lieutenant-Colonel Davis was placed in command of 
these stations. About five miles from the camp, on the Martinsburg 
and Winchester pike, on the morning of the 5th of September, 18G2, 
lie scouted the country as far as Bunker Hill, where he came up 
with the enemy's cavalry, in numbers far superior to his own. These 
were in a strong position, but the scouting party, by a vigorous 
charge, routed them, and drove them several miles, killing, wound- 
ing and capturing a considerable number. 

On Saturday morning, the 7th, at daybreak, the enemy, having 
been largely reinforced, and designing to capture Colonel Davis and 
his command, made a bold attempt to get to his rear and cut him 
off from his cam]) at Martinsburg. Anticipating this movement, 
Colonel Davis sent out a small party under Lieutenant Logan, to re- 
connoiter. This detachment was surrounded, but the men succeed- 
ed in cutting their way through the enemy, and again joined the 
Colonel, who immediately despatched a messenger to Martinsburg 
for reinforcements. Captain Thomas W. Grosvenor (afterwards 
Majorand Lieutenant-Colonel), commanding Company A, with forty 
men, was immediately ordered forward, to be followed by the re- 
mainder of the 12th as soon as they could be got ready. As soon as 
the Captain reported, Colonel Davis ordered him out at once to meet 
the enemy. He drove several squads of rebels from ambush in the 
woods and roadsides, until he reached Darkesville, when he met the 
enemy in force, to the number of eight hundred. As the little band 
of Federal cavalry approached the graybaeks, the latter fired upon 
them at short range a most terrific volley, severely wounding the 



ESCAPE FROM HAKPER's FERRY. 413 

Captain and killing Lieutenant Luff's horse, thus leaving the company 
without a commander. Colonel Davis led the men in person. His 
presence animated the troops, and his voice was heard ahove the din 
of the conflict, calling upon the boys to follow him. Away they 
went, madly, furiously upon the enemy, drawing their sabers as they 
charged — scorning to use their pistols, but delivering their concen- 
trated blows — the saber blows of forty resolute, noble heroes — 
against eight hundred rebels in position! — all in cold steel, cutting 
and thrusting as men never before cut and thrust, and finally drove 
them until their retreat became a rout, and the forty men literally 
masters of the field, the enemy running away beyond Winchester 
before they could be rallied ! It is true that, in the meantime, the 
remainder of the regiment had come up, and that they joined the 
brave little band of forty, and completed the disaster of the rebels 
on the occasion — but it was really the valor, the dash, the bravery 
of this ever memorable forty, under Colonel Davis, that did the busi- 
ness. The result of this encounter was that twenty-five of the rebels 
were buried on the field, including Lieutenant Carroll, of the Mary- 
land battalion, who, by the way, was a grandson of Charles Carroll, 
of Carrollton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
Fifty rebels, with their horses and equipments, were taken back pris- 
oners to the Federal camp, many of them severely wounded by saber 
cuts. The strangest part of this history is that the forty did not losd 
a man on the field. A number were wounded, a few of whom sub- 
sequently died, and some of them were disabled for life. General 
White, who assumed command of the post at Martinsburg, a few 
days previously, reported to the Secretary of War the result of this 
battle, and Mr. Stanton responded in terms highly complimentary, 
thanking the officers and men engaged, for their bravery on the oc- 
casion. 

A few days subsequent to this gallant affair on the Winchester 
pike, the 12th rejoined General White's command, and with it fell back 
before the superior numbers of the enemy, and on the morning of 
September 12th entered Harper's Ferry. 

On Sunday night, about nine o'clock, the 12th and other cavalry, 
to the number of two thousand men, under Colonel Davis, made 
their escape, having received permission from Colonel Miles to do 



-1 1 1 PATRIOTISM OF ILLINOIS. 

Following the line of the Potomac as far as Williamsport, Col- 
onel Davis with his command struck off across the country, on his 
waycapturing and burning a train of sixty wagons belonging to 
General J^ongstreet's headquarters, and containing all that command- 
er's private papers, documents, and other valuables. After cutting 
through the enemy's lines, the brave boys finally reached Bagerstown, 
and soon after joined McClellan at Sharpsburg, where that celebrat- 
ed strategist was calmly waiting for Lee to make his escape before 
inaugurating another forward movement. 

While in camp at Sharpsburg, the 12th was reinforced by a con- 
solidation with the two companies comprising the McClellan Dragoons, 
which had been doing duty as a body guard to the General-in-Chief. 
Thus increased to ten companies, the 12th was assigned to General 
Averill's brigade, and under that officer made several expeditions, 
until McClellan was relieved from the command of the army and 
Burnside assumed the head of affairs in that section, when the 12th 
was sent on picket at Williamsport and Dam Number Four on the 
Upper Potomac. 

On the 10th of November, 1863, the grand army began to move 
by parallel routes. The 2d and 9th Corps under, Sumner, forming what, 
was called the right grand division, had the advance ; the 1st and 
5th Corps, the center, under Joe Hooker, and the 11th and 12th 
Corps, under Sigel, were in reserve. The 12th cavalry was called 
away from picket and assigned to Sigel's army, and acted as its 
escort from Warrenton to Fredericksburg, frequently having severe 
brushes with scouting parties of J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry. After 
the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, the 12th was sent to Manas- 
sas and below to observe the movements of Lee and Stuart. After 
performing this service the regiment was sent to Dumfries. 

Generals Stuart and Fitz Hugh Lee's cavalry, with a battery of 
artillery, in all about 3,500 men, crossed the Rappahannock above 
Burnside's army, on Saturday, the 27th of November, 1862, and, 
advancing between Bentsville and Stafford Court House, were joined 
by Hampton's Legion, when they made a combined attack on Dum- 
ries, on the Lower Potomac, at two o'clock the same afternoon. 
Dumfries was garrisoned by a portion of General Geary's division, 
consisting of the 5th, 7th and 66th Ohio regiments, and the 12th Illi- 



stoneman's eaid. 415 

nois cavalry, all under command of Colonel Charles Candy. The 
enemy surprised the outpost pickets, and took about fifty of the 12th 
Illinois and 1st Maryland cavalry men prisoners. Immediately after 
this surprise had been effected, the enemy opened upon the garrison 
with artillery, shelling our troops in the town, and made repeated 
charges upon them, each of which was met and repelled with the 
tire and steadiness which distinguished these troops at Winchester, 
Cross Keys, Cross Lanes, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Harper's 
Ferry and Antietam. The fight was vigorously continued on both 
sides, without intermission, all the afternoon and until late in the 
evening. At four o'clock the whole force of the enemy was concen- 
trated in an attack upon our flank, but the movement was promptly 
met and the rebels repulsed. At eight o'clock they retired discom- 
fited and beaten by Colonel Candy's force — so inferior to their own 
but who had never failed to face the enemy — to the Neobsco River, 
about four miles above Dumfries, when they encamped for the night. 
In this battle our loss, according to official returns, was only three 
killed (one commissioned officer) and eight wounded. As far as 
could be ascertained from the prisoners taken by our side, and from 
citizens, the loss of the enemy was between twenty-five and thirty 
killed, and about forty wounded. 

In our sketch of this regiment we now come to the part taken by 
it in the celebrated " Stoneman raid," made during the first days of 
May, 1803. On the 3d of May, Lieutenant-Colonel Davis received 
orders to penetrate to the Fredericksburg railroad, and, if possible, 
to the Virginia Central, and destroy communications between Rich- 
mond and Lee's army, then confronting Hooker on the Rappahan- 
nock. In case the latter part of the programme was carried out, 
the regiment was to make for Williamsburg, supposed to be in pos- 
session of General Keyes, of our army, who had been sent up the 
Peninsula, as a means of diverting the attention of the rebels. The 
12th began the march before daybreak, passing down the bank of 
the South Anna, through a region never before occupied by our 
forces. It burned one bridge and dispersed a party of mounted 
guerrillas who made a poor attempt to oppose it. The first line of 
railway was struck at Ashland. Lieutenant Mitchell, with a party 
of about a dozen men, was sent ahead to occupy the place. He 



! 1 1', p \ i i:i' n i-M 01 ii. i iv »I8. 

dashed into the Tillage and took it vrithoul Loss. There were but 
few of ibe enemy there, and they escaped, minus their shooting- 
irons, however. The inhabitants were very much astonished at the 
appearance of this Fankee force in their midst, and it required :v 
great deal of persuasion before they became assured that their per- 
sons and property would nol be harmed. 

When the remainder of the regiment came lip, the boys were set 
to work cutting the telegraph wires and tearing up the rails. A 
quantity of boards were piled in the trestle- work of a railroad bridge 
south of the town, which, being ignited, made an immense fire, and 
soon consumed the entire structure. While at this work, a train of 
cars approached the village, was captured, and broughl in for inspec- 
tion. It proved to be an ambulance train from Fredericksburg, of 
seven cars, filled with two hundred and fifty sick and wounded officers 
and Soldiers, with a guard. Among those captured were an Aid to 
General Letcher and several officers of high rank. Colonel Davis, 
after receiving from them their version of the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, paroled them and let them go, leaving the ears for the benefit 
of the poor fellows who were more seriously injured. The engine 
and tender of the train, together with another found in the town, 
were rendered completely useless by a mechanic from the ranks. 

After destroying a wagon train and a quantity of harness, and 
taking about eighty mules, the regiment moved out of Ashland. 
When about five miles from the town, word was brought that eight- 
een wagons were camped in the woods nearby; Captain Roder, 
witli Companies B and C, was sent to destroy them, which he did. 
The Central Railroad was struck at Hanover Station on the after- 
noon of the 5th. Although wearied and exhausted by the day's 
march, Colonel Davis thought it best to complete the duty assigned 
him, and break all the enemy's connections before going into camp. 
Thirty officers and men were captured and paroled at the Station. 
Captain Shears was ordered to destroy the trestle-work, which 
reached about ten rods to the south of the depot. The work was 
effectually done by the same process as at Ashland, and by its blaze 
could be clearly discerned the Confederate guards passively stand- 
ing at the other end. The boys also burned a culvert and cut the 
telegraph wires, and burned the depot buildings, storehouses, stables 



FIGHT AT TUNSTALL STATION. 417 

and a train of cars, all belonging to the rebel government and filled 
with property. 

By the light of the burning buildings the regiment left the station 
and marched for the Court House, which had been previously occu- 
pied by Captain Fisher with Companies A and G, who had placed 
pickets there and taken a Captain and four men prisoners. Passing 
on through the Court House, and marching on down to within seven 
miles of Richmond, the regiment bivouacked till eight o'clock the 
next morning, when it marched for Williamsburg. 

At Tunstall Station (near the White House and the Richmond 
and Yorktown railroad), a train of cars filled with infantry and a 
three-gun battery, was run up, with the intention of debarking there 
and giving battle to the 12th. Colonel Davis at once took measures 
to break through this force before the men could be got out of the 
cars or the battery in position. He therefore brought up the two 
foremost squadrons, and ordered a charge, which was executed, Cap- 
tain Reans, with Companies D and F, taking the lead. This charge 
was made most gallantly. The infantry filled the embankment of 
the railway and poured upon the boys a severe fire, but the brave 
fellows dashed up to the embankments in splendid style, and with 
carbines and pistols responded to the fire with equal effect. It was 
impossible, however, to break through. There were formidable rifle- 
pits to the left of the road, which the enemy soon filled. The 12th 
retired from the conflict with a loss of two killed and several wound- 
ed; among the latter Lieutenant Marsh, who was one of the fore- 
most in the charge. 

Failing to penetrate the enemy's lines at this point, Colonel Davis 
determined to cross the Pamunkey and Mattapony rivers, and make 
for Gloucester Point. In this movement he had nothing to guide him 
but a common map of the State of Virginia, and he also was in entire 
ignorance of the position of the enemy's force, except that the line 
before him was closed. The only information he could gather was 
from ignorant contrabands. He selected Plnnkett's Ferry, over the 
Pamunkey, and occupied it after driving away a picket on the other 
side, with whom the regiment exchanged shots. The regiment was 
crossed in a boat holding fifteen or eighteen men and horses, which 
was poled across the river. In the same manner the passage of the 

27 



418 PATRIOTISM OF n.U' 

Mattapony was made, a1 Walkertown, after driving away the pick- 
ets. The L2th captured fifteen rebels, and destroyed a quantity of 
saddles al Kings and Queens Courl House. From Walkertown the 
rerimenl marched to Gloucester Point, having traveled a distance of 
over two hundred miles, much of it through Southern homes never 
disturbed by the presence of the enemy. Not far from Saluda the 
regiment captured and destroyed a train of eighteen wagons loaded 
with corn and provisions. 

The total loss sustained by the 12th in this most remarkable raid 
was two commissioned officers and thirty-three enlisted men, while 
the regiment brought with it, as results of the expedition, one hundred 
mules and seventy-five horses, captured from the enemy. A much 
larger number of animals were captured in the course of the march, 
but they could not be brought along. The amount of property 
destroyed was estimated at over one million dollars. 

While a portion of the 12th remained at Gloucester Point, one 
battalion was sent to General Dix, commanding at Fortress Monroe, 
and the remainder reported at Alexandria. The detachment which 
reported to General Dix made frequent forays into the interior 
counties, for the purpose of suppressing a band of* smugglers who 
infested that district. On one of these expeditions a rebel General, 
William II. Lee, a son of Robert E. Lee, was captured and taken to 
Fortress Monroe. 

It would be almost impossible to follow the history of the regiment 
in detail from the time it was broken in detachments up to the time 
these scattered fragments were again combined, which occurred in 
June, 1863. Immediately after the battle of Beverly Ford, the 12th 
cavalry joined Pleasanton, and was assigned to the 1st Brigade of 
the 1st Division. 

Buford's division, without waiting to recover from the fatigue 
consequent upon its recent severe engagements, marched toward the 
Potomac from Aldie Gap, and, following its windings, crossed into 
Maryland at Point of Rocks, and continued on in a northeasterly 
direction to Gettysburg, where it arrived on the 3d of June. Gene- 
ral Buford, with his usual quickness, perceived the necessity of tak- 
ing possession of a horse-shoe ridge of low, uniform hills, running 
just beyond the town of Gettysburg. The position was a most for- 



THE TWELFTH AT GETTYSBURG. 419 

niidable one, as both ends of these ridges terminated in steep, sugar- 
loaf peaks, which would thoroughly protect the flanks of the force 
occupying them. Disposing the greater part of his force of cavalry 
and his horse batteries on these eminences, Buford, on the 1st of July, 
at an early hour, fell upon the flanks of Longstreet's corps, which 
was moving south from Carlisle, charging and recharging, and still 
repeating the operation, forcing a portion of the enemy at every 
onslaught to halt and form line of battle. In this manner the rebels 
were not only sorely damaged by the loss of a large number of men 
killed and wounded, but their movements were impeded greatly, 
which gave General Meade an opportunity to push forward his lag- 
ging infantry and get them into position for resistance. A brigade 
of Pennsylvania militia and a battery of artillery, commanded by 
"Baldy" Smith, which had got into Longstreet's front, and Avere 
being hotly pressed with every indication of falling prisoners, were 
rescued from that unhappy fate by the daring Western roughriders 
under Davis, Medill and Chapman, who charged right into the face 
of the rebel infantry, and forced them to give up the pursuit! After 
this feat, the brigade fell back on the main body of the division, and 
until ten o'clock Buford continued to hold his position against Long- 
street's entire corps of infantry. At that hour he was relieved by 
the celebrated " Iron Brigade," of Wisconsin infantry, and other 
troops of the 1st Corps, under the lamented Reynolds, who was killed 
while standing near General Buford, taking observations of the 
enemy. Immediately after being relieved by General Reynolds, the 
cavalry under Buford fell back to the rear of our army, and for the 
two succeeding days were engaged in guarding our supply trains 
from the attacks of Stewart. On the 4th of July, when Lee's army 
made its last grand attempt to retrieve its fortunes, the brigade was 
hastened off toward Williamsport, with orders to sieze the ford and 
hold it against the enemy. 

In the march from Gettysburg to Williamsport the boys succeeded 
in capturing upward of two thousand demoralized rebels, who were 
endeavoring to make their way back to the " sacred soil," and over 
two hundred wagons and teams. The wagons were destroyed, and 
the mules driven down to Washington. On the 6th of July the cav- 
alry reached the vicinitv of Williamsport, and being informed that the 



420 PATKI'U is\I OF ILLINOIS. 

place wis guarded by only one regiment of Stuart's cavalry, the 
8tli 1 1 1 i i > ( > Ls and a portion of the 12th rushed forward for the purpose 
of driving out the enemy. 

After the defeat and retreat of Leo at Gettysburg, the 12th 
Illinois and other regiments of the brigade followed the fortuni 
the Army of the Potomac. It was present at the cavalry battles 
which occurred at Falling Waters, the Etapidan, and at Stevensburg, 
in all of which it acquitted itself with its usual bravery. On the 
20th of November, 1803, the 12th was relieved from duty with the 
Army of the Potomac, and was ordered home to Illinois to re-organ- 
ize as veterans. This distinguished privilege was awarded to the 
regiment, by the Secretary of War, "for brilliant services in the 
field." 

On the evening of the 28th of November, the regiment reached 
Chicago, and was received, from first to last, with one grand burst 
of patriotic admiration and enthusiasm. At Bryan Hall the most 
ample provision had been made for its accommodation. Kind and 
bright eyes spoke a sweeter welcome to the tired and hungry boys 
than could be extracted from whole dictionaries of words. Every- 
thing pertaining to the entertainment passed oft* without the least 
flaw to mar the general joy which prevaded all hearts and shone 
from all eyes. 

At the conclusion of a brief season of rest, the regiment, which had 
been recruited up to the maximum number of 1,250 officers and 
men, re-assembled at Camp Fry. On the night of January 2, 1804, 
a snow storm of uirparalleled violence set in and raged with uncon- 
trolled fury for three days. Cognizant of its irresistible power, the 
storm visited, in the course of its triumphant march, the camp of the 
12th Illinois, causing much suffering and hardship. The brave men 
who had unflinchingly faced the rebels were taught that they could 
not successfully cope with the Northern Boreas. 

On the 9th of February the regiment started for St. Louis, and 
went into camp there. In the early days of March it embarked on 
transports for New Orleans, and shortly after arriving there, was 
ordered to join General Banks, on his retreat down the Red River, 
participating in the different engagements of the retreat, and losing 



OONSOLIDATION. 421 

.1 large number of men. At the conclusion of the disastrous Red 
River campaign, the 12th returned to New Orleans, and was almost 
immediately ordered to do picket duty on the Lafourche, from Don- 
aldsonville to Thibodeaux, Louisiana, continuing on this line during 
the summer. In the early part of September, the regiment was or- 
dered to report to General Lee, commanding the cavalry division, 
at Baton Rouge, where it was actively employed in scouting and 
picket duty. In the early part of November, 1864, the 12th (then 
brigaded with the 2d Illinois cavalry, the brigade commanded by 
Colonel Davis) and the other cavalry regiments, under General A. 
L. Lee, made an expedition to Liberty, Mississippi, where they had 
a severe action, driving the enemy and capturing a number of pris- 
oners, cannon and small arms. Lieutenant- Colonel Dox, in charge 
of the outposts, repulsed several attacks of the enemy. Subsequent- 
ly the regiment participated in General Davidson's expedition 
against Mobile, returned to Baton Rouge, and on the 7th of Janu- 
ary, 1865, went up the river to Memphis, joining General Osband's 
division. In the latter part of January, with the other regiments of 
the division, it made a raid through Southeastern Arkansas, returning 
to Memphis, and did scouting and picket duty in the vicinity, until 
June, 1865, when it was ordered to join General Custar's cavalry 
division at Alexandria, Louisiana. From there it marched with the 
division to Hempstead, Texas, at which place it remained until some 
time in September, when it marched to Houston, reporting to Ma- 
jor-General Mowei*, commanding the eastern district of Texas. 
From this time to the final mustering out, the regiment, distributed 
in detachments through the district, was actively employed in guard 
and escort duty, maintaining the United States' authorities, and pro- 
tecting the Union men and freedmen. 

While at Memphis, " in pursuance of Circular No. 36, paragraph 
three, section two, from War Department, A. G. O., of 1864, the 
12th Illinois cavalry was consolidated into an eight company organ- 
ization ; and the 4th Illinois cavalry, having previously been consol- 
idated into a battalion of five companies, was, in compliance with 
instructions received from the War Department, transferred to and 
consolidated with the 12th Illinois cavalry. The organization to 
bear the designation of the latter regiment." 



£22 P \ ! i:i"i ISM OF ILLINOIS. 

The regiment was finally mustered oul of the United States' ser- 
vice at Houston, Texas, on the 29th of May, 1866, and ordered to 

pr ed to Camp Butler, Springfield, for paymenl and discharge. 

It left Houston on the 2d of June, and arrived at Springfield on the 
l iih, and was paid off on the L8th — the lasl regimenl from our state 
to return home. 

The following is the muster-out roster of the regiment: 

Colonel, Hamilton I!. Dox ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Andrew H, Langholz; Major, An- 
thony T. Search; Adjutant, William Crookea; Quartermaster, Asher B. Ball; Sur- 
geon, Asa Morgan \ 1st Assistant Surgeon, Ralph D. Parsons; Commissary, Henrj 

M. Stahl. 

Co. A — Captain, Isaac Conroe ; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Addington ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant Frank G. Miller. 

Co. B — Captain, Henry Lossburg; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Kolkow ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Oscar Charles. 

Co. C — Captain, William II. Redman ; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Stowe ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Frank Meacham. 

Co. D — Captain, John J. DeLacey ; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Mahar ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Robert Canficld. 

Co. E — Captain, Edson H. Pratt ; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon F. Emden; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, William II. Estep. 

Co. F — Captain, Edmund Luff; 1st Lieutenant, Charles L. A met ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Allen C. Hartwell. 

Co. G — Captain, Abraham Doniea ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Martin; 2d Lieutenant, 
David W. White. 

Co. II — Captain, Robert Gray; 1st Lieutenant. Jesse C. Rodgers ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Henry Richardson. 

Co. I — Captain, Edward Mann ; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Norton; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James E. Sterling. 

Co. K — Captain, William D. Wardlow ; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin J. Arnold ; 2d 
Lieutenant, Cornelius W. Sparkes. 

Co. L — Captain, John F. Wallace ; 1st Lieutenant; Sacia F. Taylor ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Edwin E. English. 

Co. M — Captain, Charles H. Bussum ; 1st Lieutenant, John Few ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Frederick Walker. 

General Hasbrouck Davis was born in "Worcester, Massachusetts, 
April 23, 1827. His father, Hon. John Davis, was United States 
Senator and Governor of Massachusetts. Young Davis came t